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MODULASI POLA FERMENTASI RUMEN DAN EMISI GAS METANA DARI PENAMBAHAN EKSTRAK LERAK PADA SILASE GAMAL (MODULATION OF RUMEN FERMENTATION AND METHANE EMISSION BY LERAK EXTRACT ADDITION TO GLIRICIDIA SILAGE) Yuliana, Pristian; Laconi, Erika Budiarti; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Achmadi, Suminar Setiati; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 20 No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University and Published in collaboration with the Indonesia Veterinarian Association

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19087/jveteriner.2019.20.2.202

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of lerak fruit extract (Sapindus rarak) addition to leguminous gamal silage (Gliricidia sepium) on methane emission, rumen fermentation pattern, and rumen microbial population in vitro. In vitro rumen fermentation was designed according to a randomized complete block design with four replicates and consisted of 3 treatments, i.e. (1) gamal silage without lerak extract addition, (2) gamal silage + lerak extract 2% (w/w), and (3) gamal silage + lerak extract 4% (w/w). The measured parameters were chemical composition, saponin content, gas production, ammonia, methane, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and rumen microbial population. Results showed that the addition of 4% lerak extract increased gas production after 24 and 48 h, increased organic matter digestibility of gamal silage, increased propionate and decreased methane emission as compared to control treatment (P<0.05). Addition of lerak extract tended to reduce methanogen population and total protozoa in the rumen in vitro. Lerak extract at level 2% significantly increased ammonia concentration (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the addition of lerak extract at level 4% to gamal silage can increase gas production, organic matter digestibility and proportion of propionate, reduce methane emission, and tend to reduce metanogen population and total protozoa in the rumen in vitro.
REDISTILAT ASAP CAIR CANGKANG KELAPA SAWIT SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAWET BAKSO SAPI Achmadi, Suminar Setiati; Kusumaningrum, Harsi Dewantari; Anggara, Ihsan
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 26 No. 1 (2015): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (323.62 KB) | DOI: 10.6066/jtip.2015.26.1.1

Abstract

Liquid smoke has been used to extend the shelf life of food. However, its composition varies considerably depending on the type of raw materials used and preparation precedure. Liquid smoke derived from palm oil shell is potential due to the abundance of its byproduct sources in the palm oil industry. This study thus aims to prepare the best fraction of liquid smoke that can extend the shelf life of beef meatballs at room temperature. The raw liquid smoke was redistilled at 80, 90, and 100°C and was used as an ingredient in the beef meatballs production. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identification showed that there were no harmful compounds such as derivatives of tar and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Liquid smoke produced from redistillation at 80°C had the best result for providing higher acid value and lower pH, i.e. 5.14% and 2.26, respectively. The LC50 value of the redistilled liquid smoke in brine shrimp lethality assay was 0.16%. Inhibition zones of 0.1 and 0.8% redistilled liquid smoke on the antibacterial test against Staphylococcus aureus were both 6.10 mm, while the zones of inhibition for Escherichia coli were 0 and 7.0 mm, respectively. These resulting inhibition zones were less effective than that of 100 ppm chloramphenicol, i.e. 14.2 mm on S. aureus and 12.6 mm on E. coli. The usage of redistilled liquid smoke at concentration of 0.8% in meatballs was found to inhibit total microbial growth greater than that of the addition at 0.1%. Moreover, the addition of redistilled liquid smoke inhibited the growth of microbial up to 18 hours at room temperature.
PERILAKU DISOLUSI KETOPROFEN TERSALUT GEL KITOSAN-KARBOKSIMETILSELULOSA (CMC) Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Achmadi, Suminar Setiati; Yundhana, Yuyu
Jurnal Natur Indonesia Vol 13, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Universitas Riau

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (208.958 KB) | DOI: 10.31258/jnat.13.1.21-26

