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MEDIUM CHAIN FATTY ACIDS (MCFA) PROFILE AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF COCONUT OILS (VIRGIN COCONUT OIL/VCO, SIMPLAH OIL, PLIEK U OIL, KLENTIK OIL, AND COPRA OIL) COMPARE TO PALM OIL Arpi, Normalina
Jurnal Sagu Vol 12, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Jurnal Sagu

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Abstract

Medium Chain Triglyceride or Medium Chain Triacylglycerol (MCT) is triglyceride (triacylglycerol) thatcontains medium chain fatty acids C6:0 - C12:0, therefore is also known as Medium Chain Fatty Acid(MCFA). The type and amount MCFA of an oil are affected by the source, technique, and conditions toextract the oil. MCFA increasingly play important roles in terms of food processing technology,pharmacology, and clinical nutrition. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the profile ofMCFA and chemical properties of coconut oil (VCO, simplah oil, pliek u oil, klentik oil, oil from copra) andpalm oil. The observed parameters were the type and amount of fatty acids, moisture content, free fatty acid,peroxide and iodine number. The results showed that the MCFA profiles of various coconut oil is almostsimilar, although the manufacturing process is different, however the profiles different from that of palm oilwhich the MCFA were not undetected. Coconut oil (VCO, simplah oil, pliek u oil, and klentik oil) containfatty acids of C6:0-C18:1, and klentik oil also contains C18: 2. From all types of the coconut oils used, thetotal content of MCFA (C6 + C8) ranged from 9.89-10.99%, fatty acids C6 + C8 + C10 were 17.94-20.21%,and total content of MCFA (C6 + C8 + C10 + C12) ranged between 54.91 in pliek u oil and the highest61.68% in the VCO. All types of coconut oil used in this study have met the SNI (01-2904-1992) and for palmoil, SNI (01-2901-1992). The best quality of oils obtained from the VCO V1 with levels of water 0.20%, freefatty acid (FFA) 0.22%, iodine number of 8.17%, and peroxide number of 0.96 mg O2 / g sample.Key words: MCT or MCFA, coconut oil, VCO, simplah oil, pliek u oil, klentik oil, copra oil, palm oil
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF CURRY LEAVES (MURAYYA KOENIIGI) AND SALAM LEAVES (EUGENIA POLYANTHA) Safriani, Novi; Arpi, Normalina; Erfiza, Novia Mehra; Basyamfar, Rini Ariani
Proceedings of The Annual International Conference, Syiah Kuala University - Life Sciences & Engineering Chapter Vol 1, No 1 (2011): Life Sciences
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

This study aimed to extract the active antioxidant compounds from curry leaves (Murayya koeniigi) and salam leaves (Eugenia polyantha) using three types of solvent; water, ethanol (50%) and hexane, and determine the total polyphenols contents, activity of free radicals scavenging using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ferric reducing power of the extract of those materials. The result showed that curry leaves extracted using water contain a higher amount of polyphenols than other solvent extracts, while for the salam leaves, ethanol (50%) extracts give a higher polyphenol content than others. Total polyphenols extracts had a positive correlation with antioxidant activity in both DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Extracts that contain a high amount of polyphenols also exhibit high antioxidant activity. The result indicated that the polarity level of the solvent will determine extraction result and its antioxidant activity
OPTIMIZATION OF GLUCOSE AS SOURCE OF BIOETHANOL FROM REED (IMPERATACYLINDRICA) USING CELLULASE ENZYME AT VARIOUS PH AND SUBSTRATE PARTICLE SIZE Indarti, Eti; Abubakar, Yusya; Arpi, Normalina; Satriana, .; Arfiansyah, Yuza
Proceedings of The Annual International Conference, Syiah Kuala University - Life Sciences & Engineering Chapter Vol 2, No 2 (2012): Engineering
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

