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POTENSI EPIBIOTIK CAMPURAN EKSTRAK DAUN BINAHONG (ANREDERA CORDIFOLIA) DAN TEMULAWAK (CURCUMA ZANTHORRHIZA) PADA PAKAN UNTUK MENGATASI INFEKSI AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA PADA IKAN LELE (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS) Sarjito, Sarjito -; Prayitno, Slamet Budi; Rochani, Nida Qolbi Salma; Haditomo, Alfabetian Harjuno Condro; Amalia, Rosa; Desrina, Desrina
Saintek Perikanan : Indonesian Journal of Fisheries Science and Technology Vol 16, No 1 (2020): SAINTEK PERIKANAN
Publisher : Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (717.814 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ijfst.16.1.51-58

Abstract

Salah satu permasalahan pada budidaya ikan lele adalah Aeromonasis yang disebabkan oleh Aeromonas hydrophila. Berbagai upaya pencegahan dan pengobatan telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan bahan kimia maupun herbal. Bahan herbal, berupa epibiotik (tunggal maupun campuran) digunakan oleh pembudidaya untuk pencegahan dan pengobatan penyakit ini, karena mudah diperoleh, murah dan ramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh penambahan campuran epibiotik, ekstrak daun binahong dan temulawak pada pakan terhadap profil darah dan kelulushidupan ikan lele yang diinfeksi A. hydrophila. Metoda yang digunakan adalah eksperimen dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (6 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan). Seratus delapan puluh ikan lele uji dengan panjang 7-9 cm yang dipelihara pada akuarium berisi air 10 L.  Dosis campuran epibiotik, esktrak daun binahong dan temulawak menggunakan perbandingan untuk perlakuan A (0%:0%), B (100%:0%), C (75%:25%), D (50%:50%), E (25%:75%) dan F (0%:100%) dengan dosis dasar 2500 ppm untuk ekstrak daun binahong dan 900 ppm untuk temulawak. Campuran epibiotik tersebut ditambahkan pada pakan komersil sebagai pakan uji dengan metode spray. Pakan uji diberikan selama 14 hari, kemudian pada hari kelimabelas ikan uji diinjeksi A. hydrophila secara intramuscular dengan konsentrasi 106 CFU/mL. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gejala klinis ikan lele yang terinfeksi A. hydrophila adalah nafsu makan rendah, bercak merah, luka, haemorhagi serta warna tubuh memucat.  Penambahan campuran epiobiotik ekstrak daun binahong dan temulawak berpengaruh nyata (p<0,05) terhadap profil darah dan kelulushidupan ikan uji pasca perlakuan dan pasca infeksi. Campuran epibiotik D mampu melawan infeksi A.hydrophilla pada C. gariepinus dengan tingkat kelulushidupan tertinggi (90±17%). One of the problems in catfish culture was aeromonasis that was caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. The prevention and threatment of this disease have been carried out with using chemichal substance and an epibiotics from eco-friendly herbal plant extracts. Epibiotics, such as binahong leaves and curcuma extracts had been applicated by farmers to threat this disease because of it?s cheap and easy to get it. The aims of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixture binahong leaves and curcuma extracts in feed on blood profile and survival rate of catfish infected A. hydrophila. The method of research used was Completely Randomized Design, consisted of 6 treatments and 3 replications. The catfish used was 180 fishes with length of 7-9 cm that were cultured in aquarium with 10L waters. The basic dosage of binahong leaves and curcuma extracts used was 2500 ppm and 900 ppm with the ratio of treatment A (0%:0%), B (100%:0%), C (75%:25%), D (50%:50%), E (25%:75%), and F (0%:100%). The mix extract was added to the commercial feed as a feed test with spray methods. The treatment feed was given for 14 days and on the next day was done infected A. hydrophila intramusculary with density of 106 CFU/mL. The result showed that catfish infected A. hydrophila had low appetite, redness, ulcer, and hemorhagic, pale body. Feeding with the treatment feed showed the significant result on catfish?s blood profile and survival rate post-treatments and post-infection  (p<0.05). Treatment D showed the best result on survival rate (90±17%).
PARASITES IDENTIFICATION AND HISTOPATHOLOGY CHANGES ON BLOOD COOKLE (ANADARA GRANOSA LINNAEUS, 1758) Karnisa, Yuni; Desrina, Desrina; Widowati, Ita
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 24, No 4 (2019): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (715.004 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ik.ijms.24.4.171-178

