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ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF 17α-METHYLTESTOSTERONE INCREASED MALE PERCENTAGE OF FRESHWATER CRAYFISH CHERAX QUADRICARINATUS Carman, O.; Jamal, M.Y.; Alimuddin, .
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol. 7 No. 1 (2008): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : ISSA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (278.216 KB) | DOI: 10.19027/jai.7.25-32

Abstract

Cherax quadricarinatus is one of freshwater crayfish species that has enormous potential for expanding its farming in future.  Application of monosex male culture using steroid sex hormone administration method during the period of sex differentiation or early developmental stage might be increased efficiency in farming.  This study was aimed to increase male of C. quadricarinatus by oral administration of diet containing 17?-methyltestosterone (MT) towards production efficiency.  Two-week-old of Cherax quadricarinatus were fed ad libitum on diets containing various dose of MT, i.e., 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg diet or diet containing no MT as control, 3 times daily for 30 days.  After MT-treatment, crayfish were fed frozen Chironomus sp.  and shrimp diet.  Sex ratio, survival and growth rate (by length and weight) were observed at the end of experiment.  Sex was determined by visual observation; the male sex organ is located at the fifth walking leg while the female is at the third.  Data was analyzed by F and BNT tests.  The results of study show that administration of MT was significantly changed the male ratio of crayfish.  Treatment dose of 50 mg/kg diet was effective to increase male sex percentage from 24.93% (control) to be 59.96%. Growth was also significantly being improved, while survival rate was insignificant.  Thus, oral administration of MT is an effective way to increase male sex percentage of crayfish, although other methods and the time of hormone administration are needed to be verified to obtain maximal results. Keywords: monosex, 17?-methyltestosterone, sex reversal, Cherax quadricarinatus   ABSTRAK Salah satu jenis lobster air tawar yang berpotensi tinggi untuk dikembangkan usaha budidayanya adalah Cherax quadricarinatus. Aplikasi teknik budidaya tunggal kelamin (monoseks) dengan metode pemberian hormon seks steroid yang diberikan pada saat diferensiasi kelamin atau masa perkembangan awal ikan diduga dapat meningkatkan efisiensi usaha.  Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk meningkatkan persentase C. quadricarinatus jantan menggunakan metode seks reversal melalui pemberian pakan yang mengandung 17?-metiltestosteron (MT) sebagai upaya efisiensi produksi.  C. quadricarinatus umur 2 minggu diberi pakan yang mengandung MT dengan dosis 25, 50, 75, 100 dan 150 mg/kg pakan atau tanpa hormon secara ad libitum, 3 kali sehari selama 30 hari.  Setelah perlakuan lobster uji diberi pakan alami Chironomus sp. beku dan pakan udang. Parameter yang diamati meliputi nisbah kelamin, kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya (panjang dan berat mutlak), yang dilakukan pada akhir penelitian. Identifikasi jenis kelamin dilakukan secara visual; alat kelamin lobster jantan terdapat pada bagian pangkal kaki jalan kelima, yang betina terletak pada bagian dasar kaki jalan ketiga.  Data dianalisis menggunakan uji F dan BNT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian hormon MT berpengaruh nyata terhadap persentase kelamin jantan lobster. Perlakuan dengan dosis 50 mg/kg pakan efektif untuk meningkatkan persentase jantan C. quadricarinatus dari 24,93% (kontrol) menjadi 59,96%.  Pertumbuhan panjang dan berat mutlak  juga menunjukkan pengaruh yang berbeda nyata, sementara kelangsungan hidup tidak berbeda.  Dengan demikian pemberian hormon MT melalui pakan cukup efektif untuk meningkatkan persentase lobster jantan yang dihasilkan, meskipun penggunaan metode lain dan waktu pemberian hormon MT masih perlu diteliti untuk memperoleh hasil maksimal.  Kata kunci: tunggal kelamin, 17?-metiltestosteron, seks reversal, Cherax quadricarinatus
BINARY VECTOR CONSTRUCTION OF KAPPA(κ)-CARRAGEENASE GENE AND TRANSFORMATION TO AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS AS MEDIATOR FOR SEAWEED TRANSGENIC GENERATION Rajamuddin, Muh Alias L.; Alimuddin, .; Widyastuti, Utut; Harris, Enang; Suryati, Emma
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol. 8 No. 1 (2016): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (852.637 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jitkt.v8i1.13602