Due to increasing demand of petroleum and limited source of fossil fuel, it isneeded to explore and find source of a renewable energy. The biomass from agricultural residues, forest and farm waste has been known as a great source of energy and can be converted into biogas, bioethanol, biodiesel, etc. Reed which is abundant in Indonesia is one of potential sources of lignocellulose biomass that can be utilized as (Imperata cylindrica) a source of renewable energy such as bioethanol. The aim of this study was to optimize yield of glucose from reed using cellulose enzyme. Factors used in this research werepH and substrate particle size. Reed particle sizes were 80 and 100 mesh and pH of the solution were 4.2, 4.8 and 5.5. The results showedthat dried reedwith100 meshes in particle size which hydrolysed in enzyme solution with pH 5.5 at 37oC for 72 hours, producedthe highest yield of glucose in the amount of 80.2 mg/ml (8.02 %). When the incubation time was extended, glucose yield increased to 121.8 mg/ml (12.1%) at 96 hours and then decreased as the incubation time was extended further
EKSTRAKSI OLEORESIN DARI LIMBAH PENYULINGAN PALA MENGGUNAKAN ULTRASONIK Arpi, Normalina; Satriana, Satriana; Rezekiah, Kiki
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 9, No 4 (2013): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (261.704 KB) | DOI: 10.23955/rkl.v9i4.1232

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh ukuran partikel limbah penyulingan pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) dan suhu ekstraksi terhadap rendemen dan mutu oleoresin pala yang dihasilkan pada proses ekstraksi pelarut menggunakan bantuan ultrasonik. Etanol mutu teknis (technical grade) digunakan sebagai pelarut. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) Faktorial dengan ulangan sebagai kelompok yang terdiri dari ukuran partikel bahan (P) yaitu P1= 10 mesh, P2= 40 mesh dan P3= 60 mesh dan suhu ekstraksi (S) yaitu S1= 40oC, S2= 50oC dan S3= 60oC. Analisis oleoresin pala yang dilakukan meliputi analisis awal (kadar air dan kadar abu) dan analisis akhir (bobot jenis, indeks bias, dan sisa pelarut). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh terhadap rendemen dan mutu oleoresin yang dihasilkan. Rendemen tertinggi sebesar 7,16% diperoleh pada  ukuran partikel 10 mesh dan suhu 60oC. Hasil analisis bobot jenis oleoresin menunjukkan bahwa bobot jenis tertinggi yaitu 1,250 dihasilkan pada suhu ekstraksi 50oC. Sementara itu, hasil analisis indeks bias oleoresin menunjukkan bahwa ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi memberikan pengaruh yang sangat nyata terhadap oleoresin pala dimana ukuran partikel 40 mesh pada suhu ekstraksi 40oC dan 60oC  serta ukuran partikel 60 mesh pada suhu 50oC memiliki nilai indeks bias yang lebih tinggi yaitu berkisar antara 1,476 hingga 1,480. Hasil analisis sisa pelarut juga menunjukkan bahwa ukuran partikel dan suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh terhadap tingginya sisa pelarut, dimana ukuran partikel 10 mesh mengandung sisa pelarut 0,229% dan suhu ekstraksi 40oC mengandung sisa pelarut 0,265%.
HIDRODISTILASI MINYAK JAHE (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.) Supardan, Muhamad Dani; Ruslan, Ruslan; Satriana, Satriana; Arpi, Normalina
Reaktor Volume 12, Nomor 4, Desember 2009
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (625.598 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.12.4.239 – 244

Abstract

Penelitian tentang penyulingan minyak jahe dengan metode hidrodistilasi menggunakan gelombang ultrasonik telah dilakukan. Variabel proses yang diamati adalah perbandingan pelarut air dan bubuk jahe atau SF rasio (8:1, 10:1, 12:1 dan 14:1) dan temperatur hidrodistilasi (80, 85, 90 dan 95oC). Proses hidrodistilasi dilakukan menggunakan ultrasonic bath dengan frekuensi 37 kHz. Sebagai pembanding dilakukan juga proses hidrodistilasi tanpa bantuan ultrasonik. Minyak jahe yang diperoleh berupa cairan berwarna kuning terang dengan aroma jahe yang khas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hidrodistilasi tanpa bantuan ultrasonik hanya dapat mengekstrak 49% minyak atsiri dalam bahan, sedangkan hidrodistilasi dengan bantuan ultrasonik mampu mengekstrak hingga 84% minyak atsiri dalam bahan pada kondisi temperatur 80oC dan SF rasio 12:1. Hasil analisis dengan kromatografi gas menunjukkan komponen dengan komposisi tertinggi dalam minyak jahe hasil hidrodistilasi dengan bantuan ultrasonik adalah Zingiberene. Hasil analisis beberapa parameter terhadap produk menunjukkan minyak jahe sudah memenuhi spesifikasi menurut Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) Nomor 06-1312-1998.
PERBAIKAN PROSES PEMISAHAN PENGOTOR PADATAN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS GULA MERAH TEBU RAKYAT DI ACEH TENGAH (Modification of Solid Impurities Removal Process to Improve Brown Cane Sugar Quality Traditionally Produced in Aceh Tengah) Marwan, Marwan; Indarti, Eti; Abubakar, Yusya; Arpi, Normalina
Jurnal Hasil Penelitian Industri Vol 27, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Baristand Industri Banda Aceh

