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Acid Resistance Test of Probiotic Isolated from Silage Forage Swamp on In Vitro Digestive Tract Sandi, Sofia; Miksusanti, Miksusanti; Sari, Meisji Liana; Sahara, Eli; Supriyadi, Adi; Gofar, Nuni; Asmak, Asmak
IJFAC (Indonesian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Chemistry) Vol 4, No 1 (2019): February 2019
Publisher : IJFAC (Indonesian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Chemistry)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24845/ijfac.v4.i1.15

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Antibiotics are commonly used in poultry ration, and afterward these drug residues may persist in foods. There is an alternative source of antibiotics in poultry rations, one of which is using probiotics. Probiotics are living microorganisms capable of reaching the gastrointestinal tract and benefiting health, leaving no residue in the body. Probiotics can be originated from bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which produced lactic acid and antimicrobial components. LAB must be able to live in the digestive system with various pH condition. pH resistance testing of LAB was performed by introducing diluted bacteria into several buffer solutions with different pH and a predetermined incubation time, then was grown in MRS agar medium. This study was conducted to determine the resistance of LAB isolates as probiotics from silage forage swamp at different pH distributed in vitro digestant. The design used was a complete randomized design consist of 3 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were using isolate of Kumpai Tembaga silage (P1), isolate of 50% Kumpai Tembaga silage and 50% Kemon Air silage (P2), and isolate of Kemon Air silage (P3). The results showed that all isolates used were lactic acid bacteria, and the treatment significantly affected the value of LAB resistance test against low pH and high pH. Isolate from Kumpai Tembaga silage (P1) is a lactic acid bacterium with higher ability to survive in pH of in vitro digestive system.
EKSPLORASI BAKTERI ENDOFITIK PEMACU TUMBUH ASAL JARINGAN TANAMAN CABAI MERAH Gofar, Nuni
Jurnal Agrista Vol 11, No 1 (2007): Volume 11 Nomor 1 April 2007
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Abstract

Exploration of Growth Promoting Endophitic Bacteria Derived from Red Chilly TissuesABSTRACT. The aims of this research were: to explore growth promoting endophitic bacteria isolated from root of red chilly planted at swampy land, Ogan Ilir, South Sumatera, and to study the ability of resulted isolates to promote growth of red chilly by bioassay evaluation; and to evaluate the ability of resulted isolates to produce IAA in vitro. Different stage of red chilly as sources of endophitic bacteria samples were collected from various locations of chilly farms in Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatera. The results of this research proved that endophitic bacteria derived from root red chilly tissues acted as growth promoting, neutral and growth inhibiting bacteria. First, second and third of selection resulted in 8, 6, and 3 consortia of endophitic bacteria, which consistently promoted the growth of red chilly. The amount of IAA resulted by S248 isolates of endophitic bacteria (3.36 mg kg-1) as significantly lower than those of S348 isolates (4.16 mg kg-1) and S830 isolates (3.93 mg kg-1). The amount of IAA resulted by S348 isolates did not significantly differ from that of S830 isolates. Endophitic bacteria identified from S348 isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus.
Methane Gas Production Test From Forage Swamp with Ensilase Method As Biogas Plants Kartika, Erra; Gofar, Nuni; Sandi, Sofia
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment Vol 2, No 3 (2017): Low Land
Publisher : Program Pascasarjana Universitas Sriwijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22135/sje.2017.2.3.72-75

