Articles

Penggunaan Asap Cair Tempurung Kelapa untuk Menurunkan Kadar Timbal (Pb) pada Biji Kedelai (Glycine max) Hartati, Sri; Darmadji, Purnama; Pranoto, Yudi
Agritech Vol 35, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (702.753 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9345

Abstract

Liquid smoke of coconut shell has functional properties as bioflavor, preservative, and chelating agent, because it contains the active compounds of phenol, carbonyl, and acid. But the use of liquid smoke as chelating agent had not been developed. A study on chelation of heavy metal Pb by coconut shell liquid smoke on soybean seeds has been conducted. The aimed of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of liquid smoke in the reducing heavy metals Pb in soybean seeds, evaluate the change in the components of the liquid smoke was used for chelation heavy metals Pb, and evaluate the influence of the phenol, carbonyl, and acid components in the chelation heavy metals Pb in soybean seeds. Liquid smoke of coconut shell pyrolysis has a specific gravity of 1.01 g/ml, pH 1.81, phenol 1.20%, carbonyl 5.75%, and acid compounds 8.40%. Soybean seeds soaked in coconut shell liquid smoke with various concentration of 0% (control/aquademineralisa); 12.5%; 25%; 50%; and 100% for 2 hours. Levels of heavy metals Pb was analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The changes of liquid smoke compounds such as pH, specific gravity, phenol, carbonyl, and acid was analyzed. The influence of the components of liquid smoke to the reduction of the heavy metals Pb was also analyzed. Model experiment was made from soybean seeds that have been contaminated by Pb (NO standard solutions with a concentration of 2 ppm. The results showed the higher the concentration of liquid smoke is used for soaking the decreased levels of heavy metals Pb is also getting bigger. The liquid smoke 100% (without 3)2dilution) gives the best reducing effect that can reduce heavy metal Pb 63.41%. An increase inpH, a decrease in phenol levels, decreased levels of the carbonyl, and decreased levels of the acid inliquid smokethat used for soaking indicatesthat the component has been successfully chelated the heavy metals Pb in soybean seeds.The phenol components of liquid smoke give the highest reducing effect 50.09%, followed by acid compounds 45.67%, and carbonyl compounds 42.21%.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan penelitian tentang khelasi logam berat Pb pada biji kedelai dengan menggunakan asap cair tempurung kelapa. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk evaluasi efektivitas asap cair dalam menurunkan kadar logam berat Pb pada biji kedelai, evaluasi perubahan komponen penyusun asap cair setelah digunakan untuk khelasi logam berat Pb, dan evaluasi pengaruh dari komponen penyusun asap cair dalam menurunkan kadar logam Pb pada biji kedelai. Biji kedelai direndam dalam asap cair tempurung kelapa dengan variasi konsentrasi 0% (kontrol atau aquademineralisa); 12,5%; 25%; 50%; dan 100% selama 2 jam. Parameter yang diamati adalah penurunan kadar Pb pada biji kedelai, perubahan pH, senyawa fenol, karbonil, dan asam yang terdapat dalam asap cair setelah proses khelasi, dan pengaruh komponen senyawa fenol, karbonil, dan asam terhadap penurunan kadar logam Pb pada biji kedelai. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan tiga kali ulangan. Model percobaan dibuat dengan biji kedelai yang dicemari larutan Pb(NO3)konsentrasi 2 ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi asap cair yang digunakan untuk perendaman maka penurunan kadar logam berat Pb juga semakin besar. Asap cair dengan konsentrasi 100% (tanpa pengenceran) memberikan efek penurunan kadar logam berat Pb yang paling baik yaitu sebesar 63,41%. Adanya kenaikan pH, penurunan kadar fenol, penurunan karbonil, dan penurunan kadar asam pada asap cair yang telahdigunakan untuk perendaman menunjukkan bahwa komponen asap cair tersebut telah berhasil mengkhelat logam Pb pada biji kedelai. Komponen senyawa fenol memberikan efek penurunan kadar Pb yang paling tinggi yaitu 50,09%, diikuti oleh komponen asamsebesar 45,67%, dan komponen karbonil sebesar 42,21%.
OPTIMASI NANOENKAPSULASI ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA DENGAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY DAN KARAKTERISASI NANOKAPSUL [Optimization of Coconut Shell Liquid Smoke Nanoencapsulation using Response Surface Methodology and Nanocapsules Characterization] Ali, Dego Yusa; Darmadji, Purnama; Pranoto, Yudi
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 25 No. 1 (2014): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (648.837 KB) | DOI: 10.6066/jtip.2014.25.1.23