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Abstract

Brown cane sugar is traditionally produced by small enterprises at DesaBlang Mancung (Ketol District, Aceh Tengah Regency), one of them is Sara Ate Enterpriserun by a group of local young men since 2010. The product is purchased by food industriesin Medan and used as ingredients. However, its price was rather low around Rp. 5000,-per kilogram due to high content solid impurities. In this work, we introduced an improveddesign of solid separation equiment to remove un-dissolved content of the brown canesugar juice. A two stage stainless steel screen was applied to filter solids from the juice.The screen also separated entrained bagasse. The filtrate was then flowed to a settler thatallows further separation of solids such as sand or clay. To minimize possibility ofimpurities entrainment during cooking process, the furnace was also modified by usingconcrete construction. As the result, much better brown cane sugar was produced withmuch lower solid impurities (2.2% w/w) and brighter appearance, thus complying grade IISNI 01-6237-2000 .
APPEARANCE, TEXTURE AND FLAVOUR IMPROVEMENT OF CHOCOLATE BAR BY VIRGIN COCOCNUT OIL (VCO) AS COCOA BUTTER SUBSTITUTE (CBS) Indarti, Eti; Arpi, Normalina; Widayat, Heru P.; Anhar, Ashabul
Proceedings of The Annual International Conference, Syiah Kuala University - Life Sciences & Engineering Chapter Vol 3, No 1 (2013): Life Sciences
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

The purposes of using CBS in this research is to improve the physical properties and quality of appereance and structure stability of chocolate bar. Based on chemical composition, CBS and Cocoa butter have different profile, but they have similar physical properties due to high lauric acid content. The advantage of lauric acid is to affect shinny appreance of chocolate surface, and also soapy taste that closely related to rancidity reduction. Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) is one of lauric fat that easily found in Aceh. In this research, chocolate bar is formulated comprising various concentration of CBS (0,1,2,3,4,5%) with respect to cocoa butter, and cocoa mass composition (200 g and 300 g). It was found that melting point was affected by CBS concentration. The higher CBS concentration, the lower melting point of chocolate bar. An increase in VCO concentration reduced significantly the melting point of chocolate bar. Melting point was comparable to other chocolate bar commercial (29-32oC). The unblooming, snap, best texture and better taste was observed for the chocolate bar containing 4-5% of VCO concentration and 27,5% of cocoa mass
KOMBINASI ANTIOKSIDAN ALAMI α-TOKOFEROL DENGAN ASAM ASKORBAT DAN ANTIOKSIDAN SINTETIS BHA DENGAN BHT DALAM MENGHAMBAT KETENGIKAN KELAPA GONGSENG GILING (U NEULHEU) SELAMA PENYIMPANAN Arpi, Normalina
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia Vol 6, No 2 (2014): Vol.(6) No.2, June 2014
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (888.501 KB) | DOI: 10.17969/jtipi.v6i2.2064

Abstract

Roasted coconut paste (Acehnese: u neulheu) containing high fat (± 70 %) which can cause rancidity. The purpose of this research is to determine the appropriate antioxidant, and the combination of antioxidants to inhibit rancidity of roasted coconut paste during storage. The experiment was conducted using a randomized block design (RBD) with 3 factors. Factor A is a combination of antioxidants, there are two levels ie ?-tocopherol : ascorbic acid (A1), and BHA : BHT (A2). Factor K is the concentration of antioxidants, there are 3 levels ie 0.02 % : 0 % (K1), 0.01 % : 0.01 % (K2), and 0 % : 0.02 % (K3). Factor P is the storage time, there are two levels ie 0 months (P1) and 2 months (P2). The results showed that the antioxidant ?-tocopherol, BHA, and BHT, singly or not combined, function equivalently to inhibit the increase of free fatty acids and peroxide number. All three of these antioxidants function better than ascorbic acid. Synergism effect was seen in ascorbic acid in combination with ?-tocopherol, but not in BHA with BHT. After stored for 2 months, there were an increase (P?0,01) in water content, acid number, and peroxide number of roasted coconut paste. Natural antioxidant ?-tocopherol (0.02 %), the combination of ?-tocopherol with ascorbic acid (0.01 % : 0.01 %), and the synthetic antioxidants BHA with BHT (single or in combination ) can inhibit fat oxidation and rancidity of roasted coconut paste up to 2 months of storage.
PEMBUATAN MINYAK KEMENYAN (MINYAK OBAT TRADISIONAL KHAS ACEH) DENGAN VARIASI JENIS BAHAN BAKU MINYAK DAN KONSENTRASI BAHAN PEWANGI Arpi, Normalina
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (2013): Vol.(5) No.1, February 2013
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (787.864 KB) | DOI: 10.17969/jtipi.v5i1.998