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This study aims to test the production of methane gas from forage swamps by ensilase as biogas plants. Treatment levels consisted of 3 treatments P1 (100% Kumpai tembaga grass (Hymenachne acutigluma)), P2 (50% Kumpai tembaga grass (Hymenachne acutigluma) + 50% Kemon air (Neptunia oleracea lour)), P3 (100% Kemon air (Neptunia Oleracea lour)) and 5 replications. The result of the diversity analysis showed that silage swamp silage ensilase process significantly (p <0,05) to methane gas formation. The best composition was obtained from the treatment of P1 Kumpai tembaga grass (Hymenachne acutigluma) 100%.Keywords: Production, Methane, Forage Swamps, Ensilase, Biogas Plants.
INCREASING OF RICE YIELD BY USING GROWTH PROMOTING ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FROM SWAMP LAND Fitri, Siti Nurul Aidil; Gofar, Nuni
Journal of Tropical Soils Vol 15, No 3: September 2010
Publisher : UNIVERSITY OF LAMPUNG

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5400/jts.2010.v15i3.%p

Abstract

Increasing of Rice Yield by Using Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacteria from Swamp Land (SNA Fitri and N Gofar):  Swamp land has can be used as a paddy field that will be potential as a rice source However, this land has some limiting factors such as low fertility. On the other hand, continous used of inorganic fertilizer to improve soil fertility will also have some disadvantages. Therefore,  an alternative method as  fertilizers complement is needed.  Biofertilizer  is potential to be developed.  Previous research had succeeded to explore and selected some bacteria from rice tissues grown on swamp land.  That research had found two bacteria Consortium were named as Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterial Consortium (GPEBC).  The aims of this research were (1) to evaluate the effect of a GPEBC population density and a level of N fertilizer on plant N absorption, and rice yield in the swamp soil, and (2) to find out the optimal population density of GPEBC and optimal dosage of N fertilizer on plant N absorption and rice yields in the swamp soil.  The research used a factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors and 3 replicates.  The first factor was a kind of GPEBC which consisted of Consortium A and consortium B.  The second factors was population density of GPEBC which consisted of 0 CFU mL-1, 107 cfu mL-1, 109 cfu mL-1, and 1011 cfu mL-1.  The third factor was N-fertilizer dosages which consisted of 50% of plant nitrogen necessity (equivalent to 57.50 kg N ha-1), 75% of plant nitrogen necessity (equivalent to 86.25 kg N ha-1), and 100 % of plant N necessity (equivalent to 115 kg N ha-1).  The research showed that GPEBC of the Consortium B had a better effect on rice yiels than Consortium A.  The population density of 107 cfu mL-1 of GPEBC increased the growth and the yield of rice grown on swamp soil. Treatment combination of 75% of plant N necessity, and 107 cfu mL-1 of population density produced the best production of Consortium B  (GPEBC) for rice grown on swamp soil.
SYNERGISM OF WILD GRASS AND HYDROCARBONOCLASTIC BACTERIA IN PETROLEUM BIODEGRADATION Gofar, Nuni
Journal of Tropical Soils Vol 18, No 2: May 2013
Publisher : UNIVERSITY OF LAMPUNG

