Barliana, Melisa I.
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Analisis Potensi Interaksi Obat dan Manifestasi Klinik Resep Anak di Apotek Bandung Barliana, Melisa I.; Sari, Dika R.; Faturrahman, Muhammad
Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pharmacy Vol 2, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Potensi terjadinya interaksi obat atau drug-drug interaction (DDI) dalam suatu resep cukup tinggi di seluruh dunia termasuk Indonesia. Namun sampai saat ini data ilmiah mengenai interaksi obat di Indonesia masih sangat kurang. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini, kami telah melakukan survey di 2 apotek di Bandung terhadap resep anak yang diberikan oleh Dokter Spesialis Anak kemudian dilakukananalisa potensi interaksi obat yang terdapat dalam satu resep serta manifestasi kliniknya. Data yang diambil adalah resep pada bulan Oktober sampai Desember tahun 2011. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa di Apotek A terdapat 33 resep (dari total 155 resep) yang memiliki potensi DDI atau sekitar 21,29% potensi DDI (2 resep memiliki potensi DDI kategori major, 23 resep kategori moderat, dan 8 resep kategori minor) sedangkan di Apotek B terdapat 6 resep (dari total 40 resep) atau 15% yang berpotensi DDI (4 resep kategori moderat dan 2 resep kategori minor). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa potensi DDI yang terjadi kurang dari 50% pada resep anak di kedua apotek. Namun hal ini harus mendapat perhatian karena DDI memang seharusnya tidak terjadi pada obat yang diberikan kepada pasien mengingat manifestasi klinik yang disebabkan karena DDI. Lebih dari itu, saat ini pelayanan farmasi klinik yang mengacu pada patient oriented daripada product oriented. Masih diperlukan studi lebih lanjut terhadap pemberian resep anak di apotek dengan skala yang lebih besar.Kata kunci: Resep, anak, interaksi obat Analysis of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions and Its Clinical Manifestation of Pediatric Prescription on 2 Pharmacies in BandungThe potential of Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) in prescription have high incidence around the world, including Indonesia. However, scientific evidence regarding DDI in Indonesia is not available. Therefore, in this study we have conducted survey in 2 pharmacies in Bandung against pediatric prescription given by pediatrician. These prescriptions then analyzed the potential for DDI contained in the prescription and clinical manifestation. The analysis showed that in pharmacy A, there are 33 prescriptions (from a total of 155 prescriptions) that have potential DDI, or approximately 21.19% (2 prescriptions have the potential DDI major categories, 23 prescriptions categorized as moderate, and 8 prescriptions as minor).  In Pharmacy B, there are 6 prescriptions (from a total of 40 prescriptions) or 15% of potential DDI (4 prescriptions categorized as moderate and 2 prescriptions as minor). This result showed that potential DDI happened less than 50% in pediatric prescription from both pharmacies. However, this should getattention because DDI should not happen in a prescription considering its clinical manifestations caused by DDI. Moreover, current pharmaceutical care refers to patient oriented than product oriented. In addition, further study for the pediatric prescription on DDI incidence in large scale need to be investigated.Key words: Prescription, pediatric, DDI
Polymorphism of pfcrt K76T and pfatpase6 S769N Genes in Malaria Patients at Papua, Indonesia Suradji, Eka W.; Ng, Henry; Finisanti, Ratih; Indrawati, Eni; Ciokan, Andreas; Barliana, Melisa I.; Abdulah, Rizky
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 1, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (773.927 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v1i1.15192

Abstract

Indonesia is one of the country with the highest prevalence of malaria infections. In order to achieve malaria control as an act to support Millenium Development Goals, complete eradication of Plasmodium parasites needs to be conducted. Drugs resistance has been a hindrance in this act. This study aimed to assess Plasmodium parasite resistance towards chloroquine (CQ) and artemisinin combined therapy (ACT) through the determination of polymorphism on pfcrt K76T and pfatpase6 S769N genes, respectively. Subjects of this study were 16 adult patients positively diagnosed with malaria infection caused by P. falciparum or cross infection. DNA obtained from patient blood samples were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then the fragment of pfcrt and pfatpase6 were then digested using ApoI and DdeI, respectively. The results showed that 81% of the pfcrt K76T polymorphism was occured on the samples, which indicated the resistance of CQ. Meanwhile, 87% of the patient samples did not showed any polymorphism of pfatpase6 S769N gene, which indicated no resistance of ACT. This study showed that CQ was no longer effective as the first line therapy of antimalarial drugs due to the resistance of P. falciparum to CQ. However, the used of ACT still can be maintained in the antimalarial drug therapy regimen. In conclusion, the polymorphism of both genes negatively influenced the effectivity of antimalarial therapy using artemisinin.Keywords: antimalarial drugs, resistance, polymorphism, endemic area
Economic Evaluation of the Use of Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime in the Treatment of Pneumonia in Pediatric Patients Ruterlin, Valen; Sinuraya, Rano K.; Halimah, Eli; Barliana, Melisa I.; Hartini, Sri
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 2, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (229.785 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v2i1.15741

