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Investigasi resistensi Anopheles sp. terhadap insektisida piretroid dan kemungkinan terjadinya mutasi gen voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) Haryanto, Didid; Dalilah, Dalilah; Anwar, Chairil; Prasasti, Gita Dwi; Handayani, Dwi; Ghiffari, Ahmad
Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia Vol 15, No 3 (2018): November
Publisher : Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5994/jei.15.3.134

Abstract

Penggunaan insektisida golongan piretroid secara luas dan terus menerus dalam pencegahan penularan malaria dapat menimbulkan mutasi gen voltage gate sodium channel (VGSC) pada vektor nyamuk yang dikenal dengan mutasi knockdown resistance (kdr). Mutasi gen ini membuat sensitifitas ikatan protein VGSC dengan insektisida menurun sehingga menyebabkan resistensi. Timbulnya resistensi insektisida piretroid pada nyamuk vektor dapat menjadi penghambat keberhasilan pemutusan penularan penyakit malaria sehingga deteksi adanya mutasi mutlak diperlukan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui status resistensi insektisida piretroid dan mengidentifikasi mutasi pada gen VGSC kodon 1014 penanda resistensi nyamuk Anopheles sp. yang menjadi vektor malaria di Provinsi Sumatera Selatan. Sampel diambil di tiga Kabupaten, yaitu Muara Enim, Ogan  Komering Ulu (OKU), dan Lahat. Uji awal kerentanan terhadap insektisida piretroid (permetrin 0,75%) dilakukan sesuai standar WHO tahun 2016 pada spesies dominan, yaitu Anopheles vagus Dönitz. Selanjutnya, identifikasi mutasi gen VGSC pada kodon 1014 dilakukan pada An. vagus dan spesies Anopheles barbirostris van der Wulp yang tertangkap, dengan teknik seminested-PCR dan dilanjutkan dengan analisis sekuensing. Hasil uji kerentanan Anopheles sp. di Kabupaten Muara Enim menunjukkan resisten terhadap piretroid, sedangkan di Kabupaten Lahat dan OKU masih rentan terhadap insektisida piretroid. Sementara, analisis sekuensing PCR menunjukkan tidak terjadi perubahan basa alel kdr pada target site insektisida gen VGSC sehingga dapat disimpulkan secara molekuler belum ditemukan adanya mutasi pada gen VGSC kdr allel penanda resistensi insektisida piretroid. 
The Dominant Factors of High Scabies Incidence In Indralaya Islamic Boarding School Students South Sumatera, Indonesia Putri, Salvari Gusti Ayu Dwi; Ghiffari, Ahmad; Anwar, Chairil; Sitorus, Rico Januar
Majalah Kedokteran Sriwijaya Vol 51, No 4 (2019): Majalah Kedokteran Sriwijaya
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sriwijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.36706/mks.v51i4.10237

Abstract

Scabies is a skin disease caused by infestation towards Sarcoptes scabiei, the condition locally known as "kudis", occurring easily in moist and densely populated vicinities. Kudis was classified into one of the top 10 most prevalent diseases of Ogan Ilir District in 2014. This research was conducted to analyse the relation between air quality and personal hygiene towards the incidences of scabies among students of boarding school Al Ittifaqiah, Indralaya. This research was an epidemiological method using cross-sectional analytic approach, conducted in March 2016. The population were all students of boarding school (1.859 individuals) and the samples selected were 200 respondents with proportional stratified random sampling. The measuring instruments were cardinal scabies physical diagnostic and questionnaire of demographic interviewing, and air quality observation. Obtained results were then analysed with Chi-Square, Logistic Regression Statistical Tests, and correspondence analysis. The result of scabies prevalence was 74.0%. The statistical test has shown that all free variables present relation towards the occurrence of scabies with the p-value < 0.05 except for the variables of temperature and humidity. Logistic Regression testing result yielded the free variable bearing the most dominant influence towards scabies incidence, which was the residential density (OR: 8.117; 95% CI: 3.176-20.745), ventilation (6.712; 1.323-34.066) and age (3.246; 1.555-6.775). The significant relationship of residential density, ventilation, and age towards the occurrence of scabies should be further investigated in order to prepare for elimination programs.