Abstract

Blood cockle Anadara granosa is a popular sea food in Indonesia and potential for aquaculture. Currently, blood cockle aquaculture is at early stage, done by taking the larva from wild and raised them in the pond. Wild animal naturally carries parasites without outward clinical signs but can cause disease problem under aquaculture condition.  This study aimed to identify parasites and histopathology changes in wild A. granosa.  Blood cockles (n=90) were randomly collected during 3 months at three stations in the coastal waters of Bedono (Station 1: the intertidal area of the edge near to the mangrove area, station 2: the center of intertidal area, station 3: the area near to the sea), a village located on North Java coast and supplied blood cockle larva to the area. Parasites examination was conducted in the laboratory by macroscopic (observation of clinical symptoms) for ectoparasites and microscopic (using a microscope) for endoparasites. Histopathology preparation was done by taking three cockles at each station and cutting tissue that includes gills, foot, gonads, digestive tract and mantle. Organs were fixed in a 10% NBF solution, processed, mounted in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Parasites found were identified and the level of intensity and prevalence were calculated. There were three species of parasites found: Pinnotheres sp. (Intensity 1 ind/cockle; Prevalence: 3.33%), Perkinsus sp. (Intensity: 9.3 cell/cockle; Prevalence: 37.03%), Nematopsis sp. (Intensity: 4.25 cell/cockle; Prevalence: 29.62%). There were no histopathology changes on infected tissues which may relate to low diversity, prevalence and intensity of parasites found in this study.
The Diversity of Causative Agent Associated With Bacterial Diseases on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) with Molecular Based from Demak, Indonesia Sarjito, Sarjito; Haditomo, A. Harjuno Condro; Desrina, Desrina; Ariyati, Restiana; Prayitno, S. Budi
Journal Omni-Akuatika Omni-Akuatika Special Issue 2nd Kripik SCiFiMaS
Publisher : Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (337.723 KB) | DOI: 10.20884/1.oa.2018.14.2.553

Abstract

Bacterial diseases is frequently occur in catfish culture. The aim of this research was to find out the diversity of causative agent associated with bacterial diseases in catfish based on 16S rDNA gene sequences. The combination between exploratory in the field and experiment, method were applied. Seventeen isolates (D01–D17) were gained from kidney and external wound of moribound catfish with NA and GSP medium that were collected from fish pond of Demak Regency, Indonesia. Based on the postulat results showed that four isolates (D07, D10, D11 and  D14) that  were  caused  10–55% of fishes get sick  and  0–30%  fishes mortal.  On the other hand, there were 13 isolates do not cause both sick and mortality of fish.  On the basis of sequence 16S rDNA analysis, the result showed that D07, D10, D11 and D14 were closely related to Aeromonas caviae (96%), Aeromonas veronii (97%.), Plesiomonas shigelloides (97%) and Pseudomonas putida (96%) respectively. The sensitivity test result indicated that these causative agents have not sensitively to some fish drugs test.
Isolasi, Purifikasi dan Immunogenitas Protein Outer Membran Vibrio Alginolyticus pada Ikan Kerapu Macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) Desrina, Desrina; Taslihan, Arief; Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto; Yudiati, Ervia; Casessar, Yulius Docang; Sumanta, Raden Bagus Sugio; Triyanto, Triyanto; Situmeang, Hotnida Junita; Sembiring, Langkah
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 9, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.57