Abstract

OPTIMASI NANOENKAPSULASI ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA DENGAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY DAN KARAKTERISASI NANOKAPSUL [Optimization of Coconut Shell Liquid Smoke Nanoencapsulation using Response Surface Methodology and Nanocapsules Characterization]Dego Yusa Ali1), Purnama Darmadji2)* dan Yudi Pranoto2)1) Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Jambi, Jambi2) Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta Diterima 15 November 2013 / Disetujui 07 Februari 2014ABSTRACT Liquid smoke is impractical and easy to deteriorate, thus needs to be protected against deterioration. Spray drying technique is widely used to encapsule bioactive compounds. This study aims to determine the optimum encapsulant ratio and spray drying process to produce nanocapsule of liqud smoke. Nanocapsules production began with the mixing of encapsulant (chitosan and maltodextrin) and the liquid smoke and then agitated until dissolved. The solution of nanoparticles was heated in a water bath at 45°C for 5 minutes and homogenized using a homogenizer at 4000 rpm for 1 min. The nanoparticle solutions was spray dried at various temperatures and feed flow rates. Optimization is accomplished by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), and the parameters to be optimized were chitosan concentration, inlet air temperature and feed flow rate of the spray dryer based on total phenolic content. Samples were analyzed for viscosity, pH, phenols staining, total phenolic, total carbonil, total acidity content, encapsulation efficiency, morphology profiles, and particle size distribution. The results showed that the nanoparticles solution of liquid smoke had a pH ranged between 2.55-2.64 total soluble solids ranged between 14-14.8°Brix and viscosity ranged between 8.7-14.9 centipoise (cP). The total phenolic content of the nanocapsules ranged from 1.38 to 2.32% with an efficiency ranged from 22.25 to 37.44%, and water content ranged from 9.56 to 10.73% (dry basis). The optimum conditions for the highest value of total phenolic content were 0.12% chitosan concentration, 140.65°C inlet air temperature and feed flow rate at 5.29 mL/min. The results suggested that nanocapsules had spherical and wrinkle shape with an average size of nanocapsules of 29.16 nm. 
Dampak Oksidasi Protein oleh Sistim Oksidasi 2, 2’-azobis (2 amidipropane) dyhidrochloride (AAPH) dan Sistim Katalis Logam CuSO4 / H2O2 terhadap Komposisi Asam Amino Protein Daging Merah dan Putih Ikan Tongkol Putih Apituley, Daniel A.N.; Noor, Zuheid; Darmadji, Purnama; Suparmo, Suparmo
Agritech Vol 26, No 3 (2006)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1580.761 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9594

