Titiek F. Djaafar
Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Yogyakarta

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRIBAL BEAN (Canavalia virosa) AND ITS ALTERNATIVE TOFU AND TEMPEH FOOD PRODUCTS Djaafar, Titiek F.; Cahyaningrum, Nurdeana; Purwaningsih, Heni
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 11, No 2 (2010): October 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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Abstract

Increasing price of soybean becomes a serious problem for producers of traditional foods such as tempeh and tofu. These traditional foods are important protein sources for many Indonesian people. Tribal bean (Canavalia virosa) could be used as a substitution of soybean for tempeh and tofu processing. This study aimed to determine physico-chemical characteristics of tribal bean and its products such as tofu and tempeh. Tribal bean old pods were peeled manually in the Postharvest and Agricultural Machinery Laboratory of the Yogyakarta AIAT. The peeled seeds were dried until 10% water content and their epidermis were removed mechanically by using an abrasive peeler to produce yellowish clean peeled beans. The beans were analyzed physically and chemically using the standard prosedure. Since the tribal bean seeds contained high HCN, to minimize HCN content the beans were presoaked for 48 hours in water. The beans were then mixed with soybean at a ratio of 50:50 or 25:75 and processed for making tempeh and tofu using traditional method. Physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of the tribal bean tempe and tofu were analysed, involving organoleptic test with hedonic method, texture, as well as water, ash, protein and crude fiber contents. The results showed that tribal bean contained protein (37.30%), essential amino acids, minerals and fiber (3.1%), and a toxic substance HCN. Presoaking the beans in water for 48 hours significantly reduced HCN content by 98.51%, from 1334 ppm. Tofu made of a mixture of tribal bean and soybean at a ratio of 25:75 plus 2% rice vinegar as a coagulant has a white color and normal flavor appearances, and was accepted by panelists. The tribal bean tempeh contained 78.1% water, 1.21% ash, 8.14% protein, 3.1% crude fiber, and 44 ppm HCN. Tempeh made of a mixture of tribal bean and soybean at ratios of 50:50 and 25:75 showed good characters (flavor, taste, color, and texture) and panelist acceptance, as well as nutrition values (76% water, 2.71% ash, 14% protein, 0.25% crude fiber, and 14% lipid). However, HCN content in the tofu was still higher (85 ppm HCN) than the recommended maximum value of 50 ppm. This study suggests that tribal bean is more suitable for tempeh than for tofu based on its HCN content.
Pemanfaatan Biji Kerandang (Canavalia virosa) Sebagai Bahan Pengganti Kedelai dalam Pembuatan Tahu Djaafar, Titiek F.; Nurdeana, Nurdeana; Rahayu, Siti; Apriyati, Erni
Agritech Vol 31, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1496.718 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9725

Abstract

Tribal bean (Canavalia virosa) is a type of grain that can be found along the coast of Kulon Progo Regency, Yogya- karta. Tribal bean potential as an alternative food to soybeans substitution. This study aims to determine the physical and chemical quality of tribal bean tofu. Six treatments was performed namely (a) tribal bean:soybean = 50 %:50% with rice vinegar 2 % coagulant; (b) tribal bean:soybean = 25 %:75 % with rice vinegar 2 % coagulant; (c) tribal bean:soybean = 50 %:50 % with lactic acid 2 % coagulant; (d) tribal bean:soybean = 25 %:75 % with 2 % lactic acid coagulant; (e) tribal bean:soybean = 50 %:50 % with pineapple extract coagulant; and ( f) tribal bean:soybean = 25%:75 % with pineapple extract coagulant. Tofu quality was determine, such as pH coagulant, pH whey, rendement, textures, organoleptic test, water content, ash, crude fiber, fat, protein, and HCN. The study was conducted using a complete random design with two replications. The results showed that knows the best tofu kerandang is made with 75% substitution of soybean with rice vinegar coagulant which that rubbery, white, high rendement and a good aroma.Protein content of tribal bean tofu is 13.69 % and 3.40 % fatABSTRAKBiji kerandang (Canavalia virosa) adalah jenis biji-bijian yang dapat dijumpai disepanjang pesisir pantai Kabupaten Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. Biji kerandang memiliki potensi sebagai bahan pangan alternatif pengganti kedelai. Pene- litian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui mutu fisik dan kimia tahu yang dihasilkan dengan bahan dasar biji kerandang. Enam perlakuan yang dilakukan yaitu (a) kerandang:kedelai = 50 %:50 % kedelai dengan koagulan cuka beras 2 %; (b) kerandang:kedelai = 25 %:75 % dengan koagulan cuka beras 2 %; (c) kerandang:kedelai = 50 %:50 % dengan koa- gulan asam laktat 2 %; (d) kerandang:kedelai = 25 %:75 % dengan koagulan asam laktat 2 %; (e) kerandang:kedelai= 50 %:50 % dengan koagulan ekstrak nanas; dan (f) kerandang:kedelai = 25 %:75 % dengan koagulan ekstrak nanas. Pengujian mutu tahu yang dihasilkan meliputi pH koagulan, pH whey, rendemen tahu, tekstur tahu, uji organoleptik, kadar air, abu, serat kasar, lemak, protein, HCN. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan ulangan dua kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tahu kerandang yang paling baik adalah tahu kerandang yang dibuat dengan substitusi kedelai 75% dengan bahan koagulan cuka beras 25% yang menghasilkan tahu yang kenyal, berwarna putih, rendeman yang dihasilkan tinggi, dan aroma yang baik. Tahu kerandang tersebut memiliki kandungan protein 13,69 % dan lemak 3,40 %
Pengembangan Budi Daya Tanaman Garut dan Teknologi Pengolahannya untuk Mendukung Ketahanan Pangan Djaafar, Titiek F.; ., Sarjiman; Pustika, Arlyna B.
Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian Vol 29, No 1 (2010): Maret 2010
Publisher : Pusat Perpustakaan dan Penyebaran Teknologi Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jp3.v29n1.2010.p%p