Abstract

The main objectives of this research were to isolate, purify and determine the immunogenicity of the outer membrane protein of V. alginolyticus. The outer membrane protein was isolated by sonication, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and purified by electroelusion method. Four outer membrane proteins were obtained: namely 32.0; 37.83; 64.13 and 73.43 kDa. Its immunogenicity in grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus was compared to that of bacterin of the same isolate. The immunogenicity test was conducted by intra peritoneal injection method. Each protein was dissolved in sterile Phospate Buffer Saline (PBS) and Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA) (1:1) and injected 5 µg/ fish (fish weight 10-15 g). Bacterin (106, 107 and 108 cells/ml) was prepared in the same manner and injected at dosage of 0,2 ml/fish. Control fish were injected with 0.2 ml sterile PBS (pH 7.2). Booster was done a week later by injecting protein or bacterin with the Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA). The agglutination test of antibody produced recognized cell surface protein of the whole cell of V. alginolyticus. Outer membrane protein 73.43 kDa was more immunogenic than the rest of proteins and bacterin, based on agglutinating antibodi titer.
PENGARUH SALINITAS TERHADAP EFEKTIFITAS EKSTRAK DAUN API-API (Avicennia marina) DALAM MENGOBATI INFEKSI Vibrio harveyi PADA KEPITING BAKAU (Scylla sp.) Falah, Muhammad; Sarjito, Sarjito; Desrina, Desrina
Sains Akuakultur Tropis Vol 1, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Departemen Akuakultur FPIK UNDIP

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Kepiting bakau (Scylla sp.) salah satu komoditas yang memiliki ekonomis tinggi. Salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan penurunan produksi kepiting adalah penyakit. Penyakit yang sering menyerang kepiting bakau adalah Vibriosis. Salah satu upaya dalam pengobatan dapat menggunakan bahan alami yaitu ekstrak daun api-api (A. marina) akan dilakukan pada salinitas yang berbeda. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh salinitas terhadap efektifitas perendaman ekstrak daun api-api (A. marina) dilihat dari kelulushidupan, salinitas terbaik didalam perendaman ekstrak daun api-api (A. marina) kepiting bakau yang diinfeksi bakteri V. harveyi, dan gejala klinis kepiting bakau (Scylla sp.). Kepiting bakau yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 48 ekor dengan bobot 46-56 g. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (4 perlakuan 3 kali ulangan). Kepiting seluruhnya disuntik bakteri V. harveyi dengan kepadatan 0,1 x 107 CFU/ml pada bagian pangkal kaki renang. Pasca munculnya gejala klinis, kepiting bakau direndam menggunakan ekstrak daun api-api (A. marina) dengan perlakuan A (perendaman dalam salinitas 15 ppt), B (perendaman dalam salinitas 20 ppt), C (perendaman dalam salinitas 25 ppt), dan D (perendaman dalam salinitas 30 ppt). Kepiting yang digunakan adalah kepiting bakau, dengan kepadatan adalah 4 ekor/akuarium selama 14 hari. Data yang dianalisis adalah gejala klinis, kelulushidupan, histopatologi hepatopankreas dan kualitas air. Data yang telah didapatkan kemudian dianalisis seluruhnya secara deskriptif.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan salinitas tidak berpengaruh terhadap kelulushidupan kepiting bakau (Scylla sp.) yang di infeksi V. harveyi yang direndam ekstrak daun api-api pada berbegai salinitas, namun diperoleh nilai tertinggi pada salinitas 30 ppt (58%) dan terendah pada salinitas 15 ppt (50%). Salinitas terbaik untuk pengobatan menggunakan ekstrak daun api-api (A. marina) pada kepiting bakau (Scylla sp.) yang di infeksi bakteri V. harveyi adalah 30 ppt. Gejala klinis yang diperoleh dari hasil penelitian adalah perubahan morfologis dan perubahan tingkah laku. Hasil pengamatan histologi hepatopankreas ditemukan adanya kerusakan jaringan pada seluruh perlakuan yaitu berupa nekrosis, vakuolisis, dan degradasi lumen. Kualitas air pada media pemeliharaan berada dalam kisaran yang layak untuk kehidupan kepiting bakau.
KARAKTERISTIK BIODIESEL HASIL TRANSESTERIFIKASI MINYAK JELANTAH MENGGUNAKAN TEKNIK KAVITASI HIDRODINAMIK Satriana, Satriana; Husna, Nida El; Desrina, Desrina; Supardan, Muhammad Dani
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (2012): Vol.(4) No.2, June 2012
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (177.208 KB) | DOI: 10.17969/jtipi.v4i2.267