Abstract

Study dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen through optimum chitosan-CMC microcapsule has been carried out. Into228.6 ml of 1.0% (w/v) chitosan solution in 1% (v/v) acetic acid, 38.1 ml of CMC solution was added with concentrationvariation of 0.075; 0.0875; and 0.10% (w/v). Afterwards, 7.62 mL of glu was added slowly under stirring, withconcentrations varied: 3; 4.5; and 6% (v/v). All mixtures were shaked for 20 minutes for homogenization. Into eachmicrocapsule mixture for ketoprofen, a solution of 2 g of ketoprofen in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added. Everymixture was then added with 5 ml of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature.Conversion of suspension into fine powders/granules (microcapsules) was done by using spray dryer. Thedissolution behaviour of optimum ketoprofen microcapsules were investigated in gastric and intestinal medium.Microcapsule morphology before and after dissolution as well as empty microcapsule (blank) were observed withSEM. Spray drying process had successfully coated ketoprofen in chitosan-CMC microcapsule. Optimization byusing Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions studied, CMC and glu of0.0925% (w/v) and 3.01% (v/v), respectively, optimum to coat ketoprofen at constant chitosan concentration 1.0%(w/v). Result of SEM morphology and In vitro dissolution profile showed that ketoprofen in chitosan-CMCmicrocapsule was relatively well than chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Kinetically, dissolution of ketoprofen frommicrocapsule in intestinal pH condition was first order with release rate constant, k, of 7.285 ? 10-4 % min-1 andrelease half-time, t1/2, of approximately 15 hours.
SINTESIS PATI JAGUNG TERFOSFORILASI MELALUI TEKNIK GELOMBANG MIKRO [MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHORYLATED CORN STARCH] Supardan, Atep Dian; Achmadi, Suminar Setiati; Irawadi, Tun Tedja
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 25 No. 1 (2014): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (597.454 KB) | DOI: 10.6066/jtip.2014.25.1.1

Abstract

SINTESIS PATI JAGUNG TERFOSFORILASI MELALUI TEKNIK GELOMBANG MIKRO [Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Phosphorylated Corn Starch] Atep Dian Supardan*, Suminar Setiati Achmadi dan Tun Tedja Irawadi Departemen Kimia, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor Diterima 28 Maret 2013 / Disetujui 24 Februari 2014ABSTRACT Phosphorylated starch is a type of modified starches which is mostly imported. Commonly, starch to be modified must contain more than 25% of amylose. This study aimed to synthesize phosphorylated starch and evaluate its potency as a heavy metal adsorbent. Corn starch was subjected to phosphorylation through microwave-assisted reaction with a mixture of sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate and disodium hydrogen phosphate. The experiment was designed to optimize the pH, microwave radiation power, and phosphorylation time. The results showed that the maximum phosphate subtitution degree was obtained at pH of 6, microwave radiation of 500 W, and a reaction time of 10 minutes. The degree of subtitution ranged from 0.567 to 0.787. The physicochemical properties of the product i.e. swelling capacity, solubility, water binding capacity, and paste clarity were significantly different than that of the unmodified corn starch. The infrared spectrum showed a high peak absorption at the wavelength of 1651 cm-1, indicating hydrogen bond formation of phosphoric group-water- phosphoric group. In the fingerprint area, there were two new absorption peaks at 1200 and 990 cm-1, which were assigned for the P=O and C-O-P vibrations, respectively. The phosphorylated corn starch adsorbed methylene blue up to 73.3% and mercury up to 73.6%, suggesting the prospect of the microwave-assisted synthetic phosphorylated corn starch as an effective adsorbent for heavy metals.   
HEAVY METALS BIOACCUMULATION OF SEVERAL BRADYRHIZOBIUM JAPONICUM STRAINS SYAMSUDIN, ADE NOOR; -IMAS, TEDJA; ACHMADI, SUMINAR SETIATI
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol. 12 No. 3 (2005): September 2005
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (31.021 KB) | DOI: 10.4308/hjb.12.3.108

Abstract

Heavy metal utilization in industry and agriculture have caused an environmental problem to existing life. Bioaccumulation is made up by a concentration of certain chemical compounds in living tissues. The objective of this research was to reveal the ability of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of heavy metal Bradyrhizobium japonicum tolerant strains in accumulating heavy metals. The strains used were BDG 10, KDR 10, and KDR 15. The ability of each strains on heavy metal accumulation of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cd were quantitatively determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The result showed that each strains has its own capacity to accumulate heavy metals. Accumulation of Cu (0.100), Pb (0.320), and Cd (0.048) ppm/mg dry weight by KDR 10 seem higher than BDG 10 and KDR 15. The highest accumulation of Zn and Ni was shown by KDR 15 in which the value were 0.360 and 0.165 ppm/mg dry weight, respectively and the least accumulation of all heavy metal studied was shown by BDG 10.
REDISTILAT ASAP CAIR DARI CANGKANG KELAPA SAWT DAN APLIKASINYA SEBAGAI KOAGULAN KARET ALAM Achmadi, Suminar Setiati; Cifriadi, Adi; Hidayah, Muhana Nurul
Jurnal Penelitian Karet JPK : Volume 33, Nomor 2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian Karet - PT. Riset Perkebunan Nusantara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/ppk.jpk.v33i2.183

