Articles

MYCORRHIZAE ARE SYMBIOTIC STRUCTURE DEVELOPED BY THE ROOTS OF PLANTS AND FUNGAL MYCELIA. THESE MYCORRHIZAE ARE OFTEN NECESSARY FOR THE GROWTH OF FOREST TREES. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE APPLICATION OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPORUS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MYCORRHIZAE IN PINUS MERKUSII. ANDOSOL, COLLECTED IN PUNCAK, AND LATOSOL, COLLECTED IN DARMAGA, WERE USED IN THIS EXPERIMENT. A SEEDLING, TRANSPLANTED INTO A POT CONTAINING 490 GR OF DRIED SOIL, SERVED AS AN EXPERIMENTAL UNI Anwar, Chairil; Hadi, Soetrisno; Djokosuhardjo, Sukandar
Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan No. 3 (1979): Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan
Publisher : Buletin Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan

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Mycorrhizae are symbiotic structure developed by the roots of plants and fungal mycelia. These mycorrhizae are often necessary for the growth of forest trees. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of the application of nitrogen and phosporus on the development of mycorrhizae in pinus merkusii. Andosol, collected in puncak, and latosol, collected in Darmaga, were used in this experiment. A seedling, transplanted into a pot containing 490 gr of dried soil, served as an experimental unit. Nitrogen ((NH4)2SO4) was applied at o ppm, 60 ppm, 120 ppm,
SINTESIS 3-(3,4-DIMETOKSIFENIL)-PROPANAL SEBAGAI SENYAWA ANTARA DALAM PEMBUATAN TURUNAN ANTIBOITIK C-9154 DARI MINYAK DAUN CENGKEH Ngadiwiyana, Ngadiwiyana; Ismiyarto, Ismiyarto; Jumina, Jumina; Anwar, Chairil
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 11, No 2 (2008): Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2008
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (537.554 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.11.2.38-42

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Telah dilakukan sintesis senyawa antara 3-(3,4-dimetoksifenil) propanal dalam pembuatan turunan antibiotik C-9154 sebagai upaya perluasan poemanfaatan minyak kayu cengkeh. Eugenol merupakan komponen utama minyak daun cengkeh yang dapat diisolasi menggunakan pelarut natrium hidroksida. Pemanfaatan senyawa ini masih sangat terbatas, sehingga perlu dilakukan upaya pengubahan eugenol menjadi senyawa turunannya yang lebih berdaya guna. Salah satunya, eugenol dapat diubah menjadi senyawa 3-(3,4-dimetoksifenil)-propanal, senyawa tersebut digunakan sebagai bahan untuk mensintesis senyawa turunan antibiotik C-9154. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan bahan dasar metileugenol hasil metilasi eugenol. Reaksi hidroborasi metileugenol menggunakan reagen H3B:dietileter secara in situ dengan mereaksikan NaBH4 dan BF3:dietileterat pada suhu 0 ?aC dan kondisi inert yang dibuat dengan mengalirkan gas nitrogen ke dalam sistem. Hasil reaksi dianalisis menggunakan metode spektroskopi inframerah dan spektroskopi massa. Oksidasi 3-(3,4-dimetoksifenil)-1-propanol menjadi 3-(3,4-dimetoksifenil)-propanal menggunakan oksidator piridinium klorokromat menggunakan pelarut diklorometan, dan direfluks selama 3 jam pada suhu reaksi 30 oC. Hasil reaksi dianalisis mengunakan metode spektroskopi inframerah, spektroskopi massa dan 1H-NMR. Hasil reaksi hidroborasi metileugenol merupakan cairan berwarna kekuningan dengan rendemen 81,29%, analisis spektra inframerah dan spektroskopi massa menunjukkan senyawa hasil adalah 3-(3,4-dimetoksifenil)-propanol. Hasil reaksi oksidasi 3 -(3,4-dimetoksifenil)-propanol didapat cairan berwarna coklat kehitaman dengan rendemen sebesar 71,3 %. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa senyawa hasil adalah 3-(3,4-dimetoksifenil)-propanal. Selanjutnya senyawa ini dapat digunakan sebagai bahan dasar sintesis turunan antibiotic C-9154.Kata kunci: Eugenol, 3-(3,4-dimetoksifenil)-propanal dan turunan antibiotik C-9154
ETOS KERJA ISLAM DALAM ERA INFORMASI Anwar, Chairil
UNISIA No 27: Tahun XV Triwulan III 1995
Publisher : Universitas Islam Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20885/unisia.v0i27.5524