Abstract

Protein endured oxidative damage from oxygen radicals in 2,2’azobis (2 amidipropane) dyhidrochloride (AAPH) and catalysts CuSO4/H2O2 oxidation systems. Indications of oxidation could be seen in the development of carbonyl protein and other more reactive substances such as protein peroxide, denaturation of the protein, as well as damages on the amino acids constituents of the protein such as hystidine, arginine, tyrosine, metionine, cysteine and tryptophane. The research was aimed to study the effect of oxygen radicals exposure in AAPH and catalysts CuSO4/H2O2 oxidation systems on amino acid content of Thunus sp fish meat proteins. Result indicated that histamine, arginine, tyrosine, methionine, and phenylalanine amino acids in red meat undergone substantial reductions of 52.24%, 23.29%, 42.34%,22.22%, and 6.77% in AAPH system, and 12.34%, 27.59%,31.95%, 23.39%, and 13.02% in catalyst CuSO4/H2O2oxidation system, respectively. While milder reduction of those amino acids in white meat of 48.21%, 9.12%, 15.31%, 38.22%, and 22.44% in AAPH system, and 8.43%, 3.85%, 10.88%, 24.05%, and 57.25% in catalyst system, respectively.  It was obvious that red meat undergone more damages in both oxidation systems compared to the white meat counterpart.
Pengaruh Perendaman Biji Kakao Kering dan Bahan Alat Sangrai terhadap Sifat Fisik dan Profil Senyawa Volatil Kakao Sangrai serta Sifat Sensoris Cokelat Batang yang Dihasilkan Lada, Yulius Gae; Supriyanto, Supriyanto; Darmadji, Purnama
Agritech Vol 34, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (314.335 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9439

Abstract

This research aimed at evaluating the effect of dry cocoa bean soaking and roasting using various type of materials  roaster instrument on the physical properties and profile of volatile compounds of roasted beans as well as sensorial attributes of chocolate bar resulted. Dry beans were soaked into water for 2 h to reduce acidity. Roasting was carried out using several instruments that were made from aluminum, iron and clay to obtain bean moisture content of 2 – 3.5%. Texture, color, and volatile compounds profile of roasted beans as well as sensorial attributes of chocolate bar were studied. Results showed that roasting cooking period (50 minutes) using clay roasting instrument was faster and had highest rate of temperature increase, followed by iron (70 minutes) and aluminum (90 minutes). Dry beans soaking significantly affected beans color (L* and λE value), chocolate bar attributes particularly aroma, acid taste and bitterness, however the instrument material differences had no significant effect on those parameters. The texture of cocoa beans roasted using a roaster of aluminum was the hardest, but it was not affected by the soaking treatment. Roasting of the cocoa beans using a roaster of aluminum, iron and clay produced different profiles on volatile compounds. A roaster of clay produced groups of compounds with the total area of SPME-GC-MS chromatogram was smaller than the roaster of aluminum and iron. The produced chocolate bars through the soaking treatment and roasting using a roaster of clay was preferred by the panelists.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perendaman biji kakao kering dan penyangraian menggunakan berbagai jenis bahan alat sangrai terhadap sifat fisik dan profil senyawa volatil kakao sangrai serta sifat sensoris cokelat batang yang dihasilkan. Biji kakao kering direndam menggunakan air selama 2 jam untuk mengurangi keasaman, kemudian disangrai menggunakan berbagai jenis bahan alat sangrai (alumunium, besi dan tanah liat) hingga kadar air biji kakao sangrai mencapai 2 – 3,5%. Biji kakao kering diamati dan dianalisis sifat fisik dan profil senyawa volatil biji kakao sangrai serta sifat sensoris cokelat batang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan alat sangrai dari tanah liat lebih cepat dalam mematangkan biji kakao kering menjadi biji sangrai (50 menit) dengan laju peningkatan suhu yang cepat dan tinggi, selanjutnya diikuti dengan alat sangrai yang terbuat dari besi (70 menit) dan alumunium (90 menit). Perlakuan perendaman biji kakao kering berpengaruh nyata terhadap warna biji sangrai (nilai L* dan λE) dan sifat sensoris cokelat batang yang dihasilkan terutama aroma cokelat, rasa asam dan pahit, sedangkan perlakuan bahan alat sangrai tidak berpengaruh nyata. Tekstur biji kakao dari hasil penyangraian menggunakan alat sangrai dari alumunium adalah paling keras, tetapi tidak dipengaruhi oleh perlakuan perendaman. Penyangraian biji kakao menggunakan alat sangrai dari alumunium, besi dan tanah liat menghasilkan profil senyawa volatil yang berbeda. Dari kromatogram SPME-GC-MS diketahui bahwa alat sangrai dari tanah liat menghasilkan kelompok senyawa dan total luas area yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan alat sangrai dari alumunium dan besi. Cokelat batang yang dihasilkan melalui perendaman dan disangrai menggunakan alat sangrai dari tanah liat adalah yang paling disukai oleh panelis.
Distribusi Plumbum, Cadmium pada Biji Kedelai, dan Deprotonasi Gugus Fungsional Karboksil Asam Sitrat dalam Khelasi Priyadi, Sapto; Darmadji, Purnama; Santoso, Umar; Hastuti, Pudji
Agritech Vol 34, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (248.627 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9435

