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PENGARUH SISTEM TANAM DAN PEMANGKASAN TANAMAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SERTA HASIL JAGUNG DAN KEDELAI Arifin, Z.; , Suwono; Arsyad, Darman M
Jurnal Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian Vol 17, No 1 (2014): Maret 2014
Publisher : Jurnal Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian

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The Influence of Cropping Systems and Plant Trimming on Growth and Yield of Maize and Soybean. This study aimed to determine the effect of monoculture and intercropping systems and plant trimming on growth and yield of maize and soybean as well as farm income. The experiment was conducted in rainfed lowland at Mojosari Experimental Farm, Mojokerto Regency, East Java during the late dry season in 2012. Randomized block design with nine treatments of planting systems and three replications was used in this experiment. The planting system tested were: (1) Monoculture of soybean with planting space of 40 cm x 15 cm, (2) Monoculture of maize with planting space of 75 cm x 20 cm, without trim, (3) Monoculture of maize with planting space of 75 cm x 20 cm, and trimming the leaves and stems above the cob, (4) Intercropping of soybean-maize (90/60 cm x 20 cm, without trimming), (5) Intercropping of soybean-maize (90/60 cm x 20 cm, trimming the leaves and stems above the cob), (6) Intercropping of soybean-maize (150 cm x 20 cm, without trimming), (7) Intercropping of soybean-maize (150 cm x 20 cm, trimming the leaves and stems above the cob), (8) Intercropping of soybean-maize (180/120 cm x 20 cm, without trimming), (9) intercropping of soybeans-maize (180/120 cm x 20 cm, trimming the leaves and stems above the cob). The results showed that the intercropping system affected the growth and yield of soybean and maize compared to monoculture system. The intercropping system increased the plant height, but reduced the number of pod, seed, node, branch and seed yield of soybean compared the monoculture. Plant height, cob length, cob diameter, 100 seed weight, and yield of maize in intercropping decreased compared to those of monoculture system. Based on land equivalent ratio, total yield and net income, the intercropping soybean-maize with plating space of 150 cm x 20 cm with trimming the leaves and stems above the cob would be suggested and prospective to be developed in the farmer’s fields. Key words: Soybean, maize, intercroppingPenelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh sistem tanam monokultur dan tumpangsari kedelai-jagung dan pemangkasan tanaman jagung terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman serta pendapatan usahatani. Penelitian dilaksanakan di lahan sawah tadah hujan, KP. Mojosari, Kabupaten Mojokerto, Jawa Timur pada MK I 2012. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah acak kelompok dengan tiga ulangan dan sembilan perlakuan. Perlakuannya adalah sistem tanam, yaitu: (1) monokultur kedelai dengan jarak tanam 40 cm x 15 cm, (2) monokultur jagung dengan jarak tanam 75 cm x 20 cm, tanpa pangkas, (3) monokultur jagung dengan pangkas daun bawah dan batang diatas tongkol, (4) tumpangsari kedelai-jagung dengan jarak tanam 90/60 cm x 20 cm, tanpa pangkas daun, (5) tumpangsari kedelai-jagung dengan jarak tanam 90/60 cm x 20 cm dengan pangkas daun bawah dan batang diatas tongkol, (6) tumpangsari kedelai-jagung dengan jarak tanam 150 cm x 20 cm, tanpa pangkas daun, (7) tumpangsari kedelai-jagung dengan jarak tanam 150 cm x 20 cm, pangkas daun bawah dan batang diatas tongkol, (8) tumpangsari kedelai-jagung dengan jarak tanam 180/120 cm x 20 cm, tanpa pangkas daun, (9) tumpangsari kedelai-jagung dengan jarak tanam 180/120 cm x 20 cm, pangkas daun bawah dan batang diatas tongkol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem tumpangsari kedelai-jagung menyebabkan tanaman kedelai bertambah tinggi, tetapi terjadi penurunan dalam jumlah polong, jumlah biji, jumlah buku, jumlah cabang, dan hasil biji. Sistem tumpangsari juga menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan tinggi tanaman jagung, panjang tongkol, diameter tongkol, bobot 100 biji, dan hasil biji. Berdasarkan nilai LER (Land Equivalent Ratio), total hasil setara kedelai, dan pendapatan (keuntungan) usahatani, maka sistem tanam tumpangsari kedelai-jagung pada jarak tanam 150 cm x 20 cm dengan pemangkasan daun bawah dan batang di atas tongkol pada umur 80 hari prospektif untuk dikembangkan di lahan petani.   Kata kunci: Kedelai, jagung, tumpangsari
