Ketut Artawa
Program S2 Linguistik Program Pascasarjana Universitas Udayana

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MIDDLE DIATHESIS IN OLD JAVANESE LANGUAGE Ratna Erawati, Ni Ketut; Artawa, Ketut; Pastika, I Wayan; Sri Satyawati, Made
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 8. Juli 2014 No.2
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Abstract

Abstract Old Javanese Langusage (OJL) is the language of the archipelago which developed rapidly in the IX-XV centuries. The language has so many alternation verbs in the predicate of the clause structure. Therefore, the problem of the present study is interesting to explore. The term refers to the opinion proposed by Shibatani(1998) and Artawa (2003).Diathesis associated with middle in OJL was found to have three types, namely, the middle diathesis morphological, middle lexical, and middle perifrastic.
10.24843 Lexical Time Words in Balinese and Japanese Language: A Typological Approach Widya Purnawati, Ketut; Artawa, Ketut; Sri Satyawati, Made; Shiohara, Asako
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol 12 No 2 (2018): eJL-July
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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This research is a study of intralingual typology in the form of a contrastive study of temporal lexicon in Balinese and Japanese language. The main theory used in this study was the theory of canonical time periods proposed by Haspelmath (1997) and the classification of lexical time words proposed by Dixon (2010). The result of data analysis showed that both Balinese and Japanese have a rich variation in lexical items. Japanese is rich in vocabulary relating to qualitative time periods, especially the vocabulary that related to the seasons and day parts. Balinese is rich in vocabulary related to the name of calendar unit because Balinese uses not only the Christian year as the Japanese people, but also uses the Saka year which has a complex system and procedure for calculating the time
STRATEGIES APPLIED IN ENGLISH INTO INDONESIAN TRANSLATION OF PRISON SLANG WORDS IN “THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION” MOVIE SUBTITLING Pratama, Agus Darma Yoga; Artawa, Ketut; Putra Yadnya, Ida Bagus; Sri Satyawati, Made
e-Journal of Linguistics 2016: Vol. 10 No. 2 July
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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The rapid advancement of technology and the presence of Internet have a tremendous impact on translation industry. There are various types of translation domains, one among which is subtitling. This study deals with: 1) strategies applied in the English into Indonesian translation of prison slang words in “The Shawshank Redemption” movie subtitling using the theory on translation strategies proposed by Gottlieb (1992); and 2) the most frequent strategy and type of translation (literal to idiomatic translation) of the prison slang words using the theory on translation typologies proposed by Larson (1984). There are 12 prison slang words found in the movie and used as data in this study. Some of the prison slang words appear more than one time, but there are only 24 sentences and phrases containing prison slang words used as data in this study. Among the data, the most frequent translation strategies used are the ‘transfer’ strategy, followed by three occurrences of ‘condensation’ strategy and two deletions. Most of the translations are idiomatic translations. Some are literal translations yet they do not really distort the meaning intended in the prison slang words concerned. In conclusion, translating prison slang words is not an easy job. The subtitler must do adequate research to understand which meaning is intended by the author with the help of visual images, gestures and tones used by the actors in the movie.
SERIAL VERB CONSTRUCTION IN BALINESE (SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC ANALYSIS) Mas Indrawati, Ni Luh; Artawa, Ketut; Putra Yadnya, Ida Bagus; Sedeng, I Nyoman
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 6. Januari 2012 No. 1
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Abstract