Abstract

This study undertakes the transesterification process of used cooking oils that have undergone a process of esterification. The transesterification process carried out by reacting methanol and esterified used cooking oil using KOH as catalyst. Stirring technique used is based on hydrodynamic cavitation. This research aims to study the characteristics of biodiesel that made from transesterified used cooking oil with different concentrations of methanol. The concentration of methanol used consists of 5 (five) level are: 99.9%, 95%, 90%, 80%, and 70%. The transesterification process using hydrodynamic cavitation technique with a 99.9% concentration of methanol result in biodiesel with characteristics consistent by Indonesian National Standard (SNI). In this condition, biodiesel produced 92.93% of the yield which has characteristics of acid number 0.80 mg KOH / g, total glycerol 0.045%, alkyl ester 99.45%, iodine number 14.92 g I2/100 g,  viscosity 2,35 mm2 / s , density 0.87745 g/cm3  and pH value 4.885. Based on research, the concentration of methanol lower than 99.9% not yet can produce biodiesel from used cooking oil that have characteristics according to Indonesian National Standard (SNI).  
PARASIT IKAN KEPE KEPE GARIS (SHAETODON OCTOTESCIATUS) DARI PANTAI JEPARA Desrina, Desrina
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 7, No 1 (2002): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1032.589 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ik.ijms.7.1.27-32

Abstract

Informasi sebaran geografis parasit ikan hias laut di Indonesia sangat dibutuhkan untuk membuat peraturan tentang Ialulintas ikan dan penanganan penyakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis parasit, prevelensi dan intensitas parasit ikan kepe kepe garis (Chaetodon octofasciatus) dari pantai Jepara, Jawa Tengah. Jumlah ikan yang diperiksa adalah 60 ekor. Ikan diperoleh dari nelayan desa Bandengan, Jepara. Pemeriksaan ikan dilakukan di Laboratorium Pengembangan Wilayah Pantai (LPWP) Fakultas Perikanan. dan Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro di Jepara, selama Mei - Agustus 200I. lkan diperiksa dalam keadaan seger. Pengamatan ektoparasit dilakukan pada lamella insang, preparet ules lendir tubuh, dan sirip. Pemeriksaan endoparasit ikan dilakukan melalui pengamatan organ-organ dalam yang terlebih dahulu dibedah, dan kemudian diletakkan dalam petridish yang berisi air laut. Gejala klinis yang terlihat dicatat dan parasit yang ditemui diidentifikasi pada waktu segar dan setelah diawetkan. Prevalensi dan intensitas parasit juga dihitung. Parasit yang ditemukan terdiri atas tiga spesies ektoperasit yaitu Cryptocaryon irritans, Ergasilus, dan Actinocleidus sp.. Endoparasit yang ditemukan adalah Lecithocirium neopacificum dan Ichthyophonus hoferi. Prevalensi infestasi secara umum termasuk tinggi yaitu 78% akan tetapi prevalensi setiap spesies rendah sampai sedang , berkisar 6,67-40% dan intensitas parasit rendah yaitu 0,92- 25,32 individu. Kata kunci: parasit, ikan Kepe-Kepe. jepara  Data of geographical distribution of parasites of marine ornamentel fish in lndonesia is needed to construct regulation offish transportation. The purposes of this study were to determine parasites, prevalence and intensity of parasites of emperor butterfly fish (Chaetodon octofasciatus) from Jepara Coast. A total of 60 fresh fish were examined from May to August 2001. Fish were obtained from fishermen at Bandengan village Jepara and examined at the Coastal Development Laboratory (LPWP). Jepara. Ectoparasitic examination was carried out by examining gill lamellae, smear from the skin and fins. Fish was then necropsied. Each organ was placed in a petridish containing sea water and sliced. Parasites found were examined using a compound microscope. Any clinical signs was also noted. Parasites were identified alive as well as the preserved one. Prevalence and intensity of parasites were calculated. Parasites found consisted of three species of ectoparasites namely Cryptocaryon irritans, Ergasilus sp. and Actinocleidus sp. Endoparasites found were Lecithocirium neopacificum and Ichthyophonus hoferi, 78% of fish examined were infected which was relatively high. However, prevalence of each parasite species was ranged from low to moderate (6.67-40%) and intensity were fairly low (0 92-25.32 individu).Keywords: parasite, emperor butterfly fish, Jepara
PENGARUH DOSIS TERHADAP EFEKTIFITAS VAKSIN POM VIBRIO ALGINOLYTICUS 74 KDA PADA IKAN KERAPU MACAN EPINEPHELUS FUSCOGUTTATUS Desrina, Desrina; Taslihan, Arief; Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto; Jati, Budhi Kuncoro
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 16, No 2 (2011): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (424.635 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ik.ijms.16.2.95-102