Abstract

A study on the distribution of plumbum, cadmium on soybeans and deprotonation of carboxyl functional groups of citric acid in the chelation process. This study was deprotonation phase of carboxyl functional groups of citric acid as chelating agent, that was review chemically activity (protons number) functional group of citric acid was caused of chelation environment pH changes. Research factors were 1) ratios of citric acid with water, consists of three levels i.e. 0,1:1; 0,2:1 and 0,3:1 second factors was chelation environment pH, consists of three levels i.e. 5; 7.5 and 10. The results showed that, the plumbum (Pb) accumulation in seed coat tissue average value 0,37 ± 0,03 ppm, whereas Pb  on cotyledon tissue average value 0,39 ± 0,07 ppm. Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in seed coat tissue average value  was 0,02 ± 0,004 ppm while the Cd on cotyledon tissue average value 0,02 ± 0,003 ppm. The highest deprotonation of functional groups citric acid as chelating agent 9,43cmol+kg was reached on chelation condition citric acid ratios with water 0,3:1 on chelation environment pH 10 (A3B3–1). The study result non significant difference with citric acid ratios with water 0,2:1 and 0,1:1 on chelation environment pH 10.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan penelitian tentang distribusi plumbum, cadmium pada biji kedelai dan deprotonasi gugus fungsional karboksil asam sitrat dalam proses khelasi. Penelitian ini merupakan tahapan deprotonasi gugus fungsional karboksil asam sitrat, yaitu tinjauan secara kimiawi keaktifan (jumlah proton) gugus fungsional asam sitrat akibat perubahan pH lingkungan khelasi. Faktor penelitian meliputi  ratio asam sitrat terhadap air yang terdiri dari tiga taraf 0,1:1, 0,2:1 dan 0,3:1 dengan pH lingkungan khelasi yang terdiri dari tiga taraf 5; 7,5 dan 10. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, akumulasi plumbum (Pb) pada jaringan kulit biji kedelai rerata 0,37 ± 0,03 ppm, sedangkan Pb pada jaringan kotiledon rerata 0,39 ± 0,07 ppm. Akumulasi cadmium (Cd) pada jaringan kulit biji kedelai rerata 0,02 ± 0,004 ppm sedangkan Cd pada jaringan kotiledon rerata 0,02 ± 0,004 ppm. Deprotonasi gugus fungsional chelating agent asam sitrat tertinggi 9,43 cmol + kg –1 dicapai pada kondisi khelasi dengan ratio asam sitrat terhadap air 0,3:1 pada lingkungan khelasi pH 10 (A). Keadaan tersebut tidak berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan ratio asam sitrat 0,2:1 dan 0,1:1 pada lingkungan khelasi pH 10.
PROFIL AROMA ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA HASIL DISTILASI FRAKSINASI BERTINGKAT PADA BERBAGAI PERLAKUAN SUHU Profile Liquid Smoke Aroma of Coconut Shell Products at Various Temperatures Using Multistages Distillation Vessel Kadir, Syahraeni; Darmadji, Purnama; Hidayat, Chusnul; ., Supriyadi
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 01 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (164.95 KB)