Abstract

Increasing of kappa (?)-carrageenan content in Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed is potentially be achieved by applying transgenesis technology. This study was performed to obtain a construction of  ?-Carrageenase gene and Agrobacterium tumefaciens to carry those construction genes.  The ?-Carrageenase (?-Car) gene was involved in ?-carrageenan biosynthesis. The ?-Car gene sequence was ligated between the 35S CaMV promoter and tNos terminator sequences to generate pMSH/?-Car expression vector. Transformation of pMSH/?-Car plasmid to Escherichia coli was performed by heat-shock method, and to Agrobacterium tumefaciens by tri-parental mating method. The results showed that several colonies of E. coli and A. tumefaciens grew in the selective culture mediums containing antibiotic. PCR analysis using primers 35S-Forward and tNos-Reverse with DNA template from those bacterial colonies resulted DNA fragment of about 2,000 bp, the same as the total length of 35S CaMV promoter, ?-Car gene and tNos terminator sequences. Therefore, the construction of pMSH/?-Car gene was succeeded and a colony of A. tumefaciens transformant carrying pMSH/?-Car plasmid was successfully produced.                                                                                   Keywords:  Agrobacterium tumefaciens, kappa(?)-Carrageenase gene, transgenesis, vector
IMPROVEMENT METHOD OF GENE TRANSFER IN KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII Triana, St. Hidayah; Alimuddin, .; Widyastuti, Utut; Suharsono, .; Suryati, Emma; Parenrengi, Andi
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol. 8 No. 1 (2016): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (511.747 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jitkt.v8i1.13087

Abstract

Method of foreign gene transfer in red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been reported, however, li-mited number of transgenic F0 (broodstock) was obtained. This study was conducted to improve the method of gene transfer mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in order to obtain high percentage of K. alvarezii transgenic. Superoxide dismutase gene from Melastoma malabatrichum (MmCu/Zn-SOD) was used as model towards increasing adaptability of K. alvarezii to environmental stress. The treat-ments were the culture media and recovery duration, and each treatment consisted of three replica-tions. The best method was co-cultivation using liquid media, then recovery was conducted in liquid media for 10 days. That treatment allowed higher transformation percentage (90%), regeneration effi-ciency (90%), putative bud efficiency (100%), number of buds and explants sprouted (100%) and transgenic explants (100%). The transgenic explants showed an amplification PCR product of Mm-Cu/Zn-SOD gene fragment, whereas the non-transgenic explants showed no amplification product.  All results revealed that suitable method of transgenesis for K. alvarezii has been developed. Keywords:       Agrobacterium tumefaciens, culture media, Kappaphycus alvarezii, recovery duration, transformation
Temperature Control System in Closed House for Broilers Based on ANFIS Alimuddin, .; Boro Seminar, Kudang; Made Subrata, I Dewa; Nomura, Nakao; Sumiati, .
TELKOMNIKA Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control Vol 10, No 1: March 2012
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (206.63 KB)

Abstract

Indonesia is a tropical country with sufficiently high ambient temperatures on broiler reaches an average daily temperature of 360C (maximum) and 320 C (minimum) data adjusted BMG Bogor. Industry poultry broiler house seeks to maintain a temperature of about 28-300C. Optimal conditions in a closed houseshould be controlled to allow optimal growth of broilers. Therefore, the required control system that is able to maintain optimum environmental conditions inside the house closed. This study aims to design an ANFIS control system for controlling the temperature inside a broiler house (closed house) for broiler. Data is collected at three different periods of the starter period (5 days): 29.50C-30.900C, a period of 25 days is a grower-29.0C 34.20C, and the finisher of 30 days is obtained 33.20C.Data 290C-processed using the approach ANFIS modeling for simulation of temperature control on closed house for broiler. Set point control simulation using the same temperature 290C for starter period (5 days), grower (25 days) and finisher (30 days). The simulation results show the output in a closed house temperature fluctuates around set point the 290C-340C.
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON REPRODUCTION AND SEX RATIO OF GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA PETERS) Arfah, H.; Mariam, S.; Alimuddin, .
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol. 4 No. 1 (2005): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : ISSA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (109.932 KB) | DOI: 10.19027/jai.4.1-4

