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Land Degradation Analysis by Using Landscape Balance in Lebak Swamp Jakabaring South Sumatra Armanto, M. Edi; Wildayana, Elisa
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management Vol 4, No 1 (2016): JANUARY-JUNE, 2016
Publisher : Center for Journal Management and Publication

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20527/jwem.v4i1.24

Abstract

This research aimed to analyze land degradation by using landscape balances in lebak swamp Jakabaring South Sumatra. The study was carried out in Jakabaring, South of Palembang. Field survey method was applied, the field observations and respondents were taken by randomly purposive sampling.  The interviews with farmers were done by using open questionnaire. The study resulted that erosion and abrasion rises above 1,000 % which includes the acreage of 1.16 % in 1988 to 12.34 % in 2015. The landscape becomes more dynamic from year to year (namely 88.75 % of normal landscape in 1988 and becoming 68.14 % in 2015). The drought in the lebak swamp is increasingly unpredictable, making it difficult for farmers to manage their farming activities. Deposited landscape was found about 272.43 ha (10.09 %) in 1988 and increased to approximately 527.04 ha (19.52 %) in 2015. Lebak swamp serves a lot of coming water from the upstream catchment area of approximately 3 million ha. This service is more and more complicated, irregular and burden lebak swamps.  The lebak swamp ecosystem has not only enormous potential, but also has a very high resilience.
Agriculture Phenomena and Perspectives of Lebak Swamp in Jakabaring South Sumatra, Indonesia Wildayana, Elisa; Armanto, M. Edi
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Studi Pembangunan Vol 9, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (620.442 KB) | DOI: 10.17977/um002v9i22017p156

Abstract

The research aimed to analyze agriculture phenomena and perspectives of lebak swamp in Jakabaring South Sumatra Indonesia. The research used mix methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches. The description of the research area was assisted with interpretation of Landsat images in 1987 and 2015. The research resulted that farmer’s groups living in Jakabaring are divided into four group, namely indigenous people (people of Ogan, Komering, Musi, Enim, and Palembang), new comers (Javanese), spontaneous migration (Buginese, Banjarnese, Bataknese) and outside spontaneous migration (Chinese, Arabic). The total area of Jakabaring is approximately 5,525 ha, around 2,700 ha (48.87 %) was already landfilled by the Government in 1990, while the remaining 2,825 ha (51.13 %) is still not reclaimed. The landfill materials were directly sucked from mud, sand, silt and stones of the Musi River. Each lebak swamp typology shows specific soil characters, but after landfills all soils became homogenous because of uniform materials of landfills.  Patterns of land degradation after landfills are classified into three groups, namely making layers of water impermeability, changing vegetation types of land cover, and decreasing type and density of vegetation.Keywords: Agriculture, phenomena, perspectives, lebak, swampJEL Classification: O13, Q01
MAPPING CONSTRUCTION OF SOIL VARIABILITY WITHIN THE LANDSCAPE Armanto, M. Edi
Bionatura Vol 4, No 3 (2002): Bionatura Nopember 2002
Publisher : Direktorat Sumber Daya Akademik dan Perpustakaan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (186.697 KB)

Abstract

The research aimed to construct mapping soil variability within the landscape.The research was located in Central Lampung (308 ha). The survey type wasdetailed using topographic maps (scales of 1:5,000) and the aerial photointerpretations. The soil samples were performed by soil pits and borings forwhole survey area (1 composite sample/ha), classified and analyzed. Thebalancing methods used transect diagrams, delineated soil bodies and area pointstatistics. The research resulted that the aerial photo interpretation was a veryuseful method to delineate soil units on the map. A combination of aerialimagery, topographical maps and field observations provide the most effectiveapproach for soil mapping in complex landscapes with simple soil patterns.Although the soil sampling was carried out relatively systematic according torelief form and the driving lanes of tractors, there was some agreement betweenpoint statistics and map data. The difference between both methods wasmaximally 3 %. The result combination from both methods shows that 60 % ofthe landscape was classified as eroded, 35 % as normal and 5 % as colluviated.There was no balance of erosion and onsite sedimentation.Keywords : Construction, landscape, mapping, soil variability
Novel Innovation of Subsidized Fertilizers based on Soil Variability and Farmer’s Perception Wildayana, Elisa; Armanto, M. Edi; Zahri, Imron; Hasan, M. Yamin
Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan: Kajian Masalah Ekonomi dan Pembangunan Vol 18, No 1 (2017): JEP 2017
Publisher : Universitas Muhammdaiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/jep.v18i1.3401

