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ZEOLITE AND CHARCOAL AS POTENTIAL ADSORBENTS IN TUBS OF OXYDATION DITCH I AND OXYDATION DITCH II AT WATER TREATMENT AND COMPOSTING PLANT (WTCP) PT. DJARUM KUDUS Kharismawati, Rissa; Prasetyo, Redi Joko; Astuti, Yayuk
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 2 (2018): Volume 21 Issue 2 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (498.011 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.21.2.75-79

Abstract

This study aims to determine the mass of zeolite and charcoal required as lime nutrient adsorbent (Ca(OH)2) in reducing pH, TSS, COD, and SV values in tubs of oxidation of ditches I and II in Water Treatment and Composting Plant (WTCP) PT. Djarum Kudus with the principle of adsorption. The methods used were jar test and spectrophotometry. The adsorbents used were chalk (Ca(OH)2), zeolite, and charcoal added to the tub samples of oxydation ditch I and oxidation ditch II by variation of mass for every adsorbent, that were 2 gram, 4 gram and 6 gram. The results showed that zeolite and charcoal were more effective than charchoal in lowering pH, COD, TSS and SV values in tubs of oxidation ditches I and II on the addition of 6 gram in 500 ml of sample.
SINTESIS ZEOLIT DARI ABU SEKAM PADI MENGGUNAKAN METODE HIDROTEMAL :VARIASI WAKTU DAN TEMPERATUR Arnelli, Arnelli; Solichah, Fitriani; Alfiansyah, Alfiansyah; Suseno, Ahmad; Astuti, Yayuk
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 20, No 2 (2017): Volume 20 Issue 2 Year 2017
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (566.834 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.20.2.58-61

Abstract

Telah disintesis zeolit dari abu sekam padi dengan memvariasikan waktu dan temperatur hidrotermal. Hasil yang diperoleh merupakan zeolit Na-A yang mempunyai nilai KTK 53,23 meq/100 gram pada variasi waktu hidrotermal 7 jam dan pada temperatur 100 oC diperoleh zeolit Na-A dengan nilai KTK 132,8 mek/100 gram
SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITE FROM SUGAR CANE AS DETERGENT BUILDER: VARIATION OF SI/AL RATIO AND HYDROTHERMAL TIMESYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITE FROM SUGAR CANE AS DETERGENT BUILDER: VARIATION OF SI/AL RATIO AND HYDROTHERMAL TIME Arnelli, Arnelli; Afifah, Noor; Rizki, Narita; Windarti, Tri; Astuti, Yayuk
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 1 (2018): Volume 21 Issue 1 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (661.492 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.21.1.24-28

Abstract

Synthesis of zeolite from bagasse with variation of Si / Al ratio (1,2,1,4,1,6 and 1,8) with ZS1-ZS5 code and hydrothermal time (160, 190, 250, 340, and 460 minutes) with sample code ZSa - ZSe has been conducted. The synthesized zeolite was then applied to the detergent builder. The detergent builder of synthetic zeolite was used as a substitute for sodium tripolyphosphate, which is not environmentally friendly as it can lead to eutrophication. One of the detergent builder functions is to improve the washing efficiency of the surfactant by inactivating water-absorbing minerals (Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions) which may further deter the detergency process. Zeolites were synthesized using a sol-gel method followed by a hydrothermal process. The material used in this synthesis is Na2SiO3 (aq) (derived from bagasse) mixed with NaAl(OH)4 (aq), then stirred to form a white gel and continued by heating using autoclave at 100°C. The results obtained are zeolite-A and zeolt-X for variation of Si/Al ratio and hydrothermal time variation, with CEC value and detergency proportional to Si/Al ratio and hydrothermal time.
PENGARUH VARIASI WAKTU HIDROTERMAL TERHADAP SINTESIS DAN KARAKTERISASI NANOKRISTAL ZEOLIT A DARI ABU SEKAM PADI Hanipa, Pungki; Pardoyo, Pardoyo; Taslimah, Taslimah; Arnelli, Arnelli; Astuti, Yayuk
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 20, No 2 (2017): Volume 20 Issue 2 Year 2017
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (527.548 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.20.2.79-83

Abstract

Sekam padi merupakan salah satu produk samping dari penggilingan padi. Silika amorf hasil ektraksi dari sekam padi dapat di manfaatkan untuk pembuatan zeolit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh nanokristal zeolit A dari abu sekam padi dan menentukan karakter dari produk nanokristal zeolit A hasil sintesis. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah diperoleh zeolit berupa serbuk putih menggunakan metode hidrotermal dengan variasi waktu hidrotermal selama 1, 2, dan 3 hari. Analisis menggunakan XRD menunjukkan bahwa ketiga zeolit hasil sintesis merupakan zeolit A dengan ukuran bulir kristal semakin menurun dengan bertambahnya waktu hidrotermal di mana masing- masing ukurannya adalah 34,321; 34,21; dan 34,144nm dan puncak utama berada pada 2theta 21°, 23°, 27°, 29° dan 34°. Analisis morfologi permukaan zeolit sintesis menunjukkan ketiga zeolit sintesis memiliki morfologi permukaan berupa kubus.
ADSORPTION OF HDTMA-BR SURFACTANT WITH CONCENTRATION VARIATION BY RICE HUSK-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCED BY VARIATION OF CARBONIZATION TEMPERATURE Pargiman, Galih N. R.; Arnelli, Arnelli; Astuti, Yayuk
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1879.925 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.21.4.171-174