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5400/jts.2013.v18i2.161-168

Abstract

The concept of plants and microbes utilization for remediation measure of pollutant contaminated soil is the newest development in term of petroleum waste management technique. The research objective was to obtain wild grass types and hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria which are capable to synergize in decreasing petroleum concentration within petroleum contaminated soil. This research was conducted by using randomized completely block design. This research was conducted by using randomized completely block design. The first factor treatments were consisted of without plant, Tridax procumbens grass and Lepironia mucronata grass. The second factor treatments were consisted of without bacterium, single bacterium of Alcaligenes faecalis, single bacterium of Pseudomonas alcaligenes, and mixed bacteria of Alcaligenes faecalis with P. alcaligenes. The results showed that mixed bacteria (A.  faecalis and P. alcaligenes) were capable to increase the crown and roots dry weights of these two grasses, bacteria population, percentage of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) decrease as well as TPH decrease and better pH value than that of single bacterium. The highest TPH decrease with magnitude of 70.1% was obtained on treatment of L. mucronata grass in combination with mixed bacteria.[How to Cite: Gofar N. 2013.Synergism of Wild Grass and Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria in Petroleum Biodegradation. J Trop Soils 18 (2): 161-168. Doi: 10.5400/jts.2013.18.2.161][Permalink/DOI: www.dx.doi.org/10.5400/jts.2013.18.2.161]REFERENCESBello YM. 2007. Biodegradation of Lagoma crude oil using pig dung.  Afr J Biotechnol 6: 2821-2825.Gerhardt KE, XD Huang, BR Glick and BM Greenberg. 2009. Phytoremediation and rhizoremediation of organic soil contaminants: Potential and challenges. Plant Sci 176: 20-30.Glick BR. 2010. Using soil bacteria to facilitate phytoremediation.  Biotechnol Adv 28: 367-374. Gofar N. 2011.  Characterization of petroleum hydrocarbon decomposing fungi isolated from mangrove rhizosphere.  J Trop Soils 16(1): 39-45. doi: 10.5400/jts.2011.16.1.39Gofar N. 2012. Aplikasi isolat bakteri hidrokarbonoklastik asal rhizosfer mangrove pada tanah tercemar minyak bumi. J Lahan Suboptimal 1: 123-129 (in Indonesian). Hong WF, IJ Farmayan, CY Dortch, SK Chiang and JL Schnoor. 2001. Environ Sci Technol 35: 1231.Khashayar T and T Mahsa. 2010.  Biodegradation potential of petroleum hydrocarbons by bacterial diversity in soil. Morld App Sci J 8: 750-755.Lal B and S Khanna. 1996. Degradation of Crude Oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Alcaligenes odorans, J Appl Bacteriol 81: 355- 362.Mackova M, D Dowling and T Macek. 2006. Phytoremediation and rhizoremediation: Theoretical background. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. 300 p. Malik ZA and S Ahmed.  2012. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by oil field isolated bacterial consortium. Afr J Biotechnol 11: 650-658.Mendez MO and RM Maier. 2008. Phytostabilization of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environment an emerging remediation technology. Environ Health Prospect 116: 278-283.Milic JS, VP Beskoski, MV Ilic, SM Ali, GDJ Cvijovic and MM Vrvic.  2009.  Bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products: composition of the microbial consortium. J Serb Chem Soc  74: 455-460.Mukre AM, AA Hamid, A Hamzah and WM Yusoff.  2008.  Development of three bacteria consortium for the bioremediation of crude petroleum-oil in contaminated water. J Biol Sci 8: 73-79.Ndimele PE. 2010. A review on the phytioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon. Pakistan J Biol Sci 12:  715-722.Newman LA and CM Reynolds.  2004.  Phytoremediation of organic compounds. Curr Opin Biotechnol  15: 225-230.Onwuka F, N Nwachoko, and E Anosike. 2012. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and some cations (Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) in a crude oil polluted soil and possible phytoremediation by Cynodon dactylon L (Bermuda grass). J Environ Earth Sci 2: 12-17.Pezeshki SR, MW Hester, Q Lin and JA Nyman.  2000.  The effect of oil spill and clean-up on dominant US Gulf Coast Marsh Macrophytes: a review.  Environ Pollution 108: 129-139.Pikoli MR, P Aditiawati and DI Astuti. 2000. Isolasi bertahap dan identifikasi isolat bakteri termofilik pendegradasi minyak bumi dari sumur bangko. Laporan Penelitian pada Jurusan Biologi, ITB, Bandung (unpublished, in Indonesian).Pilon-Smits E and JL Freeman. 2006. Environmental cleanup using plants: biotechnological advances and ecological considerations. Front Ecol Environ 4: 203-10. Rahman KSM, JT Rahman, P Lakshmanaperumalsamy, and IM Banat. 2002. Towards efficient crude oil degradation by a mixed bacterial consortium. Bioresource Technol 85: 257-261.Rossiana N.  2004. Oily Sludge Bioremediation with Zeolite and Microorganism and It?s Test with Albizia Plant (Paraserianthes falcataria) L (Nielsen). Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Department of Biology Padjadjaran University, Bandung (unpublished).Rossiana, N.  2005.  Penurunan Kandungan Logam Berat dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria L (Nielsen) Bermikoriza dalam Media Limbah Lumpur Minyak Hasil Ekstraksi. Laboratorium Mikrobiologi dan Biologi Lingkungan Jurusan Biologi Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Padjajaran, Bandung  (in Indonesian).Sathishkumar M, B Arthur Raj, B Sang-Ho, and Y Sei-Eok. 2008. Biodegradation of crude oil by individual bacterial strains and a mixed bacterial consortium isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated areas clean. Ind J Biotechnol 36: 92-96.Shirdam R, AD Zand, GN Bidhendi and N Mehrdadi.  2008. Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils with emphasis on effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on the growth of plant species. Phytoprotection 89: 21-29.Singer AC, DE Crowley and IP Thompson.  2003.  Secondary plant metabolites in phytoremediation and biotransformation. Trends Biotechnol 21: 123-130.Singh A and OP Ward. 2004.  Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation. Springler, Berlin, 281p.Surtikanti H and W Surakusumah.  2004.  Peranan Tanaman dalam Proses Bioremediasi Oli Bekas dalam Tanah Tercemar.  Ekol Biodivers Trop  2: 48-52 (in Indonesian).Wenzel WW.  2009.  Rhizosphere processes and management in plant-assisted bioremediation (phytoremediation) of soil.  Plant Soil 321: 385-408.Widjajanti H, I Anas, N Gofar and MR Ridho.  2010.  Screening of petroleum hydrocarbons degrading bacteria as a bioremediating agents from mangrove areas. Proceeding of International Seminar, workshop on integrated lowland development and management, pp. C7 1-9.Widjajanti H.  2012. Bioremediasi Minyak Bumi Menggunakan Bakteri dan Kapang Hidrokarbonoklastik dari Kawasan Mangrove Tercemar Minyak Bumi. [Disertasi]. Universitas Sriwijaya (in Indonesian).
EKSPLORASI BAKTERI ANTAGONIS ASAL JARINGAN DAN RIZOSFER TANAMAN KARET UNTUK MENEKAN PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI PROTEOLITIK PADA BAHAN OLAHAN KARET (BOKAR) Gofar, Nuni; Munawar, Munawar; Widjajanti, Hary; Mulya, Angga Prasetya
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan Vol 16 No 2 (2014): Jurnal Tanah dan Lingkungan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu Tanah dan Sumberdaya Lahan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (432.176 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jitl.16.2.61-66

