Eko Handiwirawan
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Potencyand Geneticdiversity of Bali Cattle Handiwirawan, Eko; ., Subandriyo
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 14, No 3 (2004)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1116.118 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v14i3.802

Abstract

Bali cattle are important indigenous cattle due to high population and wide spread in Indonesia. Increasing meat and cattle imports to fulfill the local demand should be able to motivate related parties to improve productivity of Indonesian cattle through good management, including Bali cattle. Several good characteristics are possessed by Bali cattle, particularly the adaptation capability in environment with poor feed quality and they possess good fertility. The government decision to determine Province of Bali is as a protected zone for other cattle breed in order to conserve Bali cattle is very reasonable considering that Indonesia is the gene center of Bali cattle and the first domestication place of Bali cattle . Genetic improvements ofBali cattle have been done at pure breed zone (Province of Bali) through selection and progeny testing at P3Bali and succeeds in obtaining cattle with good Estimated Breeding Value. Elite bulls obtained through the program are expected to be able to entirely improve Bali cattle in Indonesia through Artificial Insemination program. The improvement of genetic quality by crossing with Bos taurus and Bos indicus have been done at livestock sources regions and have been able to produce crossbred having good productivity as final stock. There is tendency to continuously improve the genetic composition ofBos taurus through artificial insemination at farmers level. The ideal genetic composition of crossbred needs to be evaluated to reach optimal genotype composition. Key words: Bali cattle, conservation, genetic improvement
Performances of the first and second generation composite breed resulting from crossing between local Sumatra sheep and hair sheep. ., Subandriyo; Setiadi, Bambang; Rangkuti, M; Diwyanto, K; Doloksaribu, M; Batubara, Leo P; Romjali, Endang; Eliaser, Simo; Handiwirawan, Eko
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 2 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i2.99

Abstract

Improving sheep productivity can be conducted by genetic improvement and improving environmental factors. Genetic improvement usually can be done by selection and creating composite or synthetic breed by crossbreeding. Composite breed created by crossbreeding between different breeds and followed by selection. The study of crossing between Sumatra sheep with fat-tail sheep from East Java, St . Croix hair sheep (US) and Barbados Blackbelly hair sheep has been carried out since 1986, and show that the crossbred are better in term of production and reproduction . In 1996/1997, the first generation (F1) of composite breed (KOM) has been created by crossing between Barbados Cross (BC) rams and St . Croix Cross (HC) ewes or reciprocally. The second generation (F2) of composite breed has been created by inter-se mating . However, F1-KOM and F2-KOM  vary in their performances, therefore selection should be conducted. The results showed that birth weight and weaning weight of crossing between BC rams and HC ewes tended to be heavier than those of reciprocal crossing between HC rams and BC ewes, but the differences were not significant (P>0 .05) . Birth weight and weaning weight of crossing between BC rams with HC ewes and reciprocal cross were 2.48 _+ 0.70 kg (n=791), 12 .50 _+ 3 .26 kg (n=640) and 2.37 _+ 0.62 kg (n=147), 12 .29 _+ 3.30kg (n=122), respectively . Meanwhile, observations of inter-se mating of Fl-KOM showed that the weight at the first mating was 26 .7 _+ 3.82 kg (n=80), age of dam at the first lambing was 15 .7 _+ 1 .73 months (n=83), weight at post-partum was 29 .86 _+ 3 .30 kg, and litter size at the first parity was 1 .43 _+ 0.59 (n=83) . The mean of age at the first mating of KOM was around 10 .7 months. Mean of mating weight at the second parity was 28 .29 +_ 3 .51 kg (n=11), age of dam at the  second lambing was 20.6 _+ 1 .99 month (n=11), post-partum weight was 26 .92 _+ 4.03 kg (n=11) and litter size was 1 .64 _+ 0.81 (n=11) . Weaning weight of Fl-KOM, F2-KOM, BC, HC and St. Croix (H) after adjusted by season, sex, age of dam and type of birth were significantly different among Fl-KOM with F2-KOM, BC, HC, and H. However, there were no significantly different among F2-KOM with BC and HC. The results of the study indicated that for improving selection respons, the corrections or adjustments of environmentally induced superiority (sex, type of birth and age of dam at lambing) for every genotype and certain generation should be conducted, in order to increase the rate of genetic improvement.   Key words : Composite breed, first generation, second generation
Performances of composite genotype resulting from crossingbetween local sumatera and hair sheep under confinement condition ., Subandriyo; Setiadi, Bambang; Handiwirawan, Eko; Suparyanto, Agus
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 5, No 2 (2000)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (205.448 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v5i2.202