Abstract

Research has been conducted on the adsorption of HDTMA-Br surfactant by rice husk-activated carbon with variation of carbonization temperature and concentration of HDTMA-Br. This study aims to produce surfactant modified activated carbon (SMAC), therefore it is necessary to determine the influence of carbonization temperature to the adsorption capability of activated carbon on HDTMA-Br surfactant by identifying the amount of HDTMA-Br surfactant absorbed, to characterize the characters of carbon, activated carbon and activated carbon adsorbing surfactant using FTIR and SAA. Carbonization was carried out by pyrolysis with temperature variations of 300, 350 and 400°C. The carbon produced was activated using 60% H3PO4 for 1 hour. After that, the activated carbon was applied to adsorb HDTMA-Br surfactant by varying the concentration that were 300, 1100, 1900, 2700, 3500 and 4300 ppm. The results showed that HDTMA-Br adsorbed tended to increase by increasing the concentration of surfactant. In addition, the best carbonization temperature showing high adsorption capability of activated carbon was at 300°C. FTIR spectra of activated carbon showed the presence of P = O peak; at the SMAC sampel there was peak of N-(CH3)3 with different intensities in three samples. Moreover, SAA analysis showed that the surface area of activated carbon increased compared to carbon and slightly decreased after the activated carbon absorbed HDTMA-Br.
PENGARUH RASIO LIBOB:TIO2 DARI LEMBARAN POLIMER ELEKTROLIT SEBAGAI PEMISAH TERHADAP KINERJA ELEKTROKIMIA BATERAI LITHIUM-ION BERBASIS LTO Saputry, Agriccia Pangestica; Lestariningsih, Titik; Astuti, Yayuk
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 22, No 4 (2019): Volume 22 Issue 4 Year 2019
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2650.985 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.22.4.136-142

Abstract

Baterai litium ion berbasis anoda Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) dengan lembaran polimer elektrolit sintesis (buatan) PVdF-HFP, TiO2, dan LiBOB serta lembaran komersial dan dengan larutan elektrolit LiTFSI dan LiPF6 telah dibuat dengan metode assembling. Variabel berubah dalam penelitian ini adalah rasio antara TiO2 dan LiBOB serta jenis elektrolit yang digunakan yaitu LiTFSI dan LiPF6.Beberapa karakterisasi dilakukan untuk menentukan kinerja baterai di antaranya penentuan tegangan baterai, pengujian Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) untuk mengukur kinerja sel baterai, dan pengujian Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry (EIS)untuk mengukur nilai konduktifitas baterai. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adanya kandungan LiBOB dan TiO2 pada separator dalam baterai dapat meningkatkan kinerja baterai litium ion berbasis LTO. Lembaran separator buatan dengan rasio komposisi TiO2:LiBOB sebesar 5:25 dengan larutan elektrolit LiPF6 yang menghasilkan tegangan kerja, beda potensial, dan konduktivitas ionik berturut-turut sebesar 3,06 V; 0,3 V; dan 1,486x10-6 Scm-1 adalah yang dimungkinkan paling baik untuk diaplikasikan pada baterai litium ion.
UTILIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OYSTER SHELL AS CHITOSAN AND NANOCHITOSAN Handayani, Lia; Syahputra, Faisal; Astuti, Yayuk
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3559.574 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.21.4.224-231

Abstract

Oyster is one of bivalve groups widely consumed by human, thus, it results in producing huge waste shells affecting the environment. One way to increase the value of oyster shells is to process them into chitosan. This study aims to isolate chitin then synthesize it into chitosan and convert chitosan into nano-sized chitosan and analyze the characteristics. The steps to produce chitosan from waste shells included demineralization using HCl 1 N and deproteinization using NaOH 3%. The next step was to convert chitin into chitosan through a deacetylation process using NaOH 50%. After chitosan was formed, it was continued to convert chitosan into nano chitosan particles using ion gelation method with the addition of surfactant (tween 80) and crosslinker (TPP 0.1% and 0.5%). The results showed that yield of transformation chitin into chitosan was 61.1%. Meanwhile, the yield calculated from initial weight of raw material was 18.33% with deacetylation degree value equal to 89.14%. Based on morphological analysis using SEM, the size of chitosan particles was not distributed homogeneously that was in the range of 892 nm-1.54 ?m, while the nano chitosan particle size obtained was uniformly formed in the range of 679 nm-910 nm.
SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITE FROM BAGASSE AND RICE HUSK ASHES AS SURFACTANT BUILDER ON DETERGENCY PROCESS: VARIATION OF NAOH CONCENTRATION FOR SILICA ISOLATION Arnelli, Arnelli; Fathoni, Bara Yunianto; Prastyo, Teguh Iman; Suseno, Ahmad; Astuti, Yayuk
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 3 (2018): Volume 21 Issue 3 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2262.77 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.21.3.139-143