KAMAN EFEKTIVITAS PUPUK NPK (15-15-6-4) PADA PADI DI LAHAN SAWAH IRIGASI KABUPATEN MALANG M. Saeri, Suwono dan Amik Krismawati Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Jawa Timur JL Raya Karangploso Km 4 Malang, Jawa Timur Saeri, M.; , Suwono; Krismawati, Amik
Jurnal Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian Vol 11, No 3 (2008): November 2008
Publisher : Jurnal Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian

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The Effective Assessment of NPK Fertilizer for Irrigated rice in Malang District. The suboptimal rice production on irrigated rice in Malang was due to the low fertilization efficiency. The objective of the single fertilizer and compound fertilizer application study on irrigated rice was to understand the fertilization efficiencies on irrigated rice. The on-farm experiment was conducted at Sekarpuro Village, Pakis District, Malang Regency in the first dry season (April — July 2007) and the types of soil was Regosol with sand loam texture. The design of the experiment was a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD), with 13 treatments and 3 replications. Treatments to be tested were : T1 = without fertilizer, T2 = 300 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, T3 = 100 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha, T4 = 100 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 100 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, T5 = 100 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 200 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, T6 = 100 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 300 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, T7 = 200 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha, T8 = 200 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg SP-36/ha + 100 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha; T9 = 200 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 100 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, T10 = 200 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 300 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, T11 = 300 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 100 SP-36/ha + 75 kg KC1/ha, T12 = 200 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 200 kg NPK Phonska/ha. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and BNT. The results of combining macro inorganic fertilizers and alternative fertilizers showed that treatment (a) where 200 kg Urea combined with 100 kg ZA and 300 kg NPK (15-15-6-4) provided Cibogo dried grains yield with 6.28 t/ha with RC 3.17, thus increasing farmers income to Rp.14,130,000, giving a profit of Rp.9,677,050, with treatment (b) where 200 kg of Urea combined with 100 kg ZA and 200 kg NPK Phonska provided Cibogo dried grains yield with as much as 6,05 t/ha with R/C 3.22 thus increasing farmers income to Rp.13,612,500, giving a profit of Rp.9,380,700. From economical point of view by combining fertilizers gave the economic advantage with higher revenue cost ratio and profit compared to single fertilization system Key words alternative fettilizer, macro anorganic fertilizer, rice, rainfed rice Belum optimalnya produktivitas padi di lahan sawah, antara lain disebabkan oleh rendahnya efisiensi pemupukan. Kajian pemupukan alternatif pada padi sawah dilaksanakan di Desa Sekarpuro, Kecamatan Pakis, Kabupaten Malang di Musim Kemarau I (April - Juli) tahun 2007, termasuk jenis tanah Regosol dengan tekstur tanah lempung berpasir. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 12 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan yang dikaji adalah (1). Tanpa pemupukan, T1 = tanpa pupuk, T2 = 300 kg NPK(15-15-6-4)/ha, T3 = 100 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha, T4 = 100 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 100 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, T5 = 100 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 200 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, T6 = 100 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 300 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, T7 = 200 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha, T8 = 200 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg SP-36/ha + 100 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha; T9 = 200 kg Urea.ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 100 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, T10 = 200 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 300 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, T11 = 300 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 100 SP-36/ha + 75 kg KC1/ha, T12 = 200 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 200 kg NPK Phonska/ha. Analisis data menggunakan ANOVA dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT.Hasil pengkajian penggunaan pupuk makro anorganik yang dikombinasikan dengan pupuk alternatif menunjukkan bahwa (a). 200 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 300 kg NPK (15-15-6-4)/ha, memberikan hasil gabah kering giling (GKG) varietas Cibogo sebesar 6,28 t/ha dengan R/C 3,17 dan memberikan penerimaan usahatani sebesar Rp.14.130.000,- keuntungan sebesar Rp.9.677.050,- dan (b). 200 kg Urea/ha + 100 kg ZA/ha + 200 kg NPK Phonska/ha memberikan hasil gabah kering giling (GKG) varietas Cibogo sebesar 6,05 t/ha dengan R/C 3,22 dan memberikan penerimaan sebesar Rp.13.612.500,- serta keuntungan sebesar Rp. 9.380.700,-. Kata kunci : pupuk altematif, pupuk makro anorganik, padi, lahan sawah irigasi
PEMBERDAYAAN PETANI LAHAN SAWAH MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN KELOMPOK TANI DALAM PERSPEKTIF CORPORATE FARMING DI JAWA TIMUR Kasijadi, F.; Suryadi, A.; , Suwono
Jurnal Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian Vol 6, No 2 (2003): Juli 2003
Publisher : Jurnal Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian

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Most of lowland rice farms in East Java are small scales and managed individually. It leads to diverseproductivity, economically inefficient, and less competitive. An assessment was conducted in wet season2000/2001 with its objective of finding farmers empowerment model through the “Corporate Farming” model in aspecific location in accordance with the agreement of farmers’ groups. The study involved two farmers’ groups ofSido Mukti and Sido Makmur in Bintoyo village, Padas sub district, Ngawi district, in an irrigated land area of 100hectares. The control was Marsudi Tani farmers’ group in the same district. Results showed the farmers could notaccept “Corporate Farming” model, especially in centralized land management and land consolidation. Around 60percent of the farmers rejected the centralized land management even though they were the share holders.Appropriate farmers empowerment was the “Cooperative Farming” model in which farm inputs management andproduct marketing were handled through corporation pattern. The “Cooperative Farming” was able to lessen inputprice, decrease minimal productivity to reach break even point between 5 to 15 percent. Rice competitivenessimproved due to productivity increase by 5 to 37 percent, net profit rise by 14 to 64 percent, and highercompetitive advantage of 7 to 22 percent.Key words: farmers empowerment, cooperative farming, lowland rice farmingKegiatan pertanian lahan sawah di Jawa Timur didominasi oleh usaha skala sempit dan dikelola secaraperorangan. Hal ini menyebabkan produktivitas beragam dan secara ekonomis kurang efisien, sehingga daya sainghasil rendah. Oleh karena itu pada musim hujan 2000/2001dilakukan pengkajian dengan tujuan memperolehmodel pemberdayaan petani melalui “Corporate Farming” spesifik lokasi sesuai kesepakatan kelompok tani.Pengkajian dilaksanakan pada kelompok tani Sido Mukti dan Sido Makmur desa Bintoyo, Kecamatan Padas,Kabupaten Ngawi dengan hamparan sawah irigasi seluas 100 ha. Sebagai pembanding digunakan kelompok taniMarsudi Tani pada kecamatan yang sama. Hasil pengkajian menunjukkan bahwa pemberdayaan petani melaluimodel “Corporate Farming” belum dapat diterima petani, terutama penyerahan pengelolaan lahan dan konsolidasilahan. Sekitar 60 persen petani tidak bersedia lahan usahanya dikelola dalam satu manajemen dan petani sebagaipemegang saham. Pemberdayaan petani yang sesuai dan dapat diterima petani adalah model “CooperativeFarming”, yaitu pengelolaan sarana produksi dan pemasaran secara korporasi. Penerapan model “CooperativeFarming” mampu menekan harga sarana produksi, menurunkan produktivitas minimal untuk mencapai titik impas5–15 persen, dan dapat meningkatkan daya saing hasil padi, karena dapat meningkatkan produktivitas 5 – 37persen, meningkatkan keuntungan bersih 14 – 64 persen dan keunggulan kompetitif lebih tinggi 7 – 22 persen.Kata kunci : pemberdayaan petani, usahatani kooperatif, usahatani padi sawah