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KONTRIBUSI ISLAM TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN IPTEK Anwar, Chairil
UNISIA No 24: Tahun XIV Triwulan IV 1994
Publisher : Universitas Islam Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20885/unisia.v0i24.5425

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SYNTHESIS 7-HYDROXY-3’,4’-DIMETHOXYISOFLAVON FROM EUGENOL Alimuddin, Andi Hairil; Mardjan, Muhammad Idham Darussalam; Matsjeh, Sabirin; Anwar, Chairil; Mustofa, Mustofa; Sholikhah, Eti Nurwening
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 11, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (233.66 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21404

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Eugenol from the isolation of clove leaves oil had been utilized in the synthesis of 7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxy-isoflavone based on deoxybenzoin intermediate. The raw material was firstly converted into methyleugenol using DMS (89.87%). Secondly, methyl eugenol was oxidized using KMnO4 to produce 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl carboxylic acid (21%). Friedel-Craft acylation of it with recorcinol produced 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl-2',4'-dihydroxyphenyl ketone (deoxybenzoin intermediate) in 78% yield. Eventually, cyclization of the intermediate with reagents of BF3.OEt2/DMF/POCl3 yielded 7-hydroxy-3',4'-isoflavone in 85% yield.
HIDROLISIS PATI DARI BATANG KELAPA SAWIT DENGAN KOMBINASI PERLAKUAN ASAM SITRAT DAN STEAM EXPLOSION TERHADAP SIFAT FISIKO KIMIA DEKSTRIN Yusra, Syarifah; Pranoto, Yudi; Anwar, Chairil; Hidayat, Chusnul
Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan Vol 9, No 1 (2020): February 2020
Publisher : Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (910.242 KB) | DOI: 10.17728/jatp.6273

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Modifikasi pati dilakukan untuk memperbaiki sifat fungsional pati dan memperluas penggunaan pati dalam produk pangan. Modifikasi pati menjadi dekstin dapat dilakukan baik secara fisik, kimiawi, atau kombinasi fisiko-kimia. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan modifikasi pati dengan kombinasi pregelatinisasi-steam explosion (Pregel-SE), dan kombinasi pregelatinisasi-asam sitrat-steam explosion pada pH 4 (pregel-pH-SE4) dan pH 3 (pregel-pH-SE3) untuk produksi dekstrin. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh metode hidrolisis terbaik dalam pembuatan dekstrin. Produk yang dihasilkan diamati tingkat kelarutan, berat molekul (Mw), dextrose equivalent (DE), Spectra Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), SEM, dan viskositas pasta. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa kondisi terbaik modifikasi pati menjadi dekstrin diperoleh pada perlakuan pregel-pH3-SE. Pada perlakuan ini diperoleh kelarutan 75,94 %, berat molekul 60100 g/mol dan DE 15,92%. Pita vibrasi baru terlihat di wilayah bilangan gelombang 1717 cm-1 pada analisis FTIR. Hasil SEM menunjukkan bahwa bentuk granula pati yang bulat sudah tidak terlihat setelah kombinasi perlakuan. Pengujian RVA menunjukkan penurunan viskositas berkorelasi positif terhadap penurunan berat molekul, peningkatan kelarutan dan DE setelah kombinasi perlakuan ditingkatkan. Starch modification is performed to improve the functional properties of starch and starch utilization in food products. Modification of starch, such as dextrin, can be performed by physical and chemical methods, or a combination method, such as physico-chemical. In this research, starch modification was carried out by a combination between pregelatinization and steam explosion (Pregel-SE), a combination between pregelatinization, citric acid and steam explosion at pH 4 (Pregel-pH-SE4) and at pH 3 (Pregel-pH-SE3) for the production of dextrin. The objective of this research was to obtain the best method for dextrin production. The results were observed, such as levels of solubility, molecular weight (Mw), dextrose equivalent (DE), Spectra Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), SEM, and pasting properties (RVA). The results showed that the best condition of starch modification for dextrin production was obtained by Pregel-pH3-SE. Solubility, molecular weight, and DE of dextrin were 75.94%, 60100 g/mol, and 15.92%, respectively. A new peak was observed in the region of the wavenumber 1.717 cm-1 at FTIR analysis. SEM analysis indicated that the round form of starch granules did not observed after the treatments. RVA analysis showed that the decrease in viscosity was correlated with a decrease in molecular weight, an increase in solubility, and DE after the treatments.
SPEKTRA INFRAMERAH SPESI TERADSORPSI PADA KATALIS PT/AEROSIL Anwar, Chairil
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 7, No 1 (2004): Volume 7 Issue 1 Year 2004
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (265.336 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.7.1.1-5