Abstract

Have been carried out in stages distillation liquid smoke at a temperature of  90, 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140 °C,which aims to assess the decrease in the intensity of the aroma of coconut shell liquid smoke through fractionation by distillation storey.The results were obtained a total recovery of 90.52 % with the highest at a temperature range of 100-130 °C distillation ie 88.88 %. Sensory evaluation results showed that the liquid smoke fraction II at a temperature of 120 °C obtained the highest percentage of acceptance by panelists namely 65 %. The main volatile components as a liquid smoke aroma contributors are grouped into four, namely: Group alcohols, acids and esters, carbonyl group, phenol and its derivatives as well as guaiacol and its derivatives. All of the tested liquid smoke fractions containing groups of the compounds with varying intensity.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan distilasi asap cair secara bertingkat pada suhu 90; 100; 110; 120; 130 dan 140 °C, yang bertujuanmengkaji penurunan intensitas aroma asap cair tempurung kelapa melalui distilasi fraksinasi bertingkat. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh total rendemen sebesar 90,52 % dengan hasil tertinggi pada suhu distilasi berkisar 100-130 °C yakni88,88 %. Hasil pengujian sensoris menunjukkan bahwa asap cair fraksi ll yang didistilasi pada suhu 120 °C memperoleh persentase penerimaan tertinggi oleh panelis yakni 65%. Komponen volatil utama sebagai kontributor aroma asap cair dikelompokkan ke dalam empat golongan yaitu: (1) Kelompok alkohol, asam dan ester, (2) Kelompok karbonil, (3) Fenol dan turunannya serta (4) Guaiakol dan turunannya. Seluruh fraksi asap cair yang diujikan mengandung kelompok senyawa tersebut dengan intensitas yang bervariasi.
Proses Pemurnian Asap Cair dan Simulasi Akumulasi Kadar Benzopyrene pada Proses Perendaman Ikan Darmadji, Purnama; Triyudiana, Huda
Jurnal Agritech Vol 26, No 02 (2006)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

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Khelasi Plumbum (Pb) dan Cadmium (Cd) Menggunakan Asam Sitrat Pada Biji Kedela Priyadi, Sapto; Darmadji, Purnama; Santoso, Umar; Hastuti, Pudji
Agritech Vol 33, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (493.818 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9536

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A study on the chelation of plumbum and cadmium by citric acid in soybean seeds, it was aimed to identify the effect of chelation treatment (chelating ratio, time contact and seeds condition) on plumbum reduction and cadmium in soybean seeds. A factors of research covering 1st) chelating ratio (citric acid/”C”) consisting of three (1, 2 and 3 grams of citric acid); 2nd) the time contact (“D”) consisting of three (90, 120 and 180 minutes) and the 3rd factors is condition of the seeds (“E”) consisting of three standard (whole qualify e.i. passing sieve of 0.3 inch and restrained at 0.2 inch), ruptured e.i. restrained for sieve at 10 mesh, and flour qualify for pass for sieves 50 mesh. The result showed that the combination of three factors were able to reduce Cd maximaly (non detected/detect limit 0.01 ppm). Reduction Pb maximaly (non detected /detect limit 0.09 ppm) occured in treatment C1D1E1, C1D1E2, C1D2E1, C1D2E2, C1D2E2, C2D1E1, C2D1E2, C2D2E1, C2D3E1, C2D3E2, C3D1E1 and C3D2E1. A combination of citric acid chelation (C) with the time contact (D) showing significant difference and both showed interactions, the reduction of the highest was C1D1 treatment. A combination of citric acid chelation (C) with the condition of the nut (E) showed significant difference and both no interaction, the reduction of the highest was C2E1 treatment. The combination between the time of contact (D) with the condition of the seed (E) showed significant difference and both no interaction, the reduction of the highest were D1E1 and D2E1 treatments.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan penelitian tentang khelasi plumbum (pb) dan cadmium (cd) menggunakan asam sitrat pada biji kedelai, dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh faktor perlakuan khelasi (ratio pengkhelat, waktu kontak dan kondisi biji) dalam mereduksi Pb dan Cd pada biji kedelai. Faktor penelitian meliputi 1) rasio pengkhelat (asam sitrat/C) yang terdiri dari tiga taraf (1, 2 dan 3 gram asam sitrat); 2) waktu kontak (D) yang terdiri dari tiga taraf (90, 120 dan 180 menit) serta faktor ke-3) kondisi biji (E) yang terdiri dari tiga taraf (utuh yaitu lolos pada saringan 0.3 inch dan tertahan pada 0.2 inch, pecah yaitu tertahan pada saringan 10 mesh dan tepung yaitu lolos pada saringan 50 mesh. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi ketiga faktor, mampu mereduksi Cd secara maksimal (tidak terdeteksi/batas deteksi 0,01 ppm). Reduksi Pb tertinggi adalah maksimal (tidak terdeteksi/batas deteksi 0,09 ppm) terjadi pada perlakuan C1D1E1, C1D1E2, C1D2E1 dan C1D2E2; C2D1E1, C2D1E2, C2D2E1, C2D3E1 dan C2D3E2; C3D1E1 dan C3D2E1. Kombinasi antara pengkhelat ”asam sitrat” (C) dengan waktu kontak (D) menunjukkan berbeda nyata dan keduanya menunjukkan interaksi, reduksi tertinggi dicapai perlakuan C1D1. Kombinasi antara pengkhelat ”asam sitrat” (C) dengan kondisi biji (E) menunjukkan berbeda nyata dan keduanya tidak ada interaksi, reduksi tertinggi dicapai perlakuan C2E1. Kombinasi antara waktu kontak (D) dengan kondisi biji (E) menunjukkan berbeda nyata dan tidak ada interaksi, reduksi tertinggi dicapai perlakuan D1E1 dan D2E1.
Mikroenkapsulasi Oleoresin Ampas Jahe (Zingiber officinale var.Rubrum) dengan Penyalut Maltodekstrin Nurlaili, Fatchul Anam; Darmadji, Purnama; Pranoto, Yudi
Agritech Vol 34, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (658.138 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9518