Abstract

Water temperature could affect the reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of progeny.  In this study, broodstock of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) was reared in different temperature to determine its effect on reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of their progeny. The result of study show that broodstock reared at 27°C produced more fry (16 males mean) than that of 30°C (10 males), while broodstock reared at 33°C produced no progeny.  Percentage of male fish produced by broodstock reared at 30°C is higher than that of 27°C.  Incubation time of embryo before birth is sorter in broodstock reared at 30°C (4-12 days) compared with 27°C (18-22 days).  However, several progeny of broodstock reared at 30°C had abnormal vertebrae. Keywords: guppy, Poecilia reticulata, sex reversal, reproduction, monosex   ABSTRAK Suhu air inkubasi diduga dapat mempengaruhi reproduksi induk ikan dan nisbah kelamin keturunannya.  Pada penelitian ini, induk ikan gapi (Poecilia reticulata Peters) dipelihara pada suhu 27°C, 30°C dan suhu 33°C untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap reproduksi dan rasio kelamin keturunannya.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk ikan gapi yang dipelihara pada suhu 27°C menghasilkan anak lebih banyak (rata-rata 16 ekor) daripada di suhu 30°C (10 ekor), sementara induk gagal melahirkan pada suhu pemeliharaan 33°C. Proporsi anak jantan yang dihasilkan oleh induk yang dipelihara pada suhu 30°C lebih banyak dibandingkan pada suhu 27°C.  Waktu inkubasi embrio sebelum dilahirkan oleh induk yang dipelihara pada suhu 30°C lebih singkat, yaitu 4-12 hari, dibandingkan pada  suhu 27°C, 18-22 hari.  Namun demikian beberapa anak ikan yang lahir dari induk yang dipelihara pada suhu suhu 30°C mengalami abnormalitas pada bagian tulang belakangnya.  Kata kunci: ikan gapi, Poecilia reticulata, sex reversal, reproduksi, monoseks
APLICATION OF GENE TRANSFER IN AQUACULTURE Alimuddin, .; Yoshizaki, G.; Carman, O.; Sumantadinata, K.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol. 2 No. 1 (2003): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : ISSA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (189.509 KB) | DOI: 10.19027/jai.2.41-50

Abstract

Recently, global food security has become a hot issue by the public in national as well as out of the country. Aquacultural output will need to be increased several fold in order to meet the rising demands for fish in coming years as the increasing of mankind population. The intensity and capacity of production is expected to increase using biotechnology approach. One of the advances biotechnologies that expected to be a powerful approach for aquaculture development is transgenic technique. This technique has been applied to several commercially valuable species. This review describes various techniques of gene transfer, persistence and expression of transferred gene, application and future aspect of gene transfer research in aquaculture. Key words: Gene transfer, gene expression, biotechnology,  aquaculture   ABSTRAK Saat ini, keamanan pangan telah menjadi isu hangat di masyarakat baik di dalam maupun di luar negeri. Produksi akuakultur diharapkan dapat ditingkatkan beberapa kali lipat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pangan berupa ikan dimasa-masa mendatang akibat peningkatan populasi manusia. Intensitas dan kapasitas produksi diharapkan meningkat dengan menggunakan pendekatan bioteknologi. Salah satu teknik modern yang diduga akan menjadi sarana yang berguna dalam pengembangan akuakultur adalah teknologi transfer gen. Teknik ini telah diaplikasikan pada spesies-spesies yang memiliki nilai ekonomis. Ulasan ini menggambarkan variasi metode transfer gen, persistensi dan ekspressi dari gen yang ditransfer, aplikasi dan prospeknya ke depan dari penelitian transfer gen dalam akuakultur. Kata kunci : transfer gen, ekspressi gen, bioteknologi, akuakultur
PRODUCTION AND BIOACTIVITY TEST OF RECOMBINANT PROTEIN COMMON CARP GROWTH HORMONE Utomo, Deny Sapto Chondro; Alimuddin, .; Sudrajat, Agus Oman; Faizal, Irvan
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol. 10 No. 1 (2011): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : ISSA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1361.474 KB) | DOI: 10.19027/jai.10.44-50