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Jumlah limbah cangkang kelapa sawit yang setiap tahunnya terus bertambah akibat peningkatan produksi minyak sawit dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan asap cair. Kandungan asam dalam asap cair berpotensi sebagai koagulan karet alam. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendistilasi ulang asap cair pada suhu 80, 90, and 100ºCdan menguji sifat koagulasi  redistilat dibandingkan dengan asam format sebagai koagulan komersial. Dari proses redistilasi di setiap suhu, 2 tampungan redistilat terkumpul. Tampungan pertama dikumpulkan pada 5 menit pertama dan tampungan kedua dikumpulkan pada 5 menit berikutnya. Sebanyak 5 L redistilat diperoleh dari tiap tampungan. Uji sifat fisik pada lembaran karet menunjukkan bahwa redistilat 100ºC dari tampungan kedua disarankan untuk digunakan sebagai koagulan karet alam karena menghasilkan nilai plastisitas Wallace yang memenuhi standar dan memiliki nilai indeks retensi plastisitas yang memenuhi persyaratan Standar Nasional Indonesia. Redistilat tidak terbukti dapat mencegah proses pengerasan karet selama penyimpanan. Diterima : 28 April 2015; Direvisi : 6 Juli 2015; Disetujui : 3 Agustus 2015  How to Cite : Achmadi, S., Cifriadi, A., & Hidayah, M. N. (2015). Redistilat asap cair dari cangkang kelapa sawt dan aplikasinya sebagai koagulan karet alam. Jurnal Penelitian Karet, 33(2), 183-192. Retrieved from http://ejournal.puslitkaret.co.id/index.php/jpk/article/view/183
Transformation of Eugenol and Safrole into Hydroxychavicol Arifin, Budi; Tang, Dumas Flis; Achmadi, Suminar Setiati
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 15, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (503.955 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21227

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Hydroxychavicol is found in betel leaf at low concentration and is reported to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimutagenic activities. This study aimed to synthesize hydroxychavicol from eugenol and safrole. Isolation of eugenol from clove oil by alkaline extraction method gave 71% yield, while the isolation of safrole from lawang oil by alkaline extraction method, followed by purification using preparative thin layer chromatography, gave 7% yield. Eugenol demethylation and safrole demethylenation with AlCl3 reagent were successfully produced hydroxychavicol. The yields were 28% and 24%, respectively. Mechanisms of the synthesis are proposed in this article.
Significance of Glucose Addition on Chitosan-Glycerophosphate Hydrogel Properties Susanthy, Dian; Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Achmadi, Suminar Setiati
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 16, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (344.767 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21179

Abstract

Chitosan-glycerophosphate hydrogel can be used as dental scaffold due to its thermosensitivity, gelation performance at body temperature, suitable acidity for body condition, biocompatibility, and ability to provide good environment for cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous study showed that glucose addition to the chitosan solution before steam sterilization improved its hydrogel mechanical strength. However, the effectiveness of glucose addition was still doubted because glucose might undergo Maillard reaction in that particular condition. The aims of this study are to confirm whether the glucose addition can increase the hydrogel mechanical strength and gelation rate effectively and also to compare their performance to be dental scaffold. This research was performed through several steps, namely preparation of chitosan-glycerophosphate solution, addition of glucose, gelation time test, gel mechanical strength measurement, functional group analysis, and physical properties measurements (pH, viscosity, and pore size). The result showed that glucose addition did not improve the hydrogel mechanical strength and gelation rate, neither when it was added before nor after steam sterilization. Glucose addition before steam sterilization seemed to trigger Maillard reaction or browning effect, while glucose addition after steam sterilization increased the amount of free water molecules in the hydrogel. Chitosan and glycerophosphate interact physically, but interaction between chitosan and glucose seems to occur chemically and followed by the formation of free water molecules. Glucose addition decreases the solution viscosity and hydrogel pore size so the hydrogel performance as dental scaffold is lowered.
PRODUKSI ASAM LAKTAT OLEH LACTOBACILLUS DELBRUECKII SUBSP. BULGARICUS DENGAN SUMBER KARBON TETES TEBU Nurjannah, Laita; Suryani, Suryani; Achmadi, Suminar Setiati; Azhari, Azmi
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia Vol 9, No 1 (2017): Vol.(9) No.1, April 2017
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17969/jtipi.v9i1.5903