Abstract

Under semi-intensive conditions, the composite genotype (K) (25% Barbados Blackbelly; BB, 25% St. Croix; SC, 50% Sumatra Thin Tail; DETS) showed relatively have similar weaning weight as compared to other contemporary crossbred, therefore under intensive conditions (confined), they are expected to have better performances. The objective of the study are to find performances of the second generation composite genotype lambs and the first generation performances of the ewes, as well as several genetics parameters under intensive conditions, and compared to the Barbados Blackbelly Cross (BC) as contemporary crossbred. The growth of pre- and post-weaning of BB crossbred (BC) and the second generation of composite genotype (K-F2) are relatively the same. Growth curve using Von Bertalanffy model with the equation of Wt (t) = A*(1-B*e**(- K*t)), show that the equation for BC is Wt (t) = 26.8(1-0.92e**(-0.01t) and for K-F2 is Wt(t) = 26.1(1-0.92e**(-0.01t). This equation indicate that the growth of BC and K-F2 is not significantly different. The BC and K-F2 genotype reach maturity at the weight of 26.8 and 26.1 kg, respectively, and both with rate of reaching maturity of 0.01. Mating weight and weight at lambing of those two genotypes are around 29 - 30 kg dan 31 kg, respectively. The mean of litter size of BC and K-F1 are 1.52 and 1.48, respectively or around 1.5. The average litter size at weaning are 1.39 and 1.34, respectively for BC and K-F1. This means that pre-weaning mortality are around 5.37 and 9.76%, respectively for BC and K-F1. The lambing interval of BC and K-F1 are 211 and 223 days, or 0.58 and 0.61 year, respectively. Therefore the reproductive rate (RR) of the respective genotype are 1.39/0.58 = 2.39 and 1.34/0.61 = 2.19, respectively. The average of litter weight at weaning (LWW) of BC x BC, SC crossbred (HC) x BC and K-F1 x K-F1 are 11.62, 12.60 and 11.83 kg, respectively. Therefore based on the ewe genotype the LWW of BC and K-F1 are 11.74 and 11.83 kg, respectively. Flock productivity (FP) for those two genotypes per year are 20.24 and 19.39 kg, respectively for BC and K-F1. Dam productivity index (DPI) that calculated as /ewe weight for those two genotypes are 0.67 and 0.66, respectively for BC and K-F1. Meanwhile, the flock efficiency index (FEI) that calculated as FEI = FP/ewe weight0.75 for the respective genotypes are 1.57 and 1.54 for BC and K-F1. The estimates of repeatability of litter weight at weaning show relatively low value (0,092), therefore the estimate of MPPA (Most Probable Producing Ability) for predicting the future productivity is relatively the same. The estimate of MPPA for litter weight at weaning (LWW) for the respective genotype are 11.79 and 11.81 kg, respectively for BC and K-F1. Results of the study show that performances of composite genotypes (F) and the contemporary crossbred (BC) are relatively similar in the traits of growth, dam productivity and the estimate of MPPA.   Key words : Composite sheep, performance of production and reproduction, intensif condition
Behaviour and production traits correlation of five breeds of sheep Handiwirawan, Eko; Noor, R.R; Sumantri, C; ., Subandriyo
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 17, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (193.887 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v17i3.698

Abstract

Information about correlations among behavioral traits and production traits may facilitate using easily measured traits to be used as alternative criteria for indirect selection to improve other traits in sheep. The purpose of this study was to estimate correlations among behavioral and production traits of five breeds of sheep.  A total of 128 head of weaned lambs and 168 ewes with nursing lambs of five breeds were used in this study, i.e. Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC), Composite Garut (KG), Local Garut (LG), Composite Sumatra (KS) and St. Croix Cross (SC). Temperament was assessed in a test arena, for subsequent association with growth rate and ewe productivity. Analysis of variance of production and behavioral traits among breeds was carried out using PROC GLM of SAS software Ver. 9.0.  PROCCORR was used to estimate correlations among production and behavioral variables. Weaned lambs that were more docile towards the observer had higher daily gains.  Ewes that bleated more frequently when separated from their lamb had higher lamb weaning weights and lamb survival than ewes bleating fewer times under the same conditions. In BC ewes, a positive correlation was observed between frequency of bleats and lamb survival. Key Words: Sheep, Behavior, Growth rate, Ewe productivity
Behaviour characteristics estimation tool of genetic distance between sheep breeds Handiwirawan, Eko; Noor, Ronny Rachman; Sumantri, Cece; ., Subandriyo .
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 19, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1210.684 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v19i4.1092