Abstract

This study aimed to produce recombinant growth hormone (rGH) protein of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and evaluate its bioactivity. DNA fragment encoding mature GH protein of common carp (mCcGH) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and PCR products were then ligated into pCold I to generate pCold I-mCcGH protein expression vector. Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) harboring pCold I-mCcGH was cultured in the 2xYT medium at 15 °C for 24 hours and protein production was induced by isopropyl-beta-thio galactopyranoside (IPTG). The inclusion bodies containing rGH protein from E. coli transformants were isolated by sonication method and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The result showed that rGH with molecular weight of about 25 kDa was obtained. Common carp juveniles with average body weight of 5.2±0.4 g were intramuscularly injected once a week for 4 weeks with rGH protein solution from 1 ?g bacterial cells per gram fish body weight. The result showed that juveniles fish injected with rGH grew 106.56% higher than control. This result indicated that rGH produced in E. coli BL21 possessed biological activity and it may be useful to improve growth of aquaculture species.Key words: growth hormone, recombinant protein, common carp ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan protein rekombinan hormon pertumbuhan (growth hormone, GH) dari ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio) dan menguji bioaktivitasnya. Fragmen DNA penyandi protein matang (mature) GH ikan mas (mCcGH) diamplifikasi dengan menggunakan metode PCR dan hasilnya kemudian diligasi ke dalam pCold-I untuk menghasilkan konstruksi vektor ekspresi pCold-I-mCcGH. Plasmid pCold-I-mCcGH ditransformasi ke bakteri Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), dikultur dalam media 2xYT cair pada suhu 15°C selama 24 jam dan produksi protein diinduksi dengan menggunakan isopropyl-beta-thio galactopyranoside (IPTG). Badan inklusi yang mengandung protein rekombinan GH (rGH) dari bakteri E. coli transforman diisolasi menggunakan metode sonikasi dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan SDS-PAGE. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rGH dengan bobot molekul sekitar 25 kDa berhasil diproduksi. Benih ikan mas dengan bobot rata-rata 5,15±0,4 g diinjeksi secara intramuskular satu kali per minggu selama 4 minggu dengan larutan rGH hasil ekstraksi dari 1 µg pelet bakteri/g bobot ikan. Benih yang disuntik dengan rGH tumbuh sekitar 100% lebih cepat bila dibandingkan dengan kontrol yang tidak diinjeksi rGH. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa rGH yang diproduksi dalam bakteri E. coli memiliki bioaktivitas dan dapat bermanfaat untuk memacu pertumbuhan spesies ikan-ikan budidaya.Kata kunci: hormon pertumbuhan, protein rekombinan, ikan mas
FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE CROP RESIDUE-BASED SILAGE TREATED BY EPIPHYTIC AND COMMERCIAL LAB Santoso, B; Hariadi, B Tj; Alimuddin, .; Seseray, D Y
Media Peternakan Vol. 35 No. 1 (2012): Media Peternakan
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (474.864 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2012.35.1.60

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant from king grass and a commercial inoculant of L. plantarum on fermentation characteristics and nutrient digestibility of rice crop residue-based silage. In experiment 1, mixture of rice crop residue (RC), soybean curd residue (SC) and cassava waste (CW) in a 80 : 10 : 10 (on dry matter basis) ratio was used as silage material. Four treatments silage were (A) RC + SC + CW as a control; (B) RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculant from king grass (2%, v/w) ; (C) RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculant from king grass (3%, v/w); (D) RC + SC + CW + L. plantarum inoculant (2%, v/w). In experiment 2, six Kacang goats were used in a 6 × 3 Youden square experiment and fed elephant grass, rice straw, and rice crop residue-based silage. The results showed that crude protein (CP) content in silages B, C, and D was slightly higher than silage A. Lactic acid concentration was significantly higher (PL. plantarum inoculant.
EFFECTIVENESS OF B-ACTIN PROMOTER ON DRIVING TARGET GENE EXPRESSION IN COMMON CARP TRANSGENESIS Hidayani, Andi Aliah; Carman, Odang; Alimuddin, .
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol. 10 No. 1 (2011): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : ISSA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (925.474 KB) | DOI: 10.19027/jai.10.16-23

Abstract

Promoter in transgene construct plays an important role on regulating of transgene expression level in transgenic fish. In fish transgenesis, researcher convinced that use all-fish gene construct is safety and prospective. This study was performed to compare effectiveness b-actin promoter, - the promoter which has ubiquitous, constitutive, housekeeping characteristics, from common carp (homologous) and from tilapia and medaka b-actin promoters (heterologous) in driving of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression as a model of target gene on common carp transgenesis. These gene constructs were separately microinjected into cytoplasm of 60 one-cell-stage common carp embryos. The results suggested that 70% survival rate at embryo stage and 45% hatching rate values showed that the microinjection was performed successfully. Percentage of embryos expressing GFP gene were slightly higher when injected using common carp and medaka promoters than those of using tilapia promoter. Percentage of larvae expressing GFP using common carp promoter was similar with medaka promoter. Furthermore, GFP expression using common carp b-actin promoter could be detected at one-week-old larvae, while GFP expressing using medaka b-actin promoter was lasted at 2-day-old larvae. The results demonstrated that homologous promoter more effective in driving of a target gene expression than that of heterologous promoter.  Key words: homologous promoter, GFP, transgenesis, common carp   ABSTRAK Promoter dalam konstruksi transgen berperan penting dalam pengaturan tingkat ekspresi transgen pada ikan transgenik. Dalam transgenesis ikan, peneliti meyakini bahwa penggunaan konstruksi gen "all-fish" adalah aman dan prospektif.  Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membandingkan efektivitas promoter ?-aktin, - promoter yang memiliki ciri ubiquitous, constitutive, dan housekeeping, dari ikan dari ikan mas (homolog) dan ikan nila dan ikan medaka (heterolog) dalam mengendalikan ekspresi gen GFP sebagai model gen pada transgenesis ikan mas. Setiap  konstruksi gen tersebut diinjeksikan secara terpisah ke sitoplasma embrio ikan mas fase 1 sel sebanyak 60 embrio. Hasil penelitian dengan kelangsungan hidup embrio 70% dan derajat penetasan 45% menunjukkan bahwa kegiatan mikroinjeksi berhasil dengan baik.  Persentase embrio mengekspresikan gen GFP yang diinjeksi konstruksi gen dengan promoter ?-aktin ikan mas dan ikan medaka sedikit lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan yang menggunakan promoter ?-aktin ikan nila.  Selanjutnya, ekspresi gen GFP yang dikendalikan oleh promoter ?-aktin ikan mas dapat dideteksi pada larva berumur 1 minggu, sedangkan ekspresi GFP dengan promoter ?-aktin ikan medaka hanya bisa terdeteksi hingga larva berumur 2 hari.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa promoter homolog adalah lebih efektif dalam mengatur ekspresi gen target dibandingkan dengan promoter heterolog. Kata kunci: promoter homolog, GFP, transgenesis, ikan mas
THE PHENOTYPE OF DIPLOID AND TRIPLOID F1 OF FEMALE KOHAKU AND SANKE KOI WITH MALES WHITE AND RED KOI Alimuddin, .; Sumantadinata, K.; Hadiroseyani, Yani
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol. 1 No. 3 (2002): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : ISSA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (86.578 KB) | DOI: 10.19027/jai.1.97-100

