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BENDING STRENGTH OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC MATERIALS IN SOFTENING CONDITION Dwianto, Wahyu; Damayanti, Ratih; Darmawan, Teguh; Sejati, Prabu Satria; Akbar, Fazhar; Adi, Danang Sudarwoko; Bahanawan, Adik; Amin, Yusup; Triwibowo, Dimas
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 7, No 1 (2020): Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2020.7.1.59-70

Abstract

This research aimed to understand the softening behaviour and viscoelastic property of wood, rattan, and bamboo as lignocellulosic materials. Nine years-old fast growing teak wood [Tectona grandis L.f.], rattan [Calamus sp.], and 3 years-old andong bamboo [Gigantochloa pseudoarundinaceae (Steud.) Widjaja] were used for the experiments. The samples were taken from the bottom, middle and upper parts for wood and rattan, and that for bamboo were cut from the 1st to 20th internodes. Static bending tests were carried out in fresh (green) as control samples, air-dried, and softened by microwave heating (MW) for 1 min to determine modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE). The results showed that the MOR and MOE values of wood, rattan, and bamboo increased from fresh to air-dried condition, and decreased by MW. When compared at the same density, drastic increase was observed for the normalized MOR value in air-dried of rattan, i.e. 2.5 fold. However, the decreasing of all the normalized MOR values were almost the same, i.e. 0.5 fold when they were softened by MW. Remarkably increase was also appeared for the normalized MOE value in air-dried of rattan, i.e. 3.0 fold and decreased to almost zero by MW. These results indicated that rattan was more easily bent, followed by bamboo and then wood. Hydrothermal properties of chemical components significantly affected the changes of strength (MOR) and elastic properties (MOE). However, the differences in bending strength of wood, rattan, and bamboo were more likely due to differences in their anatomical structures.
Karakteristik LVL Lengkung dengan Proses Kempa Dingin Characteristic of LVL Bent by Cold Press Process Darmawan, Teguh; Dwianto, Wahyu; Amin, Yusup; Prasetyo, Kurnia Wiji; Subiyanto, Bambang
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 7, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (334.548 KB)

Abstract

Bending LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber) is a more effisien method to manufacture bent wood components compare to other methods in raw materials point of view. The Bending LVL was made from Sengon veneers by cold press process with variation of Water Based Polymer-Isocyanate adhesive of 250, 280, 310 g/m2 and bend radius of 200,300, 400 mm. The results showed that the physical properties of Bending LVL made by using Water Based Polymer-Isocyanate adhesive and cold press process was fit with JAS 1639/1986 standard. The optimum adhesive concentration and bend radius was 250 g/m2 and 20 cm, respectively
Pengembangan Papan Komposit dari Limbah Perkebunan Sagu (Metroxylon sago Rottb.) (Development of Composite Board made from Sago (Metroxylon sago Rottb.) Plantation Waste) Kusuma, Sukma S; Ruslan, Ruslan; Daud, Muhammad; Wahyuni, Ika; Darmawan, Teguh; Amin, Yusup; Massijaya, Muh. Y; Subiyanto, Bambang
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 8, No 2 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (351.436 KB)

Abstract

Plantation waste has gained increasing attention as an alternative raw material for use in the manufacture of composite boards, i.e. waste of sago plantation. Medium density composite boards were made from zephyr of sago midrib to evaluate the effects of resin and adhesive content levels. The boards were fabricated using polyurethane (PU) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin with three levels of adhesive content i.e. 10%, 12%, and 14%. Physical (moisture content, density, water absorption, and thickness swelling) and mechanical (Modulus of Rupture, Modulus of Elastisity, Screw Holding, and Internal Bonding) properties of composite board were evaluated according to JIS A 5908-2003 standard. Research result showed that properties of composite board made from sago frond with 14% content level of polyurethane adhesive better than other composite board. Based on composite board properties, the board was suitable as building raw material and furniture i.e. partition, cupboard, table, and roof.
The Physical and Mechanical Properties of Branch Wood of Schizolobium amazonicumDucke Amin, Yusup; Wahyuni, Ika; Darmawan, Teguh; Dwianto, Wahyu; Sunarko, Sunarko
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 9, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (242.144 KB)