Abstract

Vibrio alginolyticus adalah bakteri patogen penyebab penyakit vibriosis pada ikan kerapu budidaya di Indonesia. Vaksin Protein Outer Membran (POM) V. alginolyticus telah terbukti imunogenik pada ikan kerapu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh dosis vaksin  terhadap kemampuan POM V. alginolyticus 74 kDa dalam merangsang kerja sistem kekebalan spesifik ikan dan menentukan efek dosis terhadap perlindungan yang dihasilkan. POM(74 kDa) diisolasi dengan metoda sonikasi dan SDS-PAGE, dan dimurnikan dengan metoda elektroelusi. Vaksin diberikan dengan metoda suntik intraperitoneal ke ikan kerapu ukuran 8-10 cm (berat 1013 g) dengan dosis 0 (kontrol), 5, 10 dan 15 µg/0, 1 ml PBS/ 10 g ikan (n= 30 ekor/dosis).  Ikan kontrol disuntik dengan 0,1 ml PBS steril. Satu minggu kemudian ikan disuntik booster dengan cara dan dosis yang sama.  Dua  minggu  setelah  booster  dilakukan  uji  tantang  dengan  dengan  menyuntikkan  bakteri  Vibrio alginolyticus 8 secara intramuskular dengan dosis 0,1 ml X 109 sel/ml, dan ikan dipelihara selama 2 minggu. Jumlah ikan yang mati selama masa uji tantang dihitung untuk menentukan Relative Percentage Survival (RPS). Titer antibodi diukur sebelum percobaan dan setiap minggu selama penelitian. Ke 3 dosis yang diberikan efektif dalam merangsang respon kekebalan humoral ikan kerapu dan menghasilkan kekebalan yang melindungi yang hampir sama yang terlihat dari nilai RPS untuk dosis 5, 10 dan 15 µg masing masing 72, 87 dan 72%. Kata kunci: vaksin POM,  kerapu, dosis  Vibrio alginolyticus is a causative agent of  vibriosis of cultured grouper in Indonesia.  It has been reported  that the Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) of V. alginolyticus vaccine was immunogenic on grouper.  Vaccine dose is important in determining the ability of vaccine to conferred protective immunity. The objectives of the present research was to determine effect of vaccine doses on (1)  the specific immune response of grouper and (2) conferring protective immunity of grouper. OMP V. alginolyticus (74 kDa) was isolated by sonication and SDSPAGE, and purified by mean  electroelution. Vaccine was delivered by intraperitoneal injection to grouper juvenile (8 - 10 cm long  and  weigh10 - 13 g) in three doses;  0 (kontrol), 5, 10 dan 15 µg/0, 1 ml PBS/ fish (n= 30 fish/ dose).  Control fish were injected with 0,1 ml sterile PBS steril. One week later, booster  was given in the same manner as the primary vaccination. Two weeks following booster (week 4), fish were challenge with  V. alginolyticus 8 by intramuscular injection (0,1 ml X 109 sel/ml) and fish were maintained for two weeks. Fish mortality pos challenge test was counted to calcualte the Relative Percentage Survival (RPS). Antibodi titer was measured before vaccination and weekly for 4 week. All three doses tested were effective to  trigger the specific immune response of grouper dan conferred protective immunity with similar degree as shown by the RPS for dose 5, 10 dan 15 µg were 72, 87 dan 72% respectively. Key words: vaccine, OMP, grouper, dose.
UJI KEGANASAN BAKTERI VIBRIO PADA IKAN KERAPU MACAN (EPINEPHELUS FUSCOGUTTATUS) Desrina, Desrina; Taslihan, Arief; Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto; Susiani, Suryaningrum
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 11, No 3 (2006): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (164.702 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ik.ijms.11.3.119-125