Abstract

ABSTRACTThis study was done to discover the effect of addition of chromosome number on phenotype F1 hybrid of females kohaku (white-red) and sanke (white-red-black) koi with males white and red koi. The white and red males koi were the F1 of gynogenesis. Spawning of koi was done by hormonal (ovaprim 0,5 ml/kg body weight) and fertilization was done artificially. Triploidization was done by heat shock at 40°C during 1,0-1,5 minutes after 2-3 minute from egg fertilization. Colour analysis was done on 4 months old fish. Triplodization was succeeding on 86,67%.  Addition of chromosome number on koi due to triploidization was suppressed the percentage of koi with combination color (kohaku, shiro-bekko, hi-utsuri, and sanke). It was seen on hybridization of sanke vs white koi as much as 5,55%, while on sanke vs red koi reached 45,02%. Hybridization of kohaku vs white koi as well as kohaku vs red koi produced higher percentages of kohaku compared to kohaku vs kohaku.Key words: Phenotype, diploid, triploid, koi fish, hybrid, chromosome AbstrakStudi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan jumlah set kromosom terhadap fenotipe keturunan persilangan ikan koi kohaku (putih-merah) dan sanke (putih-merah-hitam) betina dengan jantan putih dan merah. Ikan koi jantan putih dan merah merupakan hasil ginogenesis generasi pertama. Pemijahan ikan koi dilakukan dengan rangsangan hormonal ovaprim 0,5 ml/kg induk dengan sistim pembuahan buatan. Triploidisasi dilakukan dengan memberikan kejutan panas 400C selama 1,0-1,5 menit pada saat 2,0-3,0 menit setelah pembuahan telur. Analisis warna dilakukan setelah ikan berumur 4 bulan. Tingkat keberhasilan triploidisasi yang diperoleh cukup tinggi, yaitu sebesar 86,67%. Penambahan jumlah set kromosom ikan koi akibat triploidisasi menurunkan persentase ikan koi yang berwarna kombinasi (putih-merah, putih-hitam, merah-hitam dan putih-merah-hitam) sebesar 5,55% untuk persilangan sanke vs putih, dan 45,02% untuk persilangan sanke vs merah. Tingginya penurunan koi warna kombinasi diduga disebabkan adanya dominansi warna tertentu, misalnya dominansi warna hitam yang persentasenya meningkat sebesar 31,7% pada persilangan sanke vs merah. Pada persilangan kohaku dengan koi putih dan dengan koi merah, persentase kohaku lebih besar daripada perkawinan normal kohaku yang diperoleh pada tahap pertama. Persentase kohaku dari perkawinan normal kohaku hanya sebesar 18,6%, sedangkan kohaku vs putih atau dengan merah adalah sekitar 27% untuk triploidisasi dan 33% untuk persilangan  normal. Tingkat kelangsungan hidup ikan normal lebih besar daripada ikan hasil triploidisasi, kecuali persilangan sanke vs putih.Kata kunci : Fenotipe, diploid, triploid, ikan koi, hibrid dan kromosom