Serial verb construction (SVC) is a construction where more than one verbs occur in a clause without any overt markers of  subordinator or coordinator. SVC is a common fenomenon in isolative languages which lack morphological markers for sintactic processes.  However, in the use of Balinese, which is  rich in morphological markers, SVC are common fenomena.  This research attempts to analyse the typological characteristics of SVC in Balinese, to describe the types of SVC in Balinese viewed from the structure of events which forms the SVC, to analyse the constituent merging strategies in clauses containing SVC. This research applies decriptive-qualitative approach, by combining analitic and introspective methods. The data source of this research was 50 short story texts taken from Sastra slot in “Bali Orti”, weekly newspaper of Bali Post, completed with spoken texts, obtained by applying direct observation technique. The data was descriptively and analitically analysed by using the deductive-inductive-deductive approach. The theories applied in analysing SVC in Balinese were: tipological, semantic cognitive, and sintactic theories. The result shows that typologically, SVCs in Balinese had three characteristics that is: phonetic, morphosyntactic, and semantic characteristics. Viewed from the integration of events in Balinese SVCs, it could be proved that SVCs in Balinese express a single macro-event and could be classified into two  types, they were: component SVC and narative SVC. Syntactically SVCs in Balinese were biclausal constructions, some were monoclausal, and successive clauses.
NOMINAL MARKING SYSTEM OF BAHASA MANGGARAI AND ITS INTERRELATION TO NAMING SYSTEM OF ENTITIES: A CULTURAL LINGUISTIC STUDY Erom, Kletus; Mbete, Aron Meko; Artawa, Ketut; Putra Yadnya, Ida Bagus
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 4. Januari 2010 No. 1
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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This study analyzes the cultural imagery of the Manggaraian SpeechCommunities (MSC) in “Nominal Marking System (NMS) of Bahasa Manggaraiand Its Interrelation with Naming Systems of Entity (NSE): A CulturalLinguistic Study”. The result of the analysis is useful for both the academic worldand the life of the society, especially the MSC.The study conducted in Manggarai Regency, Flores, East Nusa TenggaraProvince, is qualitative. The data were obtained through observation, elicitation,interview, documentation study, listening, and note taking. For this reason, a numberof questions were prepared in a written form. The data obtained were analyzedthrough steps of selection, listing, translation, and interpretation of the formallinguistic meaning and cultural imagery of the MSC. The result of the data analysisis informally reported and verbally described.To analyze the data, the Cultural Linguistic Theory was applied andsupported by the structural and the dynamic theories. To know the chance and toinspire the study, a number of previous studies were reviewed. To easily understand,direct, and limit the discussion of the study, a number of basic concepts weredefined.Syntactically and semantically, there are four kinds of nominal markers(NMs) of BM. NMs in the forms of personal pronouns (PP): hau ‘you SG’, hia/hi‘he/she’, meu ‘you-PLUR’, and ise ‘they’ mark proper nouns (PN) as theSubject/Agent or Object/Patient in a clause bearing the meaning of subject or objectposition of a clause and not common nouns (CN). NMs in the forms of de/ di/ disemark the noun (CN/pronoun or PN) as the possessor of the possessed noun in aclause bearing the meaning of possession. NMs in the forms of le/ li/ lise mark thenoun (CN/pronoun or PN) as the agent diathesis of an action targeted to a noun asthe patient diathesis in a clause bearing the meaning of addition or the target/localityof an action. And NMs in the forms of ge/ gi/ gise mark the noun (CN/pronoun orPN) added to another noun or become the target/locality of an action taking place ina clause bearing the meaning of addition or the target/locality of an action.Beside the four meanings above, NMS of BM also bears a number of themeanings, as stated in the following. The meaning of kinship intimacy is marked bythe PN marking the kinship names. The meanings of individual and grouprepresentations are revealed by the singular PN itself simultaneously by the plural PN. The meaning of priority to a majority group is revealed by the morpheme of theSubject Pronominal Copy fused in one of clause functions (Predicator, Object, andAdverb). The meaning of group of representation is revealed by plural markers onthe singular PN representing other PN that is physically absent from a clause.The NMS of BM has its own phonological and graphological characteristics.Phonology deals with the pronunciation and graphology with the writing of the NMand the noun marked in a clause.The four NMs are grouped into two on the basis of the noun marked, i.e.Common Nominal Markers (CNM), covering de, le, and ge and Proper NominalMarkers (PNM), covering NM in the forms of PP, PNM of possessive di/ dise, PNMof agent diathesis li/ lise, and PNM of combined/targeted gi/ gise. The four PNMsare also grouped into two based on the number of the proper noun (PN) marked, i.ethe singular PNM: hau, hia/ hi, di, li, gi, and the plural PNM: meu, ise, dise, lise,gise.Other linguistic facts in BM seem to appear, such as the common syntacticpattern of BM: Predicator (V) – Object/Patient (N) – Subject/Agent (N), SubjectPronominal Copy, Possessive Pronominal Copy, and nominal repetitions meaningplural in BM are not found.The NSE is given to entities humans, domestic animals: dogs and horses,static objects made by human: cleave and whip, and objects of natural environment:rocks, trees, water sources, and wild animals. The MSC has four kinds of names, i.e.Manggaraian Names (MN), Catholic/Christian Names, Kinship Term Names, andPseudonyms. The interrelation between the NMS and the NSE bears a number ofcultural imageries: differentiation, animacy, honorific, solidarity, identity, prestige,democracy, and work. Initial consonant, especially in proper names, is consideredimpolite, cruel, strong, energetic, while initial vowels polite or gentle.The NMS of BM has undergone significant changed. The change has onlyoccurred on the lexicons, such as changing from BM to BI, even English. The NSEof the MSC has changed significantly. The MN has changed its phonologicalcharacteristics, the number of unit names, the tendency of the children’s namesfollowing their fathers’ names, the decrease in assonance practice in proper namesand some pseudonyms, naming of dogs is not only based on the colour of their fur,the declination of the practice of naming a cleave and a whip, and the PN of theobjects of the natural environment.
10.24843 Construction of The Verb Sequence Menjuruh in The Classic Malay Language Madia, I Made; Artawa, Ketut; Pastika, I Wayan; Darma Laksana, I Ketut
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol 12 No 2 (2018): eJL-July
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Abstract