Abstract

Senyawa asam laktat sangat dibutuhkan di dunia industri. Namun produksi dengan menggunakan mikrob masih menggunakan bahan pangan sebagai substratnya. Alternatif substrat untuk produksi asam laktat  sebagai pengganti penggunaan bahan pangan  sangat diperlukan industri. Tetes tebu merupakan salah satu substrat yang kaya akan sumber  karbon yang dapat digunakan sebagai komponen media pertumbuhan bakteri. Ketersediaannya melimpah dan harganya murah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah tetes tebu dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif  sumber karbon bakteri Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus untuk menghasilkan asam laktat. Langkah penelitian ini meliputi hidrolisis dan detoksifikasi tetes tebu, uji kualitatif gula pereduksi tetes tebu, analisis gula total dengan metode fenol sulfat, penentuan kurva pertumbuhan bakteri, produksi dan ekstraksi asam laktat, serta analisis kualitatif asam laktat dengan menggunakan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tetes tebu dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif sumber karbon. Hal ini terbukti bakteri dapat tumbuh dengan baik ketika media diberi 0.5% tetes tebu. Konsentrasi gula total tetes tebu adalah 1090 g/L. Uji gula pereduksi menunjukkan hasil yang positif untuk uji Selliwanof, uji Benedict, dan uji Barfoed. Pertumbuhan optimum L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus terjadi pada suhu 42°C dengan agitasi 150 rpm. Produksi asam laktat dilakukan selama 24 jam. Kadar asam laktat yang dihasilkan sebesar 2.80% dengan biomassa sel kering sebesar 0.002 g/L dan pH media fermentasi sebesar 4.0. Hasil analisis kualitatif kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi juga menunjukkan bahwa produk dari hasil fermentasi adalah asam laktat.Abstract. Lactic acid is needed as an industrial feed. However, by using a microbial production still uses food material as a substrate. Alternative substrates for the production of lactic acid is needed in industry. Molasses are potential substrates due to the richness in carbon. Molasses also widely available and low-cost material. The objective of the research is molasses can be used as a carbon source needed by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to produce lactic acid. This study consisted of  hydrolysis and detoxification of molasses, analysis qualitative test of reducing sugar from molasses, analysis of total sugar by phenol sulfuric acid, determination of bacterial growth, production and extraction of lactic acid, and analysis of lactic acid using high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that molasses can be used as an alternative carbon source as indicated by growth of  bacteria when the media were given 0.5% molasses. Concentration of total sugar molasses was 1090 g/L. The reducing sugar test showed positive results for the Selliwanoff, Benedict, and Barfoed tests. The optimum of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus growth was at temperature of 42° C and 150 rpm of agitation. Production of lactic acid was conducted in 24 hours. The result of lactic acid from the production was 2.80%. The dry cell biomass was 0.002 g/ L at pH of  fermentation media was 4.0. Analysis HPLC also showed that lactic acid was the product of fermentation.
EVALUASI CIRI MEKANIS DAN FISIS BIOPLASTIK DARI CAMPURAN POLI (ASAM LAKTAT) DENGAN POLISAKARIDA Paramawati, Raffi; Wijaya, Christofora Hanny; Achmadi, Suminar Setiati; Suliantari, Suliantari
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 12 No. 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (256.964 KB)

Abstract

The study was aimed to evaluate physical and mechanical characteristics of blend of polylactic acid (PLA)and four types of polysaccharides, namely carrageenan, agar, tapioca, and garut starch. Agar and carrageenanshowed their ability to blend well with the PLA at a temperature of approximately 60ac, which was easilyobserved. Film sheets that were casted manually with better properties needed additives of triethanolamine oroleic acid, in terms of tensile strength, elastic modulus, and percent elongation at break which were categorizedas medium compared to other biodegradable plastics. Microstructure of the selected film revealed irregularformation of surface or amorphous, indicating that these films cannot be stored for a long period of time.