Abstract

Ketahanan pangan merupakan salah satu tujuan pembangunan pertanian. Selain itu, ketahanan pangan adalah bagian dari ketahanan nasional. Garut merupakan sumber bahan pangan lokal yang memiliki potensi dan perlu dilestarikan guna mendukung ketahanan pangan. Tanaman garut adaptif terhadap kondisi lingkungan, mampu tumbuh pada lahan marginal atau di bawah tegakan tanaman hutan. Hasil umbi garut berkisar antara 9-12 t/ha dengan kandungan pati 1,92-2,56 t/ha. Umbi garut dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku industri pengolahanpangan, yaitu pati dan emping garut. Umbi garut bermanfaat bagi kesehatan, sebagai sumber serat pangan dan memiliki indeks glikemik yang lebih rendah dibandingkan umbi-umbian lainnya. Pati garut dapat mensubstitusi penggunaan terigu dalam berbagai produk pangan dengan tingkat substitusi 50-100%.
Pengujian Biologis Makanan Bayi dengan Bahan Pokok Sagu dan Tepung Tempe Terhadap Pertambahan Berat Badan Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus) Djaafar, Titiek F.; Murdiati, Agnes; Utami, Indyah S.
Agritech Vol 15, No 4 (1995)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2989.564 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.19298

Abstract

A formulation of infant food made from mixture of sago Strach, tempeh flour, milk powder and corn oil gave a normal body weight of the growth of rates at normal physical conditions relating to the activities, hairs skin, eye colour and tail colour. The total feed intake individual macronutrient of the ingredients increased the body weight, which fitted the multiple regression equation: Y =-38,57 + 0,37 x1 + 0,75 x2 - 4,08 x3, - 2,60 x4+ 1,71 x5. By using this equation, a certain body weight might be reached by manipulating the X variables. The increase In body weight was significantly dependent on the quantity and quality of protein intake.
Lactic Acid Bacteria from Indigenous Fermented Foods and Their Antimicrobial Activity Rahayu, Endang S.; Djaafar, Titiek F.; Wibowo, Djoko; Sudarmadji, Slamet
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress Vol 3, No 2 (1996)
Publisher : Indonesian Association of Food Technologists

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jifnp.51

Abstract

Twenty-eight lactic acid bacteria ( LAB) strains were isolated from various indigenous fermented foods, i.e., asinan rebung (bamboo shoot pickle), asinan terong (eggplant pickle), gatot(fennented dried cassava), growol (fermented raw cassava), tape (fermented steamed cassava tubers), tempe (fermented soybean), tempoyak (fermented pulp of durian fruit), andmoromi. All strains found and identified belong to facultative hetero¬fermentative group lactobacilli. They produced DL-lactic acid, and contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in their peptidoglycan, and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and L pentosus complex. These strains were further determined for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus using disc assay and turbidimetric assay. Two among them, Lactobacillus TGR-2 (from growol) and Lactobacillus TMO-4 (from moromi) were able to increase the lag phase, and to suppress the final population of the S. aureus growth after 12 h incubation.
Pemanfaatan Kultur Pediococcus Acidilactici F-11 Penghasil Bakteriosin sebagai Penggumpal pada Pembuatan Tahu Harmayani, Eni; Rahayu, Endang S.; Djaafar, Titiek F.; Sari, Citra Argaka; Marwati, Tri
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian Vol 6, No 1 (2009): Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jpasca.v6n1.2009.10-20