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Adsorpsi karbon monoksida, pirolidina dan butilamina pada Pt/Aerosil dan Aerosil dipelajari dengan menggunakan spektroskopi inframerah. Permukaan Pt/Aerosil dan Aerosil pada ruang hampa (10-6 mbar) selalu menyerap sinar pada daerah 3730 cm-1 yang ditunjukkan oleh munculnya pita tajam pada spektra. Pita serapan ini merupakan serapan dari vibrasi gugus OH yang dikenal sebagai silanol bebas (tidak membentuk ikatan hidrogen). Pita serapan ini akan hilang jika permukaannya ditambahkan amina yang berarti bahwa molekul amina terikat pada gugus OH melalui ikatan hidrogen. Penambahan karbon monoksida tidak mempengaruhi pita serapan ini. Karbon monoksida menimbulkan pita-pita serapan pada daerah antara 2100 cm-1 dan 1800 cm-1, hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa amina dan karbon monoksida teradsorpsi pada sisi yang berbeda, molekul amina terikat pada gugus hidroksil sedangkan karbon monoksida terikat pada platinum.
SINTESIS DAN KARAKTERISASI KATALIS PD/CE/ZEOLIT Taslimah, Taslimah; Prayitno, Tono Eko; Sumardjo, Damin; Anwar, Chairil
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 7, No 3 (2004): Volume 7 Issue 3 Year 2004
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (216.399 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.7.3.68-71

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Telah dilakukan sintesis katalis Pd/Ce/Zeolit, sintesis dilakukan dengan cara impregnasi larutan garam palladium dan serium pada zeolit , kalsinasi dilakukan pada suhu 600 ºC dengan dialiri N2 selama 4 jam kemudian O2 selama 1 jam selanjutnya direduksi dengan H2 pada 900 ºC selama 5 jam. Karakterisasi katalis dilakukan dengan menggunakan difraktometer sinar-X dan uji katalitik dilakukan terhadap umpan gas CO, banyaknya CO yang terkonversi ditentukan dengan kromatografi gas. Disimpulkan bahwa spesies logam yang terbentuk adalah Pd(0), PdO, PdO2, Ce2O3,dan Ce6O11. Katalis Pd/Ce/zeolit pada konsentrasi Ce 3 % adalah yang terbaik mempunyai ukuran partikel PdO/ Ce2O3 279,09/263,69 dengan kemampuan konversi terhadap gas CO 78,789 % pada suhu 700 ºC.
Polymorphisms in the pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from South Sumatera, Indonesia Saleh, Irsan; Handayani, Dwi; Anwar, Chairil
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 23, No 1 (2014): February
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (541.529 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v23i1.679

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Background: Over the past decade, antimalarial drug resistance has rapidly become a major public health problem in South East Asia region including South Sumatra. This study aimed to determine the extent of gene polymorphisms associated with chloroquine resistance (CQR) in P. falciparum isolates from Lahat, Sekayu, Baturaja and Palembang district.Methods: A molecular study was conducted to identify the mutant alleles of the genes associated with the resistance to chloroquine among the isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from South Sumatera. Blood from 25 patients was collected, DNA was isolated, and the sequences of two different genes (Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter/pfcrt and Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance/pfmdr1) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Results: This study identified polymorphism in the pfcrt 76-Thr in all isolates and pfmdr1 86-Tyr. These findings may reflect the failure of treatment with the standard dose of chloroquine within the last few years in South Sumatera. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP technique provide a simple and rapid method of detecting polymorphisms in genes that may predict chloroquine resistance (CQR). Although the identification of the polymorphism in the pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes provides a significant indicator of CQR, further studies are needed to determine the role of these polymorphisms in the in vivo and in vitro responses to drug treatment.Keywords: chloroquine, Plasmodium falciparum, pfmdr1, pfcrt
The Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of the Light and Heavy Tar Resulted from Coconut Shell Pyrolysis Hasanah, Uswatun; Setiaji, Bambang; Triyono, Triyono; Anwar, Chairil
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (173.514 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2012.001.01.102