The construction of verbs sequence ‘konstruksi verba beruntun’, which is hereinafter abbreviated to KVB, in this article is defined as a construction without the existence of any linking word and pausing mark (comma). Based on the theory of typology, as far as the complex predicate is concerned, the only KVB menjuruh+Vitr (intransitive verb) whose grammatical object functioning as the nucleus argument located after V2 (the second verb) and KVB menjuruh+Vtr (transitive verb) which is not marked by the morphological prefix meng- are identified as having the complex predicate construction ‘kontruksi predikat kompleks’ which is hereinafter abbreviated to KPK. Based on the theory of transformational grammar, the KVB menjuruh, except that identified as KPK, is identified as having the complex clausal construction ‘konstruksi klausa kompleks’, which is hereinafter abbreviated to KKK.
English-Indonesian Translation Of Existential Sentences Found In The Intelligent Investor Suastini, Ni Wayan; Artawa, Ketut; Putra Yadnya, Ida Bagus; Darma Laksana, I Ketut
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol 13 No 1 (2019): e-jl-January
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Abstract

This study investigated English-Indonesian translation of existential sentence. It aimed at (1) Identifying the way of translating English existential sentences into Indonesian and (2) Investigating kinds of translation shift found in the translation of English existential sentences into Indonesian. Existential sentence is a non-canonical sentence used to express the existence of something or someone marked by dummy subject there and copula be. Here, the English existential sentences were translated into the inversion structure in Indonesian with V-NP word order. The structure preserved the existential content by placing Indonesian existential verbs in the initial position of the sentences, there were two most frequently used verbs, those are ada and terdapat. Both verbs can be substituted to present the same ideas. Since English and Indonesian have different language structure, translation shift in term of structure shift was found in translating existential sentences from English into Indonesian.
Transitivity Of English Verbs In Reader’s Digest Magazine Gandariani, Dewa Ayu Made; Udayana, I Nyoman; Artawa, Ketut
Humanis Vol 17 No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Udayana University

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Penelitian yang berjudul Transitivity of English Verbs in Reader’s Digest Magazine dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengidentifikasi jenis kata kerja dan menganalisa indeks transitivity dari kata kerja dalam bahasa Inggris yang ditemukan dimajalah Reader’s Digest. Teori yang digunakan untuk menganalisa data adalah teori yang dikemukakan oleh Givon (1984) dalam bukunya yang berjudul Syntax: A Functional-Typological Introduction dan Hopper dan Thomson (1980) dalam bukunya yang berjudul Transitivity in Grammar and Discourse. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa ada lima jenis kata kerja dalam bahasa Inggris, yaitu state, action, process, middle dan passive. State, action, dan process termasuk dalam kata kerja aktif, sedangkan midlle dan passive termasuk dalam kata kerja tidak aktif. Kemudian, indeks transitivity dari kata kerja berbeda-beda tergantung kepada jenis kata kerja tersebut.
STRUKTUR DAN PERAN NOMINA INTI KLAUSA RELATIF BAHASA INGGRIS Putri Utami, Ni Putu Cahyani; Artawa, Ketut; Mas Indrawati, Ni Luh Ketut
JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION STUDIES Vol 2 No 1 (2016) Maret 2016
Publisher : S2 Ilmu Linguistik Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas Udayana