Abstract

One of the efficiency use of wood resources can be done by promoting the utilization of lesser-known species. However, high demand of familiar woods such as teak, kamper, meranti, mahoni, albizia, and acacia wood has limited the utilization of lesser-known species. The main purpose of this research was to determine the physical and mechanical properties of the branch-woodof Schizolobium amazonicum Ducke, one of lesser-known and a fast-growing species, and had recomonded its utilization. The physical and mechanical properties tested on this research were wood density, dimensional stability, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE), Modulus of Rupture (MOR), and compression strength parallel to grain. The sample testing refers to British Standard (BS 373, 1957). The result shows that the branch-wood of S.amazonicum has physical and mechanical properties as well as other fast-growing species, e.g. albizia wood. According to its density and MOR values, the S. amazonicum is classified as strength class of IV-III and it is possible used for light construction, furniture and plywood raw material.Key words: lesser known species, physical and mechanical properties, Schizolobiumamazonicum, strength class.
Tekno Ekonomi Produksi Perekat Aqueous Polymer Isocyanate Berbasis Lateks Karet Alam (Techno-Economic of Natural Rubber Latex-Based Aqueous Polymer Isocyanate Adhesive) Sari, Fahriya Puspita; Fatriasari, Widya; Laksana, Raden BP; Darmawan, Teguh; Jayadi, Jayadi; Hermiati, Euis
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 14, No 2 (2016): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

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Abstract

Natural rubber latex (NRL)-based aqueous polymer isocyanate (API) adhesive can potentially be used for the production of wood panels or composites. Bonding properties of the adhesive could meet the standard of the wood panels produced. In order to complete its assessment as a commercial wood adhesive, it is important to conduct a techno-economic analysis of this adhesive. The design and analyses were based on 100 L production capacity. The techno-economic analysis as a basis value of the investment to be incurred in the API adhesive production considered the capability of design tools during the production process. Based on the analysis, to produce API adhesives by 34.8 tons per year it is required an investment of 509.5 million rupiahs. The production cost of API adhesives for Rp 50.000 kg-1 is Rp 35.798 with assuming a sales profit of 21.30%. The payback period is 1 year with shut down point (SDP) of 14%, and the break-even point (BEP) of 20.51%. The analysis at various production capacities (34.8, 50, 75, and 100 tons year-1) indicated that API adhesive production will be more profitable with greater production capacity because it can shorten the payback period and increase the return on investment.Keywords: API adhesives, low temperature setting, natural rubber latex (NRL), production design, techno-economic
Modifikasi Alat Pelengkung Kayu Skala Pilot dengan Menggunakan Pemanas Modification of Pilot-scale Wood Bending by Heating Elements Darmawan, Teguh; Jayadi, Jayadi; Sudijono, Sudijono; Wahyuni, Ika; Amin, Yusuf; Dwianto, Wahyu
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 4, No 1 (2006): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

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Abstract

 This paper deals with manufacturing and modification of pilot-scale wood bending machine by heating elements. The machine has specifications as follows: 1000 mm width; 1305 mm height; 430 mm and 470 mm radius of upper part and bottom part of bent plates, respectively; and a manual stick pressure with 870 mm length. The upper part and bottom part of bent plates are equipped with heating elements, which the maximum of temperature is arranged to 200°C by the electric force of 220V/2000 watt. Left and right sides of bent plates are covered by 1150 mm x 950 mm insulation board to maintain the heat. From the temperature measurement, the heating plates were reached 50°C in 2.5 minutes, 100°C in 9.5 minutes, and 180°C in 28 minutes. The modified machine has successfuly bent Acacia solid wood with dimensions of 1100 mm(L) x 50 mm(T) and 10 mm, 20 mm, and 30 mm in thickness (R).
mplementasi Manajemen 5S pada CV. Rapi Vulkanisir Aceh Besar Mulyati, Dewi; Darmawan, Teguh
Industrial Engineering Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2013): Malikussaleh Industrial Engineering Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Malikussaleh