Abstract

?Minyak kemenyan? is one of Aceh?s unique products made from ?pliek u? oil that is coconut oil produced traditionally from fermented coconut. Process in making minyak kemenyan is still traditional using main raw material pliek u oil, benzoe, and pleasant smell herbal which resulted in specific scent of minyak kemenyan. The oil is believed by Acehnese can cure some diseases and often use as a medicinal oil.The aim of this research is to study effects of using variety of vegetable oils (pliek u oil, hot extracted copra oil, and palm oil), and scented herbal concentration on the quality of minyak kemenyan. A randomized block design arranged factorially with three replicates was used. Product analysis were acid value, peroxide value, ester value, and sensory evaluation on smell and color of minyak kemenyan.Traditional purifying process of pliek u oil, and copra oil decreased the acid, peroxide, and iodine values of the oils. Whereas scented herbal concentration caused no significant effect on any quality values of minyak kemenyan. Processing the vegetable oils into minyak kemenyan caused slightly increased in the acid and iodine values, but significantly decreased the peroxide value of that made from pliek u oil. The best treatment was minyak kemenyan produced using pliek u oil with acid value of 6.20 mg KOH/g, peroxide value of 18,20 mgO2/100g sampel, iodine value of 4.53 Iod/100 g, ester value of 173.96 mg NaOH/g, smell and color prefered by panelist with scores of 3.0 (=ordinary) and 3.6 (=like), respectively.Keywords: traditional product, ?minyak kemenyan?, ?pliek u oil?, benzoe, scented herbal
PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH KULIT BUAH KOPI ARABIKA (COFFEA ARABIKA L.) MENJADI MINUMAN SARI PULP KOPI DENGAN PENAMBAHAN SARI JERUK NIPIS (CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA) DAN LEMON (CITRUS LIMON) Arpi, Normalina; Rasdiansyah, Rasdiansyah; Widayat, Heru Prono; Foenna, Ramadhana Fajri
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia Vol 10, No 2 (2018): Vol. (10) No. 2, Oktober 2018
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1158.505 KB) | DOI: 10.17969/jtipi.v10i2.12593

Abstract

Limbah pulp merah kopi (Coffea sp.) mengandung kafein, senyawa fenolik dan antioksidan alami seperti antosianin, betakaroten, polifenol, dan vitamin C. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh jenis jeruk, konsentrasi jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia) dan lemon (Citrus limon) serta penambahan gula terhadap mutu minuman sari pulp kopi arabika (Coffea arabika L.). Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Faktor 1 jenis jeruk yaitu (J) yaitu J1 = jeruk nipis dan J2 = lemon. Faktor 2, konsentrasi sari jeruk (S) yaitu S1 = 20%, S2 = 30% dan S3 = 40%, serta faktor 3, konsentrasi gula (K) yaitu K1 = 20% dan K2 = 30% dari berat sari pulp kopi. Proses pengolahan dan pemanasan sari pulp kopi dengan penambahan jeruk nipis atau lemon menjadi minuman sari pulp kopi menyebabkan penurunan kandungan vitamin C dan pH. Perlakuan terbaik dalam pembuatan minuman sari pulp kopi yaitu menggunakan jeruk nipis dengan konsentrasi 20% dan gula 30% yang menghasilkan minuman sari pulp kopi dengan nilai sensori hedonik yang lebih baik, dan aktivitas antioksidan (DPPH) 74,9 %, vitamin C 17,6 mg/100g, gula reduksi 19,4 mg/ml, pH 3,40.