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ABSTRAKKlausa relatif bahasa Inggris (KRBI) secara umum memiliki struktur klausa yang kompleks. Bahasa Inggris merupakan bahasa yang memiliki struktur klausa relatif dan pronomina relatif yang beragam. Penelitian ini bertujuan meneliti KRBI secara mendalam, yaitu struktur dan jenis KRBI, peran nomina inti, dan relasi gramatikal yang diperoleh nomina inti. Metode yang digunakan di dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kualitatif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan metode simak yang didukung oleh teknik catat dan metode agih digunakan di dalam menganalisis data yang didukung dengan teknik bagi unsur langsung serta metode distribusional. Di dalam menyajikan data, penelitian ini menggunakan metode informal.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan pada strukturnya, KRBI dapat dibagi ke dalam dua jenis, yaitu struktur KRBI tipe formal dan struktur KRBI tipe relasional. Secara tipologi, KRBI dapat dibagi ke dalam dua jenis, yaitu klausa relatif restriktif dan klausa relatif non-restriktif. Berdasarkan posisi nomina inti, KRBI termasuk ke dalam tipe postnominal, yaitu klausa relatif yang terletak setelah nomina inti. Adapun relasi gramatikal yang diperoleh nomina inti dari klausa relatif dalam bahasa Inggris: (1) SUBJ klausa utama sekaligus SUBJ klausa relatif, (2) OBJ klausa utama sekaliagus SUBJ pada klausa relatif, dan (3) OBL pada klausa utama sekaligus SUBJ pada klausa relatif. ABSTRACTThis study is aimed to examine the structure and the type of relative clause in English, the role of the noun head and grammatical relations derived noun of the relative clause in English. Lexical Functional Grammar Theory or LFG and the theory of typology are applied in this study. Qualitative method is commonly used in this study. Observation method is used to collect the data, while the distributional method is conducted to analyze the data. The result of the data is presented with informal method.The results showed that based on the structure, relative clause in English can be devided into two types, they are formal and relational type. In typology, relative clause in English can be devided into restrictive and non-restrictive relative clause. English relative clause is a post-nominal type based on the position of the head noun, because the relative clause is located after the noun and it can fill two function in the main clause and in the relative clause. The grammatical relations derived noun of the relative clause in English are: (1) SUBJ in main clause as well as in relative clause, (2) OBJ in the main clause as well as in the relative clause, and (3) OBL in the main clause and SUBJ in relative clause.
PEMBELAJARAN TATA BAHASA DALAM SIMPLE PAST TENSE MELALUI TEKNIK BERMAIN PERAN PADA SISWA KELAS X AKOMODASI PERHOTELAN 4 DI SMK NEGERI 4 DENPASAR TAHUN AJARAN 2015/2016 Boru Simorangkir, Sherly Lusiana; Artawa, Ketut; Pastika, I Wayan
JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION STUDIES Vol 1 No 2 (2015) September 2015
Publisher : S2 Ilmu Linguistik Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas Udayana

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ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui seberapa besar penggunaan teknik bermain peran dalam meningkatkan pemahaman tata bahasa Inggris siswa khususnya pada penggunaan simple past tense pada kelas X Akomodasi Perhotelan 4 di SMK Negeri 4 Denpasar. Landasan teori dalam penelitian ini yaitu teori tentang tata bahasa, khususnya simple past tense oleh Quirk et al (1985) dan teori tentang pengajaran tata bahasa oleh Williams (2005)Sebelum dilaksanakan pembelajaran, tes awal diberikan untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal siswa sehingga peneliti mengetahui peningkatan yang dialami siswa setelah diberikan pembelajaran. Hasil data kualititatif menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan teknik bermain peran dapat membantu siswa dalam meningkatkan pemahaman mereka mengenai tata bahasa dalam simple past tense sehingga mereka mampu menyusun kalimat dan dialog dengan menggunakan simple past tense secara benar. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari kalimat simple past tense yang disusun oleh siswa pada saat diberikan tes dan terjadi peningkatan selama teknik bermain peran diterapkan.ABSTRACTThis research aimed at finding out how far the use of role play technique could help the students? of SMK Negeri 4 Denpasar on grade X Hospitality Accommodation to improve their understanding of English grammar especially in using simple past tense. The theories which are used in this research are the theory of English grammar especially simple past tense by Quirk et al (1985) and theory of teaching grammar by Williams (2005).Before the treatment was carried, pre-test was conducted in order to know the students? basic ability, so that the researcher knew the progress of the students after the treatment was given. The result of qualititative data showed that the use of role play technique could help the students improve their understanding of English grammar especially in using simple past tense, the students could arrange their own sentences and dialogs using simple past tense correctly. It can be seen from the sentences that were arranged by the students when the tests were given and the students? achievement tests which increased continuously during the application of role play technique.Key words : Grammar, simple past tense, role play technique