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Abstract

Karyawan merupakan elemen penting dalam perusahaan. Meskipun telah ditemukan teknologi baru, sumber daya alam yang baik dan modal yang memadai perusahaan tidak akan dapat memanfaatkan dan mengoptimalkan faktor tersebut tanpa dukungan sumber daya manusia atau karyawan yang berkualitas. CV. Rapi Vulkanisir Aceh Besar membutuhkan karyawan yang mampu bekerja dengan baik dan memberikan kepuasan yang memuaskan kepada konsumen, kinerja karyawan adalah hal penting yang mendukung pencapaian target perusahaan dan tentunya didukung dengan budaya kerja yang efektif. Kaizen digunakan untuk menguraikan suatu proses manajemen dan budaya bisnis berarti perbaikan terus-menerus dan perlahan-lahan dengan keikutsertaan aktif dan komitmen dari semua karyawan dalam bentuk apapun yang dilakukan oleh perusahaan.
BOTANICAL GARDEN INCLUDING INFORMATION ON THEIR PHYSICAL  AND   MECHANICAL  PROPERTIES,   NATURAL  DURABILITY,   DISTRIBUTION, PROSPECT AND OTHER SUPPORTING DATA; (2) TO ANALYZE THE LESSER-KNOWN WOOD SPECIES THAT COULD BE USED FOR  CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND THEN RECOMMEND THEM TO BE DEVELOPED THROUGH INDUSTRIALS PLANTATION FOREST. THE STEPS OF THE STUDY WERE FIRST COLLECTION OF DATA ON TIMBER SPECIES FROM HERBARIUM CATALOGUE; SECOND COLLECTION OF DATA ON THE PROPERTIES OF WOOD FROM VA WAHYUNI, Ika; DWIANTO, Wahyu; AMIN, Yusup; DARMAWAN, Teguh
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan Vol. 1 No. 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Departemen Hasil Hutan, IPB

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Abstract

Botanical Garden including information on their physical  and   mechanical  properties,   natural  durability,   distribution, prospect and other supporting data; (2) to analyze the lesser-known wood species that could be used for  construction materials and then recommend them to be developed through Industrials Plantation Forest. The steps of the study were first collection of data on timber species from herbarium catalogue; second collection of data on the properties of wood from various sources; third, observation of stem morphology in the field. The result of the catalogue study showed that there were 291 timber tree species grown in Cibodas Botanical Garden which were comprised of 14 major commercial timbers, 74 minor commercial timbers, and 142 lesser known timbers. These timber species were also distributed in other parts of Indonesia. Observation in the field then generated 49 lesser-known wood species that could be used for construction materials based on their stem form and branch height. From the reference and catalogue study, it was found that there were 14 wood species belongs to strength class I to III with natural durability ranges from very durable to moderate. These woods were then evaluated based on their morphological features and prospects. Finally, it was found that only ten wood species that were suitable to be used for construction materials, i.e. Acmena acuminatissima (Blume.) Merr. & Perry (Kelat); Adenanthera microsperma Teijsm. & Binn. (Saga); Baccaurea parviflora (Muell. Arg.) (Setambun); Casuarina junghuhniana Miq. (Cemara Gunung); Garcinia parvifolia and G. beccari (Manggis Hutan); Gymnostoma sumatranum (Joogb. ex de Vriese) L.A.S. Johnson (Cemara Sumatra); Mimusops elengi L. (Tanjung); Neonauclea lanceolata and N. obtusa (Ki Anggrit). However, the result of this study needs to be supported by further study on their wood properties since the present data were mostly qualitatives. Further research concerning their silviculture, growth rate, and susceptibility to the diseases were also needed to be done.   Keywords : Lesser-known timbers, Cibodas Botanical Garden.