Abstract

The prevalence of pneumonia is particularly high among pediatric patients. Appropriate antibioticsselection is required to reduce mortality and morbidity rates associated with thesediseases. However, information on cost-effectiveness of empirical antibiotics treatment forpneumonia was limited. This study was aimed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of cefotaximeand ceftazidime for pneumonia in pediatric patients. This study was a retrospective crosssectional study conducted at a hospital in Bandung during January-December 2012. Datawere derived from medical records of pediatric pneumonia inpatients during study period.Cost was calculated based on direct medical cost, i.e., inpatient care, medical support, andmedicines that were used from admission until hospital discharge. The results showed thatthere was no statistical difference in the average medical cost of the treatment using cefotaxime(1,197,017 IDR) and ceftazidime (2,245,748 IDR). Incremental cost effectivenessratio (ICER) showed that cefotaxime is more cost effective than ceftazidime with greaterreduction of leukocytes level (576 IDR/mm3 ). The use of cefotaxime is recommended forthe treatment of pnuemonia in pediatric patients.Keywords: cost minimization, cost effectiveness, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, pneumonia
Anti-proliferative Activity of Crotalaria pallida Aiton on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Rumondor, Erladys M.; Moektiwardoyo, Moelyono; Barliana, Melisa I.
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 2, No 3
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (145.873 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v2i3.16218

Abstract

 Crotalaria pallida Aiton (C. pallida Aiton) is empirically used as dietary supplement to treat cancer by the people of North Sulawesi. However, its scientific pharmacology activity has not been explored yet. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate anti-proliferative activity of C. pallida Aiton on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The extraction of leaves and seeds were performed using ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, and water. Phytochemical screening was then performed to identify secondary metabolites in this extract. Anti-proliferative activity was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results indicated that ethyl acetate fraction of C. pallida Aiton has the lowest IC50 (29,67). In conclusion, ethyl acetate fraction of C. pallida Aiton is potential to be developed as anti cancer agent.Keywords: Crotalaria pallida Aiton, WST assay, MCF-7 cell line
Potential Nephrotoxicity of Lisinopril and Valsartan on Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Pani, Sarini; Barliana, Melisa I.; Halimah, Eli; Chaeriadi, Venice; Sholih, Mally G.
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Vol 2, No 1
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (231.357 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/pcpr.v2i1.16192