Abstract

The study aimed to find novel innovation and research of subsidized fertilizers based on soil nutrient variability and farmer’s perception in rice farming. This study uses a completely randomized design with four natural treatments, a one-way Anova and Tukey HSD Test as well as multiple linear and cubic regressions. The fertilizer uniformity on varied ricefields was a big failure because it causes fertilization becoming ineffective, inefficient and unsustainable. Ricefield variability (due to geomorphogenesis, pedogenesis, interflow flow, vegetation distribution, land use patterns, and fertilizer application) causes not optimized fertilization (dose, balance, time, methods of fertilization). The perception of farmers can create conflicts of interest, which are determined as normal, unavoidable and natural.  Short-term research target is how fertilization in the field is done effectively, efficiently, and sustainably, whereas long-term target is to generate new sources of wealth, fertilization technology based on soil science knowledge, forming professional researcher, the great inventions of patents, cooperation media between scientists, technocrats and bureaucrats and research funding.
The Highest Retail Price (HET) of Subsidized Fertilizer at the Farmer’s Level in South Sumatra Rice Farming, Indonesia Wildayana, Elisa; Hasan, M. Yamin; Armanto, M. Edi; Zahri, Imron; Adriani, Dessy; Sari, Ranty Fitria; Nursittah, Nursittah; Lestari, Fitri; Oktavia, Reszki
Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan: Kajian Masalah Ekonomi dan Pembangunan Vol 19, No 1 (2018): JEP 2018
Publisher : Muhammadiyah University Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/jep.v19i1.5137

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The research objective is to analyze the subsidized fertilizer price (HET) at the hand of farmers of rice farming in South Sumatra province. The sampling method was disproportionate stratified random sampling with four land typologies. The field data were collected through observation, interviews with respondents. The use amount of fertilizers on all typologies effected significantly different to rice yields. In the lebak ricefields, the influence of Urea, NPKPhonska and KCl together effected significantly different, but not significantly different for each use of fertilizers. The use cost of Urea affected rice yields and income of farmers significantly different for all ricefields. Eligible HET price received by farmers has to be lower than the real HET price. Determination eligible HET price has to consider soil productivity and accessibility (dam, water gates, water pump, road, infrastructure, local retail and others).
Livelihoods, Household Income and Indigenous Technology in South Sumatra Wetlands Wildayana, Elisa; Adriani, Dessy; Armanto, M. Edi
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment Vol 2, No 1 (2017): Green Environment For Human Welfare
Publisher : Program Pascasarjana Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

he research aimed to analyze livelihoods, household income and indigenous technology in South Sumatra wetlands. The research method used field survey and interviews with respondents by using questionnaires. Respondents were determined with stratified random sampling method. The research data are classified into two parts, i.e. primary data and secondary data. The research showed that three main farmer’s groups settling in wetlands are spontaneous migration (Buginese and Banjarnese), new comers (transmigration) and indigenous people (local people from South Sumatra). All these tribes running the different farming systems, new comers and indigenous farmers implement farms with rice monoculture, while spontaneous migration applied multi commodities. The average land ownership of farm households is 1.95 ha which is intended for rice fields (0.94 ha), estate (0.85 ha), and livestock and fisheries (0.16 ha). Indigenous farmers have the minimum land (0.75 ha), however the spontaneous migration has the largest lands (3.10 ha). The larger the land ownership by farmers, thus the farmer’s income will increase if the land is cultivated by farmers. Household income structure of farmers is dominated by food crop farming and this has led to the vulnerability of farmer’s income due to the uncertainty of agricultural activities. The more varied sources of farmer’s income, the income of farmers will increase also. The learning process of spontaneous migration indicates that the farm should follow the nature, so the coercion of nature means to increase operational costs of farming.Keywords: Livelihoods, household, income, indigenous technology, wetlands
Characterizing and Analyzing Sonor System in South Sumatra Tidal Wetlands Wildayana, Elisa; Armanto, M. Edi; Imanudin, M.S.; Junedi, Heri
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management Vol 5, No 2 (2017): July-December 2017
Publisher : Center for Journal Management and Publication

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20527/jwem.v5i2.109

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The research aimed to (1) describe changing biomass during the burning process, (2) characterize the nutrient loss due to biomass burning, (3) analyse the financial loss of nutrient transfer, and (4) compare farmer’s income among three land typologies. This research was conducted in tidal wetlands Talang Sepucuk, OKI District, South Sumatra with a slope of 0-3 %. Three selected land typologies (B, C and D) are located in the area adjacent to one another with distance < 1.200 m. The natural vegetation data and paddy yields was recorded by squares method, i.e. 25 x 25 m at each study site, dried and weighed and analyzed in the laboratory. The research resulted that the nutrient transfer due to biomass burning was in range of Rp 49.98-51.62 Mills/ha/year. The farmer’s income of the sonor system was very small (Rp 3.61-3.97 Mills/ha/year), it was only about 7 % of the total financial loss of nutrient transfer). The remaining value (93 %) is beyond the capacity of farmers to harvest natural resources. This value (93 %) is classified as one of the biggest negative impact of the sonor system to be paid by the all people. The government must intervene to make the public policy by giving direct subsidy to farmers NOT to burn biomass in the sonor system with compensation of at least 2 (two) times of farmer’s income from the sonor system (around Rp 7.66 Mill. Rp/ha/year). If farmers still continue to apply the sonor system by using fire, then there is very little opportunity for us to manage the nutrients loss due to biomass burning. The preventive and proactive approach is the best way how to manage the land resources.
Value Changes of Lebak Swamp Land over Time in Jakabaring South Sumatra Wildayana, Elisa; Busri, Apriadi S; Armanto, M. Edi
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management Vol 4, No 1 (2016): JANUARY-JUNE, 2016
Publisher : Center for Journal Management and Publication

