Darminto .
Dept. of Physics, Fac. of Math. and Natural Sciences-Sepuluh November Institute of Tech. Surabaya Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia

Published : 68 Documents
Articles

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) Disease and its Control in Chicken Indriani, Risa; ., Darminto
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (274.556 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v9i2.723

Abstract

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of chicken’s caracterized by tracheal rallies, coughing, sneezing and nasal discharge in young chicks. In addition, the disease may affect kidhney, and in laying flock there is usually a drop in egg production and quality. IB is a major negative economic importance in poultry industry because the disease causes poor weight gain and feed efficiency, mortality in young chicks, reduction in egg production and egg quality in laying flock. IB is distributed worldwide and has been reported to be present in Indonesia. IB is caused by virus of a member of Coronaviridae under genera of Coronavirus. Spreading of IB virus among chickens usually by inhalation. Diagnosis of the disease can be based on the isolation and identification of the virus using embryonated chicken eggs and trachea organ culture. There is no treatment available for IB, so the control of the disease is mainly by vaccination. The existence of multiple serotipes of IB virus requires vaccines which are represent the antigenic spectrum of field isolates. To ensure the results of vaccination program, monitoring antibody titers following vaccination is recommended. The most widely used serological test for antibody monitoring is an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI) test.   Key words: IB, virus, chicken, control
Marek's Disease in Chicken: I. Aetiology, Pathogenesis and its Control Adjid, R M A; Damayanti, R; Hamid, H; Sjafriati, T; ., Darminto
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (153.523 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v12i2.768

Abstract

Marek’s disease (MD) is a neoplastic and neuropathic disease of poultry, especially chicken, caused by a highly contagious cell-associated herpesvirus. Marek’s disease is one of poultry diseases that is seriously concerned by poultry farmers. Before introduction of vaccine technology, the disease caused great economic loss in poultry industry, for example, in the United State the annual losses was estimated around $150 millions. Marek’s disease virus is relatively resistant to physical and chemical influence.  In  poultry  farms  the  virus  remains infectious  for  months  and  play  an  important  role  as  source of  infection. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex and influenced by factors. There are four phases of infection: early cytolytic infection, latent infection, second phase of cytolytic infection, and proliferative infection. Pathogenesis influenced by factors causes variety on clinical syndroms and incubation period of the disease in field condition. Successful disease control can be achieved, with vaccination as the main program, by selection of breed resistance and good management systems. The emergence of more virulent pathotypes of MD is a serious threat to the poultry industry, which requires development of more effective control strategies.   Key words. Marek, poultry, etiology, pathogenesis, control
Study and Control of Newcastle Disease in Ducks Saepulloh, Muharam; ., Darminto
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 15, No 2 (2005): JUNE 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (910.191 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v15i2.830

Abstract

A study on the infection of Newcastle disease (ND) in ducks has been conducted at some areas in Indonesia and other countries by serology method and viral isolation. The result indicated that ND virus was capable of infecting ducks, stimulated immune response, with or without manifestation of the clinical signs of ND . Based on the pathotyping tests, viral isolates were considered as velogenic strains. Some infected ducks could spread the virus to the environment through faeces, so that it will be very dangerous for chicken breeder residing in the same location with many duck populations . On that account, ducks have an important role in spreading the ND virus, thus care should be taken on the presence of ducks in the poultry farms . Key word : Newcastle disease, ducks, velogenic strain
In-contact vaccination against Newcastle disease in village chickens : a comparative analysis between laboratory and field trials ., Darminto
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 1, No 2 (1995)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (847.256 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v1i2.19

Abstract

A total of 4,977 sera from a sentinel cattle in West and East Nusa Tenggara were tested for antibody against BHV-1, the causal agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). These sera were collected between June 1990 and June 1993, and were tested by using serum neutralization test (SNT). Out of these sera, 3,713 were suitable for IBR SNT. A total of 349 sera (10.4%) reacted. IBR reactors were more prevalent in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) than in West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) . Based on this survey, it is concluded that antibodies against IBR virus are present among cattle in East and West Nusa Tenggara . Keywords : SNT, BHV-1, IBR, sentinel cattle
Lateral vaccination against Newcastle disease in broilers : Effect of ratio and density ., Darminto
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 1, No 3 (1995)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (692.216 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v1i3.31

Abstract

Ratio (50%, 33% or 20% of directly vaccinated and in-contact vaccinated birds) and density (5 birds, 10 birds or 15 birds per square meter) for the effectiveness of lateral transmission of in-contact vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) were evaluated in this study . The antibody patterns and the protection against challenge virus were used as criteria. Generally, antibody responses induced by direct vaccination showed higher titres compared to those induced by the in-contact vaccination, but at two week after the second vaccination, the differences were not significant. At the in-contact vaccinated birds, no significant difference (P>0 .05) was observed in the pattern of antibody development by ratio . However, group of vaccinated birds with the ratio of 20% tended to have lower protection . The results of the evaluation of density demonstrated that there was no effect of density (P>0 .05) to the pattern of antibody development, although the higher density seemed to have the higher protection. However, the density of 15 birds/m2 increasing the susceptibility to the other diseases. Based on the data obtained in this research, it could be concluded that (1) the optimal ratio for the effective lateral transmissibility is 33%, and (2) the optimal density for the effective lateral transmissibility is 10 birds/m2. Key words : Newcastle disease, in-contact vaccination, broilers
Infectious Bronchitis (IB) Disease and its Control in Chicken Indriani, Risa; ., Darminto
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (274.556 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v9i2.723

