Articles

Found 2 Documents
Search

THE CDC PNU-1 CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSIS OF VENTILATOR-ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA Ningtiar, Hapsari Widya; Lestari, Dwi Putri; Kusumastuti, Neurinda Permata; Setyaningtyas, Arina; Setyoningrum, Retno Asih; Dharmawati, Ira; Azis, Abdul Latief
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 59 No 4 (2019): July 2019
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi59.4.2019.195-201

Abstract

Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common nosocomial infections in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), with mortality rates of up to 50%. Post-mortem pulmonary examination is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis of VAP, but is impossible for routine application. The sensitivity and specificity of Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) are considered to be similar to the those of the gold standard, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PNU-1 (CDC PNU-1) is simpler and not invasive, compared to the CPIS. Objective To evaluate the level of agreement between CDC PNU-1 and CPIS criteria in diagnosing VAP. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the PICU at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya from June to October 2018. Subjects were children aged 1 month?18 years who had been intubated for more than 48 hours. The VAP diagnoses were made by CDC PNU-1 and CPIS criteria. The level of agreement between the two methods was evaluated by Cohen?s Kappa test using SPSS Statistics Base 21.0 software. Results hirty-six subjects were evaluated using CDC PNU-1 and CPIS criteria. Subjects? mean age was 3.5 (SD 4.7) years. Amongst 19 patients with VAP, 14 were diagnosed by CPIS criteria and 17 were diagnosed by CDC PNU-1 criteria. The level of agreement between the CDC PNU-1 and CPIS criteria was good (Kappa 0.61; 95%CI 0.31 to 0.83). The CDC PNU-1 had sensitivity 0.85, specificity 0.77, positive predictive value (PPV) 0.70, and negative predictive value (NPV) 0.89. Conclusion The CDC PNU-1 criteria has a good level of agreement with CPIS criteria in diagnosing VAP.
Effect of Beneng Taro Starch (Xanthosoma undipes K. Koch) Concentration as Disintegrant on Active Ingredient and Microbial Limit Test of Paracetamol 500 mg Tablets Dimas, Indriatmoko Danang; Suryani, Nani; Lestari, Dwi Putri; Rudiana, Tarso
Jurnal Kartika Kimia Vol 2 No 2 (2019): Jurnal Kartika Kimia
Publisher : Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Informatics, Jenderal Achmad Yani University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.26874/jkk.v2i2.39

Abstract

Tablet dosage form consist of active substances and excipients. Excipients or additives in tablet formulations may be fillers, binders and adhesives, disintegrants, lubricants, antiadherents, adsorbents, flavorings, and coloring agents. Excipients are physical, chemical and pharmacological inert substances which are added to tablet dosage formulations to help it meet the technological process requirements, technical specifications, physical appearance, and official quality requirements (pharmacopoeia). An important excipient for tablet dosage form is the disintegrants. Disintegrants affect the release of active medicinal substances from preparations and can then provide the desired therapeutic effect. One of the disintegrants is starch. Plants that have the potential to have high levels of starch are beneng taro. Xanthosoma undipes K. Koch tubers themselves have a starch content of 15.21%. This study aims to determine the effect of the concentration of taro beneng starch on active ingredient and microbial limit of paracetamol 500 mg tablets. Tablets are made by direct pressing method with variations in the concentration of beneng taro starch as a disintegrant, are 0% (FI), 5% (FII), 10% (FIII) and 15% (IV). The results of the determination of the content showed that all formulations met the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia of Indonesia, FI = 100.27%; FII = 99.95%; FIII = 100.06%; and FIV 99.85%. Microbial limit test showed that the Total Plate Count FI = 20 cfu/g; FII = 35 cfu/g; FIII = 10 cfu/g; FIV = 50 cfu/g. Total Yeast and Mold Count are FI = 110 cfu/g; FII = 100 cfu/g; FIII = 50 cfu/g; FIV = 150 cfu/g. Pathogenic bacterial tests show that all formulas are not contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Keywords: tablets, Xanthosoma undipes K. Koch, paracetamol, determination, microbes.