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Ginger essential oil distillation produces pulp which still contains oleoresin. In this study, the extraction of pulp ginger oleoresin was done for further exploitation. Microencapsulation was done to ease product handling and packaging. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the microcapsules of pulp ginger oleoresin. Pulp ginger oleoresin was extracted using ethanol 96% as solvent with three variations of ratio (w/v)of 1:4, 1:5, and 1:6. Microencapsulation was performed with spray drying technique using maltodextrin coating. In this study, there were three ratio of oleoresin : maltodextrin (1:50, 1:25, and 1:16,7). The results showed that the highest microencapsulation efficiency of pulp ginger oleoresin was attained by the ratio of 1:16,7. This microcapsule had a water content of 6.37% (db), water activity 0.20, bulk density 0.46 g/ml, solubility 622.33 seconds, total oil 42.62 x10-2 g/g microcapsules, surface oil 18.12 x10-2 g/g microcapsules, microencapsulation efficiency 22.13%, and the estimated size between 1.05 to 12.90 μm. The chemical profile of pulp ginger oleoresin after the drying process was changed in this experiment.ABSTRAKDistilasi minyak atsiri jahe menghasilkan ampas yang masih mengandung oleoresin. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan ekstraksi oleoresin ampas jahe agar bisa dimanfaatkan lebih lanjut. Mikroenkapsulasi dilakukan untuk mempermudah penanganan dan pengemasan produk. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik mikrokapsul oleoresin ampas jahe. Ekstraksi oleoresin ampas jahe menggunakan pelarut etanol 96% dengan tiga variasi rasio (b/v), yaitu1:4, 1:5, dan 1:6. Mikroenkapsulasi dilakukan dengan teknik spray drying menggunakan penyalut maltodekstrin. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan tiga variasi rasio oleoresin:maltodekstrin (1:50, 1:25, dan 1:16,7). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi mikroenkapsulasi oleoresin ampas jahe tertinggi ada pada rasio 1:16,7. Mikrokapsul ini memiliki kadar air 6,37 % (db), αw 0,20,bulk density 0,46 g/ml, kelarutan 622,33 detik, total oil 42,62x10- 2g/g mikrokapsul, surface oil 18,12 x10- 2g/g mikrokapsul, efisiensinya 22,13 %, dan estimasi ukuran antara 1,05-12,90 μm. Oleoresin ampas jahe mengalami perubahan profil komponen kimiawisetelah melalui proses pengeringan.
Fraksinasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Volatil pada Asap Cair Tempurung Kelapa Hibrida Kadir, Syahraeni; Darmadji, Purnama; Hidayat, Chusnul; Supriyadi, Supriyadi
Agritech Vol 30, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