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The tar resulted from pyrolysis of coconut shell is a waste. It is important to be clarified their chemical composition and physical properties in order to find out their feasibility as source of a fuel. This research was resulted two immiscible organic fractions, and these were further determined their physical properties such as water composition by using ASTM D-95 methods, ash composition (ASTM D-482), flash point C.O.C (ASTM D-92), kinematics of viscosity (ASTM D-445), and caloric valued using bomb calorimetric. In addition, tar composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The result provided oil which was categorized as light and heavy bio-oils. The light bio-oil has specific gravity 0.99, ash content 0.01%, kinematics viscosity 25.5 cSt, flash point <27 oC, pH 3 and heating value 10304 kcal/kg. On the other hand, heavy bio- oils gave specific gravity 1.13, ash 0.46%, kinematics viscosity 185 cSt, flash point 134 oC, pH 2.5 and heating value 6210 kcal/kg. Moreover, the light bio-oil contained 79 compounds which was composed of phenol 16.4%, hydrocarbon 12.4%, phenolic 27.6%, other oxygenated compounds 53.6%, and acetic acid 3%, meanwhile the heavy bio-oils contained of 18 compounds which was consisted of phenol 31.2%, lauric acid 6.0%, phenolic 27.6%, and other oxygenated compounds 35.3%, respectively. With this result, it was clarify that these bio-oils could not be used directly as a fuel for motor nor diesel machinery.
Co-Authors Afriyani, Hapin Agustian, Rolando Ahmad Ghanaim Ahmad Ghiffari Ahmad Hanapi Amelia, Linda Andi Hairil Alimuddin Annisa, Saraswati Annisa, Saraswati Aprita, Ika Rezvani Aprita, Ika Rezvani Arini, Putri Arsinta, Dewi Asriani Hasanuddin Bambang Kunarto Bambang Purwono Bambang Setiaji Budi Santoso Budiana I Gusti M. Ngurah Chatarina Wariyah Chusnul Hidayat Cicilia Nancy, Cicilia Dahlang Tahir Dalilah Dalilah Darise, Ramla Ilham Darise, Ramla Ilham Desi Suci Handayani Devi Nur Anisa Djokosuhardjo, Sukandar Dwi Handayani Edi Suryanto Edo Tondas, Alexander Edy Suandi Hamid Eko Jokolelono Erlyta Septa Rosa Eti Nurwening Sholikhah Evi Triwulandari Fahmi Fahmi Farouk, Husnil Febriyanto Febriyanto Fikroh, Retno Aliyatul Giffari, Ahmad Hafsah Hafsah Halidah Halidah, Halidah Harnan, Hafyarie Harno Dwi Pranowo Haryanto, Didid Hendra Gunawan Herizal Herizal, Herizal Hermansyah, Herry Hernita, Hernita Hidayat, Fadlan Hidayatullah, Fadjar Siddiq Humairo Fatimi Imanniar, Verouzia Kunti Iqmal Tahir Irhami, Irhami Irmayanti Irmayanti, Irmayanti Irmayanti, Miss Irsan Saleh Ismiyarto Ismiyarto Jojo Hidayat Jumina Jumina Kemalawaty, Mulla Kesty, Cindy kunarto, bambang Kussuryani, Yanni Lasbudi P Ambarita M. Athuf Thaha Mardianis, Yunia Marhawati Mappatoba Mary Astuti Maryatul Qiptiyah Maulidan Firdaus Muhaimin Ramdja, Muhaimin Muhammad Idham Darussalam Mardjan Mustofa Mustofa Nendrowati, Nendrowati Ngadiwiyana Ngadiwiyana Nompo, Sahara Nompo, Sahara Noviyanti Eliska, Noviyanti Novrikasari Novrikasari, Novrikasari Nuswil Bernolian Prasasti, Gita Dwi Prasasty, Gita Dwi Prasetyo, Yogo Dwi Prayitno, Tono Eko Putri, Salvari Gusti Ayu Dwi Reinner I Lerrick, Reinner I Respati ., Respati Reza Salima Rico Januar Sitorus Ridho, M rasyid Rizki Amy Lavita, Rizki Amy Rurini Retnowati Ruslin Hadanu Sabirin Matsjeh Sahadewa Sahadewa Salni Salni, Salni Saprudin Saprudin, Saprudin Septiana, R. A. Leni Shobih Shobih Sianipar, Melpa Yohana Sinung Hendratno, Sinung Siti Nuryanti Soetrisno Hadi Suleman Duengo Sumardjo, Damin Sunardi Sunardi Supriyadi Supriyadi Supriyanto Supriyanto Supriyanto, nFN Susilawati Susilawati Sutardi Sutardi Sutardi, nFN Syukur, KM Yahya Taslimah Taslimah Theodorus Theodorus Tri Joko Raharjo Tria, Nova Triyono Triyono Uswatun Hasanah Wardiansah, Wardiansah Warni, Sulfa Esi Warsito Warsito Winarto Haryadi Yudi Pranoto Yusra, Syarifah Yustina Wuri Wulandari Zulifah Chikmawati, Zulifah