Abstract

Tiga belas isolat bakteri Vibrio yang terdiri atas 6 spesies diuji keganasannya pada ikan Kerapu Macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) sehat yang berukuran panjang 9 ? 13 cm dan berat 20 ? 30 g. Ke enam spesiesbakteri Vibrio yang diuji adalah Vibrio alginolyticus (6 isolat), V. vulnificus (2 isolat), V. ordalii (2 isolat) V. fluvialis, V. anguillarum dan V. mectnikovii masing masing 1 isolat. Bakteri Vibrio ini berasal dari ikan Kerapu sakit dan air tambak dari berbagai tempat di Indonesia. Uji keganasan dilakukan dengan menyuntikkan suspensi bakteri sebanyak 0,5 ml x 109 CFU/ml secara intramuskular di bagian dorsolateral. Jumlah ikan yang disuntik adalah 5 ekor/isolat. Ikan kontrol (5 ekor) disuntik dengan 0,5 ml PBS steril. Ikan dipelihara selama 2 minggu didalam akuarium (vol air 40 L) yang dilengkapi dengan aerator. Jumlah ikan yang mati, waktu kematian serta gejala klinis yang terlihat dicatat. Untuk memastikan sebab kematian dan mengkonfirmasikan keberadaanbakteri vibrio yang disuntikkan, ikan yang mati dibedah dan bakteri diisolasi dari ginjal dan luka pada tubuh. Pada akhir penelitian semua ikan yang masih hidup dibunuh dan bakteri diisolasi dari ginjal. Bakteri hasil uji keganasan diidentifikasi dengan metoda biokimia. Semua isolat menyebabkan kematian pada ikan uji kecuali V.metchinovkii dan tidak ada ikan kontrol yang mati. Kultur murni isolat yang disuntikkan direisolasi dari semua ikan yang mati. Berdasarkan jumlah ikan uji yang mati dan waktu kematian isolat terdapat 4 isolat yang ganas yaitu V.anguillarum, V. ordalii (S) dan V. fluvialis (S) dan V. alginolyticus 8 (J). Gejala klinis ikan yang sakit sama yaitu nafsu makan berkurang, berenang miring dan lemah, ginjal pucat warna tubuh gelap. Beberapaisolat menyebabkan luka di punggung yang berkembang jadi borok.Kata kunci: keganasan, Vibrio, Kerapu, ikan, penyakit.Thirteen isolates of Vibrio which consists of 6 spesies were tested its virulency on healthy fishes, Kerapu Macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) with size 9 ? 13 cm (tota length) and 20 ? 30 g (weight). Those sixspecies of Vibrio were Vibrio alginolyticus (6 isolate), V. vulnificus (2 isolate), V. ordalii (2 isolate) V. fluvialis (1 isolate), V. anguillarum (1 isolate) and V. mectnikovii (1 isolate). These Vibrio were isolated from sick Kerapu and water pond from various places in Indonesia. The test was done by intramuscular injection of bacteria suspension i.e. 0,5 ml x 109 CFU/ml on the dorsolateral of the fish. The number of injected fish were 5 fish/isolate, while control fishes were injected with 0,5 ml of sterile PBS. The fishes were grown for 2 weeks on 40 L aerated aquariums. Mortality of the fish, time as well as clinical simptoms were recorded. The occurence of injected bacteria was confirmed by isolating the bacteria from the kidney and wound of the dead fishes At the end of the experiment all the live fishes were killed and bacteria on its kidney were isolated. All thebacteria were identified by using biochemical method. The results showed that all isolates have caused mortality on the fish except V. metchinovkii as well as control fishes. Four other isolates were found to be virulence. Clinical simptoms of sick fishes were the same i.e. lack of feeding activity, abnormal swimming activity and weak, pale kidney, and dark colouration of the skin. Several isolates have caused wound on the back of the fish as well.Key words: virulency, Vibrio, Kerapu, fish, diseases.
Penelitian Limbah Lumpur Minyak Kegiatan Pengolahan Minyak melalui Uji TCLP Desrina, Desrina
Lembaran Publikasi Minyak dan Gas Bumi Vol 43, No 3 (2009)
Publisher : Lembaran Publikasi Minyak dan Gas Bumi