Hybrid coconut shell is a potential raw material for liquid smoke because it contains lignin and cellulose as in local coconut shell. The liquid smoke has been found to contain compound functioning as smoky product improvement. The objective of this research was to identify components of volatile compound existing in the liquid smoke of hybrid coco- nut shell resulted from fractionation at various redistillation temperatures.Crude liquid smoke fractionation in this research was conducted by redistillation levels (level I, II, III) and pre-con- densation (IV) with three temperatures: <100oC, 100-110oC, and >110oC. Redistillate was analyzed for its chemical component including total phenol, carbonyl, and acid. Liquid smoke components of volatile compound were identified using GC-MS. Results of the research indicated that liquid smoke fraction resulted from redistillation at 100-110oC had highest concentration of 85.70%, contains about 1.36-1.47% of total phenol, 5.25-6.38% of carbonyl and 14.91-15.35% of total acid. Aroma range of liquid smoke from redistillation had strong (+1) aroma to very strong aroma (+4), particularly on pre-condensation fraction. Fraction in level II in each redistillation temperature had aroma rep- resentative for testing organic component with GC-MS. Results of volatile compound analysis with GC-MS revealed that crude liquid smoke contains 42 of organic compounds. However, its fractionation results contain 25 of organic compounds with redistillation temperature <100oC, 21 of organic compounds at 100-110oC and 16 of organic com- pounds at >110oC. Some compounds that play role in liquid smoke aroma are phenolic compound, guaiacol deriva- tives, syringol derivatives, isoeugenol, vanilin, furan, furfural, acetic acid, acetophenon and cyclotene.ABSTRAKTempurung kelapa hibrida merupakan salah satu bahan baku potensial untuk asap cair karena mengandung lignin dan selulosa sebagaimana halnya pada tempurung kelapa lokal. Beberapa hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di dalam asap cair terkandung berbagai senyawa kimia yang berperan memperbaiki mutu produk asapan. Penelitian ini bertu- juan mengidentifikasi komponen senyawa volatil di dalam asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida hasil fraksinasi pada berbagai suhu redistilasi. Fraksinasi asap cair kasar di dalam penelitian ini dilakukan dengan redistilasi bertingkat (I, II dan III) serta prekondensasi (IV), dengan tiga variasi suhu : < 100 °C; 100-110 °C dan >110 °C. Redistilat yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis komponen kimiawinya yang meliputi total fenol, karbonil, asam dan pH. Komponen senyawa volatil asap cair diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan GC-MS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa redisti- lasi asap cair pada suhu 100-110 °C mempunyai total rendemen tertinggi yakni 85,70%, yang mengandung sekitar1,36-1,47%  fenol, 5,25-6,38% karbonil dan 14,91-15,35% total asam. Kisaran aroma asap hasil fraksinasi dengan redistilasi bertingkat mempunyai kisaran aroma kuat (+1) sampai dengan sangat kuat/menyengat (+4), terutama pada fraksi pre kondensasi. Hasil pengujian dengan GC-MS menunjukkan bahwa asap cair kasar mengandung 42 senyawa organik. Akan tetapi, hasil fraksinasinya menunjukkan bahwa pada suhu redistilasi <100 °C terdapat 25 senyawa organik; 21 senyawa organik pada suhu redistilasi 100-110 °C dan 16 senyawa organik pada suhu redistilasi >110°C. Beberapa senyawa yang berperan di dalam aroma asap cair adalah senyawa fenol, derivat guaiakol, derivat syringol, isoeugenol, vanilin, furan, furfural, asam asetat, asetofenon dan sikloten.