Abstract

Lisinopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) and valsartan (angiotensin II receptorblocker) are the first-line treatment for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Thesetwo drugs potentially cause side effects on renal functions. However, limited informationwas available regarding the comparison of potential nephrotoxicity of these drugs in IndonesianCHF patients. This research was aimed to compare the potential nephrotoxicitybetween lisinopril and valsartan in outpatients with CHF at a hospital in Palu, Indonesia.This was an observational study conducted during April-May 2015. Potential nephrotoxicitywere assessed by measuring serum creatinin (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Datawere obtained from Cardiology Unit from a hospital in Palu, Indonesia. Statistical analysiswas conducted using T-test and Mann-Whitney test. The increasing trend of SCr and BUNwere observed in lisinopril-treated patients with the mean of increase were 21% and 59%,respectively. Relatively higher increase was observed in valsartan treatment group with 47%and 51% in SCr and BUN, respectively. The analysis showed that there were significant differencesin SCr level between lisinopril and valsartan groups (p=0.001), but the oppositeresults observed in BUN parameter (p=0.697). Therefore, valsartan was potentially morenephrotoxic than lisinopril based on the increase of SCr parameter. Thus, lisinopril is recommendedfor CHF patients who are particularly at high risks of having renal impairment.Keywords: lisinopril, valsartan, nephrotoxicity, congestive heart failure
HUBUNGAN FAKTOR OKUPASI TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ASETILKOLINESTERASE ERITROSIT DAN FUNGSI KOGNITIF PADA PETANI YANG MENGGUNAKAN PESTISIDA ORGANOFOSFAT Hidayatullah, Taufik; Barliana, Melisa I.; Pangaribuan, Bertha; Wijaya, Andi; Sumiwi, Sri A.; Goenawan, Hanna
Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pharmacy Vol 9, No 2 (2020)
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Organofosfat merupakan pestisida yang disukai oleh petani karena hasilnya terlihat jelas pada tanaman. Namun, pajanan organofosfat terhadap manusia dapat menimbulkan gangguan akut maupun kronis yang disebabkan sifat residunya. Untuk mengetahui pajanan pestisida pada manusia, dapat dilakukan biomonitoring dengan cara mengukur aktivitas enzim asetilkolinesterase (AChE) dalam darah. Cara organofosfat dalam menyebabkan efek toksik di antaranya dengan menghambat kerja enzim AChE. Enzim AChE yang terhambat menyebabkan proses pengiriman impuls saraf dapat mengalami gangguan, salah satunya gangguan fungsi kognitif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan pajanan pestisida organofosfat terhadap aktivitas enzim AChE eritrosit dan fungsi kognitif pada petani. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan potong lintang dengan pendekatan observasi analitik. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 69 petani yang menggunakan pestisida organofosfat di daerah Lembang dan Pangalengan, Bandung. Data yang diambil berupa data karakteristik, aktivitas AChE eritrosit yang diambil dari sampel darah petani yang kemudian diukur dengan metode Ellman di laboratorium, dan fungsi kognitif menggunakan kuesioner Mini Mental State Examination. Hasilnya, diperoleh 26 responden (38%) mengalami gangguan fungsi kognitif dan 43 responden (62%) memiliki fungsi kognitif normal. Uji statistik menunjukkan faktor umur (p=0,010), pendidikan (p=0,002) serta faktor okupasi durasi penyemprotan (p=0,016) memiliki hubungan bermakna dengan fungsi kognitif. Faktor okupasi juga memiliki hubungan bermakna terhadap aktivitas asetilkolinesterase pada petani, yaitu faktor frekuensi penyemprotan (p=0,035) dan penggunaan alat pelindung diri (APD) (p=0,011). Simpulan pada penelitian ini adalah terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara faktor okupasi terhadap aktivitas asetilkolinesterase eritrosit dan fungsi kognitif pada petani yang menggunakan pestisida organofosfat.Kata kunci: AChE, asetilkolinesterase, kognitif, okupasi, organofosfat, pestisidaCorrelation of Occupation Factor on the Activities of Erytrocyt Acetylcholinesterase and Cognitive Function in Farmers Using Organophosphate PesticideAbstractOrganophosphate is a pesticide preferred by farmers since its result can be seen clearly in plants. However, organophosphate exposure to humans can induce acute or chronic complications caused by its residual nature. In order to determine the exposure of pesticides to humans, biomonitoring can be done by measuring the activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the blood. The way organophosphate influences toxic effect is associated with the action of the AChE enzyme, i.e., by inhibiting the AChE enzyme. This can interfere with the transmission of nerve impulses, one of which can cause impaired cognitive function. Cognitive functions are skills of attention, memory, judgment, problem solving, and ability in planning, monitoring and evaluating. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of organophosphate pesticide exposure to the activity of the erythrocyte AChE enzyme and cognitive function in farmers. This study employed a cross-sectional design with analytical observasional approach. Samples were 69 farmers who used organophosphate pesticides in Lembang and Pangalengan, Bandung. Data collected were samples? characteristics, erythrocyte AChE activity taken from farmers? blood samples which were then measured by Ellman method in the laboratory, and cognitive function using Mini Mental State Examination questionnaire. A total of 26 respondents (38%) experienced cognitive impairment and 43 respondents (62%) had normal cognitive function. Statistical tests showed age (p=0.010), education (p=0.002) and occupational duration of spraying (p=0.016) have significant relationship with cognitive function. Occupational factors also have significant relationship with acetylcholinesterase activity in farmers, namely the frequency of spraying (p=0.035) and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (p=0.011). In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between occupational factors on erythrocyte acetylcholineesterase activity and cognitive function in farmers using organophosphate pesticides.Keywords: Acethylcholinesterase, AChE, cognitive, occupation, organophosphate, pesticide