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Lateks merupakan komoditas pertanian andalan dan merupakan sumber penerimaan devisa negara Indonesia yang cukup penting, namun pada saat penyimpanannya menyumbangkan bau tidak sedap ke udara. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi bakteri antagonis asal jaringan dan rizosfer tanaman karet yang mampu menekan pertumbuhan mikroba proteolitik penyebab bau tidak sedap pada bahan olahan karet (bokar). Bakteri proteolitik penyebab bau tidak sedap diisolasi dari berbagai masa simpan bokar. Bakteri antagonis diisolasi dari jaringan dan rizosfer tanaman karet. Kemampuan bakteri antagonis menekan pertumbuhan bakteri proteolitik dilakukan dengan uji daya hambat dalam medium agar (NA). Diameter zona bening yang terbentuk merupakan indikasi kemampuan bakteri antagonis dalam menghambat aktivitas bakteri proteolitik. Dari hasil penelitian ini diperoleh 2 isolat bakteri yang berpotensi dikembangkan sebagai bakteri antagonis penghambat aktivitas bakteri proteolitik perombak bokar dalam proses penyimpanan. Kedua bakteri antagonis tersebut adalah isolat D1U1 yang berasal dari daun tanaman karet dan isolat A2U2 yang berasal dari akar tanaman karet, yang menghasilkan rata-rata zona hambat terluas berturut-turut berdiameter 11.37 dan 11.29 mm.
PENGARUH KOMBINASI PUPUK ORGANIK DAN HAYATI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI GALUR JAGUNG (ZEA MAYS. L) HASIL SELEKSI EFISIEN HARA PADA LAHAN KERING MARGINAL Moelyohadi, Yopie; Harun, M. Umar; Munandar, Munandar; Hayati, Renih; Gofar, Nuni
Jurnal Lahan Suboptimal: Journal of Suboptimal Lands Vol 2, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Pusat Unggulan Riset Pengembangan Lahan Suboptimal (PUR-PLSO) Universitas Sriwijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (453.735 KB) | DOI: 10.33230/JLSO.2.2.2013.50