Abstract

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of chicken’s caracterized by tracheal rallies, coughing, sneezing and nasal discharge in young chicks. In addition, the disease may affect kidhney, and in laying flock there is usually a drop in egg production and quality. IB is a major negative economic importance in poultry industry because the disease causes poor weight gain and feed efficiency, mortality in young chicks, reduction in egg production and egg quality in laying flock. IB is distributed worldwide and has been reported to be present in Indonesia. IB is caused by virus of a member of Coronaviridae under genera of Coronavirus. Spreading of IB virus among chickens usually by inhalation. Diagnosis of the disease can be based on the isolation and identification of the virus using embryonated chicken eggs and trachea organ culture. There is no treatment available for IB, so the control of the disease is mainly by vaccination. The existence of multiple serotipes of IB virus requires vaccines which are represent the antigenic spectrum of field isolates. To ensure the results of vaccination program, monitoring antibody titers following vaccination is recommended. The most widely used serological test for antibody monitoring is an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI) test.   Key words: IB, virus, chicken, control
Zoonotic Diseases Associated with Encephalitis ., Darminto; Bahri, Sjamsul; Saepulloh, Muharam
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 1 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (338.897 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v9i1.728

Abstract

Outbreak of encephalitis, which killed more than 80 people in Malaysia, invited public attention throughout the world, especially  stakeholders  in  animal husbandry  and  veterinary  practices.  The  disease  was initially  diagnosed as Japanese-B- encephalitis (JE) which was transmitted to human from infected pigs. Recently, the causal agent of the outbreak has been identified as morbilivirus which was called Hendra-like Virus or Nipah Virus. Indonesia as neighboring country to Malaysia needs to take anticipation to prevent the occurrence of similar outbreak. For anticipation, it is required to understand all diseases, which cause encephalitis, especially the zoonotic diseases. From many infectious diseases of animal, only 17 diseases which are able to cause encephalitis, 9 of them are zoonotic diseases: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis   (WEE),   Venezuelan   equine   encephalomyelitis   (VEE),   Japanese-B-encephalitis   (JE),   Murray   valley encephalitis (MVE), Louping-ill, Rabies and Equine morbilivirus (EMV) and Nipah Virus. The viral agents and the mode of transmission to human are discussed in this publication. All those encephalitic zoonoses, except Rabies and JE, are exotic to Indonesia. So it is required to keep the free status of Indonesia to those diseases by strict quarantine measures. All imported animals to Indonesia should be confirmed free from those diseases based on the laboratory examination.   Key words: Encephalitis, zoonosis, nipah virus
Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus . ., Darminto; Ronohardjo, P
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 2, No 1 (1996)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (717.318 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v2i1.43

Abstract

The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin) or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of  ND and from reducing egg production   Keywords : Newcastle disease, inactive vaccine, oil adjuvant . aluminium hydroxide, immunogenicity, protection
Cases of Anthrax in Humans and Animal in Bogor at the Beginning 2001 Noor, Susan M; ., Darminto; Hardjoutomo, S
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 11, No 2 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (221.569 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v11i2.752

Abstract

Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. The incidence of anthrax in human and animal has been reported in Indonesia including the case of anthrax in ostrich in Purwakarta in 1999. Virtually all animals, to some degree are susceptible to anthrax but ruminants are considered to be the most susceptible. There are 11 provinces in Indonesia reported as endemic areas. Retrospective study of anthrax in Bogor reported that the disease has been spread in nine areas. The manifestation of human anthrax could be visceral, cutaneus, pulmonum, meningitis or combination but the cutaneus type is the most frequent (95%). In early 2001, there was an outbreak of anthrax affecting both human and animals in Bogor. A definitive diagnosis of anthrax has been made in 5 people in Hambalang village, Citeureup subdistrict of Bogor. The objective of this study is to describe the chronological event of the recent anthrax wabah in Bogor and to give a brief discussion of anthrax in human and animal.   Key word: Antraks cases, human beings, animals, Bogor, 2001
Mareks Disease in Chicken: I. Aetiology, Pathogenesis and its Control Adjid, R M A; Damayanti, R; Hamid, H; Sjafriati, T; ., Darminto
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (153.523 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v12i2.768

Abstract

Marek’s disease (MD) is a neoplastic and neuropathic disease of poultry, especially chicken, caused by a highly contagious cell-associated herpesvirus. Marek’s disease is one of poultry diseases that is seriously concerned by poultry farmers. Before introduction of vaccine technology, the disease caused great economic loss in poultry industry, for example, in the United State the annual losses was estimated around $150 millions. Marek’s disease virus is relatively resistant to physical and chemical influence.  In  poultry  farms  the  virus  remains infectious  for  months  and  play  an  important  role  as  source of  infection. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex and influenced by factors. There are four phases of infection: early cytolytic infection, latent infection, second phase of cytolytic infection, and proliferative infection. Pathogenesis influenced by factors causes variety on clinical syndroms and incubation period of the disease in field condition. Successful disease control can be achieved, with vaccination as the main program, by selection of breed resistance and good management systems. The emergence of more virulent pathotypes of MD is a serious threat to the poultry industry, which requires development of more effective control strategies.   Key words. Marek, poultry, etiology, pathogenesis, control