Abstract

Tahu merupakan hasil penggumpalan protein kedelai oleh whey yang terfermentasi spontan (kecutan).  Permasalahan yang dihadapi pengrajin tahu yaitu munculnya flavor asam pada tahu yang dihasilkan dari penggumpal tipe asam, sehingga perlu alternatif bahan penggumpal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk  (i) mengetahui pertumbuhan P. acidilactici F-11 dan produksi bakteriosin dalam whey tahu,  (ii) mempelajari pemanfaatan kultur P. acidilactici F-11 sebagai penggumpal pada pembuatan tahu dan (iii) mengetahui kualitas mikrobiologis dan organoleptik tahu selama penyimpanan pada suhu 4oC. Penelitian terdiri dari 3  tahap.  Pertama,  pertumbuhan P. acidilactici F-11  dan produksi bakteriosin. Kedua, pemanfaatan kultur sebagai penggumpal tahu. Ketiga, uji kualitas mikrobiologi (total bakteri) dan organoleptik (tekstur, pH, warna, flavor, dan kenampakan)  tahu selama penyimpanan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa P. acidilactici F-11 tumbuh lebih baik dalam whey dengan penambahan 1% sukrosa, pada suhu 37oC, namun tidak sebaik dalam media TGE cair. Aktivitas bakteriosin dapat dideteksi dengan adanya zona jernih yang jelas pada media TGE agar dan perpanjangan fase lag bakteri indikator, P. acidilactici LB-42.  Total bakteri awal pada tahu antara 3,9.105 - 9,1.105 CFU/g. Selama penyimpanan, total bakteri pada tahu kontrol meningkat sebesar 2 log cycle, sedangkan tahu dengan kultur P. acidilactici F-11 hasil fermentasi suhu 37oC dan suhu kamar meningkat sebesar 1,5 dan 1 log cycle. Tahu yang dihasilkan dari kultur P. acidilactici F-11 sebagai penggumpal memiliki tekstur lebih lunak dan kompak serta flavor tidak asam dibanding tahu kontrol.Tahu dengan kultur P. acidilactici F-11 hasil fermentasi pada suhu kamar memiliki kualitas organoleptik sama dengan tahu dengan kultur P. acidilactici F-11 hasil fermentasi pada suhu 37oC. Utilization of bacteriocin producer culture Pediococcus acidilactici F11 as coagulant in tofu processingTofu is a food product made from soy protein coagulated with spontaneously fermented whey. One of problem in tofu processing is the presence of acid flavor of tofu due to the use of acid coagulant type the coagulant alternative become urgently required. The purposes of this research were (i) to study the growth and bacteriocin production of P acidilactici F-11 in tofu whey, (ii) to study the utilization of P. acidilactici F-11 culture as coagulant in tofu production, and (iii) to investigate microbiological and sensory quality of tofu coagulated with the culture during storage at 4°C. The reseach was conducted in three steps including: production of bacteriocin from P acidilactici F11, utilization of P. acidilactici F-11 culture as coagulant on tofu production, and total bacteria and sensory analysis of tofu during storage. The result showed that the growth of P. acidilactici F-11 in whey with addition 1 % sucrose at 37°C was better than that without sucrose but not as good as the growth in TGE broth. Bacteriocin activity was detected by appearance of clear zone on TGE agar and prolonged lag phase of indicator bacteria, P. acidilactici LB-42. The initial bacterial count on tofu was 3.9xI0 - 9.1xlOCFU/g. During storage, bacterial count of control increased by 2 log cycle, whereas tofu coagulated with P. acldilactici F-11 culture at 3rC and room temperature increased by 1.5 and 1 log cycle, respectively. Tofu coagulated with P. acidilactici F-11 culture had smoother and more compact texture and less sour than control. The sensory quality of tofu coagulated with P. acidilactici F-11 culture at room temperature was similar to tofu coagulated with P. acidilactici F-11 culture a t 37°C.
Pemanfaatan Supernatan Kultur Pediococcus acidilactici F11 Penghasil Bakteriosin untuk Memperpanjang Masa Simpan Tahu Harmayani, Eni; Rahayu, Endang S.; Djaafar, Titiek F.; Wahyuningsih, Nuri; Marwati, Tri
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian Vol 6, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jpasca.v6n2.2009.85-93