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This study aimed to study the growth and yield of maize crop nutrient  efficient  selection against  the  combination of different types of organic fertilizers and bio-fertilizers at low dose levels of chemical fertilizer on marginal dry land for the development of technological innovation fertilization on maize crops to reduce the use of chemical fertilizer on marginal dry land. This study was conducted in the field trials of Agro Techno Park (ATP), the Ministry of Research and Technology, South Sumatra from  January  to May  2012.   The experimental design used was SplitPlotdesign with three replications.   . The main plot treatment was dose levels of chemical fertilizer consists of : P1 = 50 % standard dose of ATP ( 200 kg urea , 50 kg SP36 and 25 kg KCl/ha ) and P2 = 25 % standard dose of ATP ( 100 kg urea , 25 kg SP36 KCl and 1.25 kg/ha) . treatment subplot , is the combined delivery of this type of organic fertilizer + biofertilizer types , comprising : KHO = control ( without organic fertilizer + biofertilizer ) , KH1 = composted cow manure + mycorrhiza , KH2 = composted cow manure + bacterial phosphate solvent , KH3 = composted chicken manure + biological mycorrhizae , KH4 = composted chicken manure + bacterial phosphate solvent , KH5 = compost straw corn + mycorrhizae , KH6= composted maize straw + bacteria phosphate solvent , KH7 = compost Legume cover crop ( LCC ) + Mycorrhiza and compost KH 8= legume cover crop (LCC) + solvent bacteria Phosphate.  The results showed that chicken manure compost fertilizer + fertilizer mycorrhizal give the best effect on the growth and yield of dryland corn yields marginal with an average of 9.70 tons of dry cobs/ha and the combined treatment of chemical fertilizer at 50 % level and composting chicken manure + mycorrhizal give the best effect on the growth and yield of maize in marginal dry land , with an average yield reached 10.51 tons of dry seed/acre.
PEMANFAATAN BERBAGAI JENIS PUPUK HAYATI PADA BUDIDAYA TANAMAN JAGUNG(ZEA MAYS. L) EFISIEN HARA DI LAHAN KERING MARGINAL Moelyohadi, Yopie; Harun, M. Umar; Hayati, Renih; Gofar, Nuni
Jurnal Lahan Suboptimal: Journal of Suboptimal Lands Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Pusat Unggulan Riset Pengembangan Lahan Suboptimal (PUR-PLSO) Universitas Sriwijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (402.47 KB) | DOI: 10.33230/JLSO.1.1.2012.6