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20527/jwem.v4i1.25

Abstract

The research aimed to assess value changes of lebak swamp land over time in Jakabaring South Sumatra. This study was conducted in Jakabaring located in the Southern part of Palembang city. The research used mix methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches and describe the research area. The research resulted that Jakabaring area can be divided into three regions, namely North Jakabaring (around 1,544.13 ha or 57.19 %), East Jakabaring (about 809.46 ha or 29.98 %) and South Jakabaring (around 346.41 ha or 12.83 %). Total population was around 232.369 people in 2000, becoming 262.390 in 2015 and 280.692 people in 2030. High population increase will pressure to land use changes. Population increase and land use changes cannot be avoided, but they can be only managed properly. The order of land use dominance before landfills was namely lebak swamp, settlement/industry, rice fields, swamp bush, agriculture fields, swamp forest, infrastructure, fish ponds, and garden including open spaces. In 2030 it will predictably change, i.e. settlement/industry, garden including open spaces, swamp bush, infrastructure, fish ponds, lebak swamp, rice fields, agriculture fields, and swamp forest. Almost all types of land use changes are driven by the government, meaning that the government is very dominant in determining land use change, whereas the private sector plays only a small role in the land use changes especially for lands with high economic impacts. Land use change initiated by the farmers is very limited and the smallest because farmers are just to seek a livelihood at small-scale level.
Selected Properties of Peat Degradation on Different Land Uses and the Sustainable Management Armanto, M. Edi; Wildayana, Elisa; Imanudin, M.S.; Junedi, Heri; Zuhdi, Mohd.
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management Vol 5, No 2 (2017): July-December 2017
Publisher : Center for Journal Management and Publication

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20527/jwem.v5i2.120

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The research aimed to analyze selected properties of peat degradation on different land uses and the sustainable management. The research area is located in the lowland dome peats in the catchment basin of Sibumbung River and Sibotak River in Sub District of East Pedamaran, OKI South Sumatra. The research method used an experimental design of Randomized Completely Block Design with two Blocks and five treatments (Site A: intercropping between oil palm and pineapples; Site B: oil palm plantations, Site C: peat forest; Site D: swamp bush; Site E: swamp grass). The research resulted that drainage and land uses decrease some properties of peats, namely C/N ratio, total pore space, fiber and ash content as well as organic C on cultivated peats and are significantly different at level of 5% compared with uncultivated peats. Bulk density increased due to peat compaction and groundwater table on cultivated peats, which is getting deeper, and significantly different compared with uncultivated peats. All soil series do not show any change because of drainage and different land uses. Sustainable peat management can be implemented through three approaches, namely managements of water, soil and crops.
Option for Land and Water Management to Prevent Fire in Peat Land Areas of Sumatera, Indonesia Imanudin, Momon Sodik; Wildayana, Elisa; Armanto, M. Edi
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management Vol 6, No 1 (2018): January-June, 2018
Publisher : Center for Journal Management and Publication

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Investment development for oil palm plantation in Indonesia was increasing and it clear away into peat land area. Land clearing activities without considering peat ecological function may have impact on environmental degradation. The objective of this research was to study development potential of oil palm plantation at peat land by using land evaluation approach. The field survey method was observation scale and land suitability assessment was based on FAO standard with adjustment. Assessment results showed that land had peat thickness higher than 3 m covering 28% of total area so that it can be opened for oil palm plantation. The main constraint factors for the clearing of feasible area were soil reaction, flooding condition and nutrients status. These parameters could be potentially improved. However, final assessment of land showed that it was classified as less feasible (S2) due to relatively high investment.  Cultivation can only be conducted with provision of drainage facility. Caution should be taken in designing open channel in order to prevent excessive water drainage. Therefore, hydrologic analysis can be based on 5 years return period only. Computer simulation of DRAINMOD was applied to determine the operational effect of control structures in elevating of water table during dry season. Simulation results showed that during the opening operation of open channel without control structures at dry season, water table was dropped up to 90 cm below soil surface. Water retention effort in tertiary channel at 70 cm level could elevated water up to 30-40 cm below soil surface. The key success for oil palm plantation development at peat land was highly depended on availability of control structure at tertiary channel. Flap water gate type from fibre material was very suitable for field application. Retention system by using soil sack or stoplog water gate could be implemented at initial stage in order to economize the cost.