Abstract

Tahu merupakan makanan yang mudah rusak akibat aktivitas bakteri pembusuk. Pediococcus acidilactici F11 potensial digunakan sebagai pengawet karena mampu memproduksi bakteriosin yang bersifat antibakteri. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan supernatan kultur P. acidilactici F11 (PaF11) dalam menghambat bakteri dan coliform pada tahu sebagai upaya memperpanjang umur simpan tahu. Variasi perlakuan yang dicobakan yaitu : pasteurisasi dengan supernatan kultur PaF11 pada suhu 95oC selama 5 menit (PDS), perendaman dengan supernatan kultur PaF11 pada suhu 4oC selama semalam (RSS) dan perendaman dengan supernatan kultur PaF11 pada suhu kamar selama 15 menit (RSL). Sebagai kontrol dilakukakn perlakuan pasteurisasi dengan air pada 95oC selama 5 menit (KON), dan perendaman dengan NisaplinR (200 mg/l) pada suhu kamar selama 15 menit (RNL). Supernatan kultur PaF11 diperoleh dengan cara sentrifugasi kultur PaF11 yang ditumbuhkan dalam limbah cair tahu dengan penambahan 1% sukrosa dan diinkubasi 37oC selama 18-24 jam. Total bakteri dan coliform pada tahu dianalisis pada penyimpanan hari ke 0,3 dan 7 dan uji organoleptik dilakukan pada hari ke 7. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pasteurisasi dengan supernatan kultur PaF11 pada suhu 95oC selama 5 menit (PDS) dapat menekan bakteri tahu sebesar 2 log cycle dan coliform 475 APM/g dan perendaman dengan supernatan kultur PaF11 pada suhu 4oC selama semalam (RSS) dapat menekan bakteri sekitar 2 log cycle dan coliform sebesar 550 APM/g. Pasteurisasi dengan air pada 95oC selama 5 menit (KON), total bakteri dan coliform dalam tahu terus mengalami peningkatan selama penyimpanan. Baik perendaman dengan supernatan kultur PaF11 pada suhu kamar selama 15 menit (RSL) maupun perendaman dengan NisaplinR (200 mg/l) pada suhu kamar selama 15 menit (RNL) tidak mampu menekan bakteri maupun coliform tahu. Penggunaan supernatan kultur PaF dengan cara pasteurisasi pada suhu 95oC selama 5 menit (PDS) dan perendaman pada suhu 4oC selama semalam (RSS) dapat memperpanjang masa simpan tahu sampai 7 hari, dan meningkatkan tingkat penerimaan panelis. Utilization Of The Culture Supernatant Of P. Acidilactici F11 As A Bacteriocin Producer To Extend Shelf-Life Of Tofu. Tofu is a nutricious food and prone to spoilage by bacterial activity. pediococcus acidilacticii  F11 can be used as food preservatives because of their ability to produce bacteriocin as an antibacterial metabolite. The purpose of this research was to determine the ability of the culture P acidilactici  F11 (Pa F11) supernatant to inhibit bacteria and coliform and to extend shelf-life of tofu. Treatments done were: pasteurization using PaFl1 culture supernatant at 95°C for 5 min (POS), soaking using PaF11 culture supernatant at room temperature for 15 min (RSL), and soaking using PaF11 culture supernatant at 4°C overnight (RSS). Pasteurization tofu in water at 95°C for 5 min (KON) and soaking tofu in Nisaplin" (200 mg/L) at 4°C for IS min (RNL) were used as control. Culture supernatant of Pa F11 was obtained by centrifuging the culture of Pa F11 which was grown for 18-24 h at 37 C in tofu liquid waste with addition of 1% sucrose. Total bacteria and coliform on tofu were analyzed at 0, 3, 7 days and sensory test were conducted at 7 days of storage. Result showed that pasteurized tofu in PaF11 supernatant at 95°C for 5 min (PDS) had low bacteria and coli/arm counts (2 log cycle and 475 APM/g respectively) during storage. Tofu soaked in Pa F11 supernatant at 4°C overnight (RSS) had lower both bacteria and coliform counts compared to control (2 log cycle and 550 APM/g, respectively) during storage. Data indicated that both bacteria and coliform counts of pasteurized tofu in water at 95°C for 5 min (KON) increased during storage. Addition of 200 mg/l Nisaplin" at 4°C for 15 min (RNL) or supernatant soaked at room temperature for 15 min (RSL) did not inhibit both bacteria and coliform on tofu during storage. Utilization of PaF 11 supernatant for pasteurization at 95 C for 5 min (PDS) and soaking at 4°C overnight (RSS) prolonged the shelf-life of tofu up to 7 days and increased the acceptance level of panelis.