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Abstract

Sesuai ketentuan yang termuat di dalam Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, PP 18/ 1999 jo PP 85/1999, beberapa limbah dari kegiatan pengolahan migas dikategorikan sebagai limbah B-3 yang dimasukkan di dalam daftar limbah B-3 yang spesifik. Di dalam PP 85/1999 Pasal 7 ayat (5) dicantumkan kalimat yang berbunyi: “Limbah D220, D221, D222 & D223 dapat dinyatakan limbah B-3 setelah dilakukan uji karakteristik dan atau uji toksikologi”. Ayat ini merupakan revisi dari PP 18/1999 Pasal 7 Ayat 2 yang berbunyi: Daftar limbah dengan kode limbah D220, D221, D222, dan D223 dapat dinyatakan limbah B-3 setelah dilakukan uji Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) dan/atau uji karakteristik. Terdapat perbedaan mendasar antara uji toksikologi dan uji TCLP. Uji toksikologi sebagaimana dimandatkan di dalam PP 85/1999 tersebut jelas menyebutkan penentuan nilai LD-50 secara oral. Masalahnya adalah bagaimana mungkin untuk limbah-limbah tersebut diberlakukan pengujian LD-50 secara oral. Mengingat bahwa limbah-limbah tersebut, karena jumlahnya, pada umumnya disimpan atau ditimbun pada tempat khusus. Kemungkinan besar sangat aman bagi manusia dan makluk hidup lainnya. Di sisi lain, kemungkinan pencemaran lingkungan adalah melalui air lindinya. Dipandang perlu untuk dilakukan kajian terhadap limbah-limbah pengolahan migas yang telah ditetapkan sebagai limbah B-3 mengingat ketetapan ini sebenarnya lebih kepada ketetapan dari aspek hukum. Kajian ini tidak saja berguna untuk dipakai mengevaluasi kembali daftar limbahlimbah B-3 yang telah ditetapkan tersebut, tetapi juga berguna sebagai masukan bagi pemerintah dan industri migas tentang tata cara pengklasifikasian limbah B-3 dari kegiatan migas yang mungkin tidak harus sepenuhnya mengikuti ketetapan yang berlaku.