Abstract

Zeolite was successfully synthesised from ash bagasse and from rice husk ash as source of silica and applied to surfactant builder. The removal of silica from bagasse ash and from rice husk ash was influenced by NaOH concentration to obtain sodium silicate. This research aimed to synthesize zeolite, determine the optimum concentration of NaOH to synthetic zeolite, identify the zeolite mineral type, morphology, determine cation exchange rate and detergency by using synthesized zeolite as builder. Synthesis of zeolite was undertaken by sol-gel method followed by hydrothermal process. The stages of this study included the production of bagasse and rice husk ashes, isolation of silicate using a variation of NaOH concentration of 1.67, 3.33, 5.00, 6.67 and 8.30 M in the form of sodium silicate. Synthesis of zeolite was carried out by reacting sodium silicate and sodium aluminate using hydrothermal method. The synthesized zeolites were characterized using XRD and SEM. The results of this research indicated the types of zeolite minerals formed, namely, zeolite A, Na-A, Na-Y and sodalite. The morphology of the synthesized zeolites from both samples was quite homogeneous, NaOH concentration used to produce zeolite from bagasse ash was 1.67 M with value of cation exchange capacity (CEC) and detergency were respectively 121.14 mek/100 gram and 92.09% while synthesis zeolite from rice husk ash was generated using 8.3 M NaOH concentration with value of cation exchange capacity (CEC) and detergency were 65,71 mek / 100 gram and 94,313%, respectively.
USE OF MICROWAVE RADIATION FOR ACTIVATING CARBON FROM RICE HUSK USING ZNCL2 ACTIVATOR Arnelli, Arnelli; Putri, Ulya Hanifah Henrika; Cholis, Fandi Nasrun; Astuti, Yayuk
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 22, No 6 (2019): Volume 22 Issue 6 Year 2019
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3324.307 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.22.6.282-291

Abstract

Activated carbon is one of the most commonly used adsorbents in a variety of separation processes because it is inexpensive, and also the design and principal of application are quite simple. The ability of activated carbon as an adsorbent is related to its large surface area and pore volume, varying pore structure, and diverse surface reactivity. The use of microwave radiation can further improve the efficiency of activated carbon adsorption. Micro-waves can affect the pore texture and surface of the activated carbon, but rarely do both practitioners and researchers control these variables influencing the relationship between features and performance of biomass-based activated carbon as an adsorbent at the time of manufacture from the initial stage (carbonation) to carbon application active (e.g., adsorption of heavy metals, surfactants, and organic molecules). This study aims to synthesize activated carbon from rice husk, which has the efficiency and capacity of adsorption of heavy metals such as Pb and activator organic molecules used is ZnCl2 30% and microwave radiation. This research has succeeded in making activated carbon using the ZnCl2 activator and microwave radiation. The time and power of microwave radiation that provides the highest efficiency in the carbon activation process for Pb ion adsorbate, were 7 minutes and 800 W. For phenol adsorbate was 5 minutes at 800 W. The highest efficiency time and concentration of adsorption for Pb ion adsorbate were 40 minutes at 60 ppm while for phenol adsorbate were 5 hours at 100 ppm. The adsorption efficiency for Pb cation adsorbate was 99.57%. While for phenol adsorbate is 81.05%. Characterization with FTIR, SEM-EDX, and SAA showed a C-Cl bond, the pores were visible, and an increased surface area of activated carbon was 36.9 times the surface area of carbon and the pores formed were mesoporous.
PENGARUH KONSENTRASI CA2+ DAN (PO4)3- PADA PEMBENTUKAN HIDROKSIAPATIT DI DALAM MATRIKS SELULOSA BAKTERIAL Windarti, Tri; Astuti, Yayuk
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 9, No 3 (2006): Volume 9 Issue 3 Year 2006
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (286.55 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.9.3.60-64

Abstract

Pembentukan hidroksiapatit Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 dalam matriks selulosa bakterial dilakukan dengan cara merendam selulosa bakterial dalam larutan CaCl2 selama 18 jam, dilanjutkan dengan merendam dalam larutan KH2PO4 selama 18 jam pada pH 9. Perendaman tersebut dilakukan dengan berbagai variasi konsentrasi Ca2+ dan PO42-. Kadar kalsium yang terdeposit dalam selulosa bakterial dianalisis dengan AAS. Kadar fosfat dianalisis dengan Stannous Chloride methode dan untuk mengetahui apakah kalsium fosfat yang terdeposit membentuk struktur hidroksiapatit, dilakukan analisis dengan difraksi sinar X. Difraktogram sinar X menunjukkan telah terbentuk struktur hidroksiapatit dalam matriks selulosa bakterial dan rasio ideal C/P hidroksiapatit sebesar 1,676 terjadi pada perbandingan Ca2+: PO43- = 125 : 25.