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Moelyohadi et al., 2012. The Use of  Various Types of Biofertilizers on Cultivation of  Nutrient Efficient Corn Genotypes(Zea mays L.  in Marginal Dry Land. JLSO 1(1):31-39.The study aimed at  obtaining nutrient efficient corn genotypes that give the best response to various types of biological fertilizers at low-level doses of chemical fertilizer in marginal drylands. This study was conducted in the field trials of Agro Techno Park (ATP), the Ministry of Research and Technology, South Sumatra from May to September 2011. The experimental design used was SplitPlotdesign  with three replications. The main plot treatments consisted of: (H0): without biofertilizer, (H1): biofertilizer:-mycorrhizae and (H2): BPF biological fertilizers. Subplot treatments, consisting of three corn genotypes for the selection of efficient nutrient properties, are genotypes  B-41 (G1), L-164 (G2), S-194 (G3)  and onehybrid variety:BISI-816 (G4) as agenotypecomparator. Alltreatmentunitswere givenlow dosesof chemicalfertilizerthat is 50% of theATPstandarddose(200kgUrea, SP-36 50kgand 25kgKClha-1).  The results showed that mycorrhizal fertilizer produced the highest corn production, which is 6.08 ton dry seed / acre and genotype B-41 shows a more adaptive growth in marginal dry land with a production  of 7.27 tons of dry  seed /acre  and the combined treatment of mycorrhizal fertilizer and genotype B-41 gave the highest production  of 8.57 tons of dry seed / acre 
PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL PADI PADA INSEPTISOL ASAL RAWA LEBAK YANG DIINOKULASI BERBAGAI KONSORSIUM BAKTERI PENYUMBANG UNSUR HARA Wuriesyliane, Wuriesyliane; Gofar, Nuni; Madjid, Abdul; Widjajanti, Hary; Putu SR, Ni Luh
Jurnal Lahan Suboptimal: Journal of Suboptimal Lands Vol 2, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Pusat Unggulan Riset Pengembangan Lahan Suboptimal (PUR-PLSO) Universitas Sriwijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (570.646 KB) | DOI: 10.33230/JLSO.2.1.2013.32

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The aim of this research was to study the effect of multisynergism bacterial isolates growth of rice plants as well as to obtain best composition of endophytic bacterial isolates, Azotobacter, Azospirilium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria in spurring growth of rice plants. This research was conducted in October 2012 to February 2013. This study arranged in a completely randomized design (All treatments of multiple bacterial isolates resulted in increase of soil N x P Content). The results showed that multibacterial isolates B (endophytic bacteria + Azospirillum) increased vegetative and generative growth of rice plants. Treatment G (composition of endophytic bacterial isolates, Azotobacter, Azospirilium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria) can increase rice yields. Some soil N and P content increased in response to all treatments of multiple bacterial isolates. The similar result was also observed in the N and P uptake that some multiple bacterial isolates improved N and P uptake of plants
APLIKASI ISOLAT BAKTERI HIDROKARBONOKLASTIK ASAL RIZOSFER MANGROVE PADA TANAH TERCEMAR MINYAK BUMI Gofar, Nuni
Jurnal Lahan Suboptimal: Journal of Suboptimal Lands Vol 1, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Pusat Unggulan Riset Pengembangan Lahan Suboptimal (PUR-PLSO) Universitas Sriwijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (535.076 KB) | DOI: 10.33230/JLSO.1.2.2012.17

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Gofar. 2012. Application of Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria Isolates from Mangrove Rhizosphere on Petroleum Polluted Soil. JLSO 1(2):123-129.This research was aimed at studying the ability of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria to reduce total petroleum hydrocarbon of petroleum polluted soil. The hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of mangrove grown on petroleum contaminated soil in Sungsang, Sumatra Selatan. The samples were taken using a defined sampling method from the oil contaminated areas. Soil samples around the roots of mangrove plants were randomly taken in the contaminated    area.  Isolates obtained from the isolation and selection of bacteria from mangrove forests were overhauled at the laboratory-scale using oil-enriched medium following  a completely randomized design. Nine isolates of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were found to be  capable of growing on petroleum contained medium in vitro. Two best isolates in degrading petroleum hydrocarbon compound were Pseudomonas alcaligenes (I5) and Alcaligenes facealis (I8). P. alcaligenes and A. facealis were able to decrease TPH up to 63% and 70% respectively. The ability of these isolates in degrading hydrocarbon compound was 6.5-7.0 times higher than the control.