Abstract

Information on the estimation of genetic distances and differentiation among sheep breeds are needed in crossing and conservation programs. This research aims to study of utilizing behaviour characteristic variables to differentiate and estimate genetic distance between the sheep breeds.  The study was conducted at Cilebut and Bogor Animal House of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production.  Five sheep breeds used were Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC), Garut Composite (KG), Garut Local (LG), Sumatera Composite (KS) and St. Croix Cross (SC), with total sample of 50 heads.  A total of 10 variables of behavior traits were observed in this study. Analysis of variances and significance tests were applied to compare between sheep breeds and performed for all of behavior traits using PROC GLM of SAS Program ver. 9.0. PROC CANDISC was used for canonical discriminant analyses, the hierarchical clustering was performed using the PROC CLUSTER by Average Linkage method (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Averages, UPGMA), and the dendogram for the five sheep breeds was described using PROC TREE.  The differentiator variables for the behavior traits were standing and feeding duration.  The canonical plotting based on behavioral characteristics could differentiate BC, KS and LG (with KG and SC) sheeps. Estimation of genetic distance based on the behavior traits is less accurate for grouping of sheep breeds. Key Words: Behaviour Characteristic, Differentiation, Genetic Distance
Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in Mono Amine Oxidase A (MAO-A) Gene as a genetic marker for aggressiveness in sheep Handiwirawan, Eko; Noor, Ronny R; Sumantri, C; ., Subandriyo; Inounu, I
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 17, No 4 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v17i4.692

Abstract

In the population, there are aggressive sheep in a small number which requires special management those specific animal house and routine management. The purpose of this study was to identify the variation of DNA marker SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) as a genetic marker for the aggressive trait in several of sheep breed. The identification of point mutations in exon 8 of MAO-A gene associated with aggressive behavior in sheep may be further useful to become of DNA markers for the aggressive trait in sheep. Five of sheep breed were used, i.e.: Barbados Black belly Cross sheep (BC), Composite Garut (KG), Local Garut (LG), Composite Sumatra (KS) and St. Cross Croix (SC). Duration of ten behavior traits, blood serotonin concentrations and DNA sequence of exon 8 of MAO-A gene from the sheep aggressive and nonaggressive were observed. PROC GLM of SAS Ver. 9.0 program was used to analyze variable behavior and blood serotonin concentrations. DNA polymorphism in exon 8 of MAO-A gene was analyzed using the MEGA software Ver. 4.0. The results show that the percentage of the aggressive rams of each breed was less than 10 percent; except for the KS sheep is higher (23%).  Based on the duration of behavior, aggressive sheep group was not significantly different with non aggressive sheep group, except duration of care giving and drinking behavior. It is known that concentration of blood serotonin in aggressive and non aggressive rams was not significantly different. The aggressive trait in sheep has a mechanism or a different cause like that occurs in mice and humans. In this study, aggressive behavior in sheep was not associated with a mutation in exon 8 of MAO-A gene. Key Words: Sheep, Aggressive, Exon 8 Of MAO-A Gene, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Outermost Small Islands in Indonesia for Quarantine Area and Livestock Development Sutedi, Endang; Herdiawan, Iwan; Handiwirawan, Eko
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 27, No 4 (2017): December 2017
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1189.032 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v27i4.1692

Abstract

Indonesia has about 17,506 islands consisting of large and small islands. Outermost small islands are direct boundary of Indonesia with neighboring countries. These outermost islands have the potency to be used as quarantine area and for livestock development, especially beef cattle in order to support the development of food security of meat. Some of outermost islands are Jemaja island in Riau Province, Singkil island in Aceh Province and Naduk island in Bangka Belitung Province. Criteria to determine quarantine area and livestock development are availability of natural resources (fresh water and forage), free of contagious diseases, human resources, market access, and transportation. This paper describes about the condition and forage availability in those three islands and their surrounding area. Those islands have potential variety of forage with different carrying capacities. Type of grass that has been adapted in the outermost islands are Paspalum conjugatum, Axonopus compressus, Cynodon dactylon, Cynodon plectostachyus, and Panicum repens.
Behaviour characteristics estimation tool of genetic distance between sheep breeds Handiwirawan, Eko; Noor, Ronny Rachman; Sumantri, Cece; ., Subandriyo .
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 19, No 4 (2014): DECEMBER 2014
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1210.684 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v19i4.1092

Abstract

Information on the estimation of genetic distances and differentiation among sheep breeds are needed in crossing and conservation programs. This research aims to study of utilizing behaviour characteristic variables to differentiate and estimate genetic distance between the sheep breeds.  The study was conducted at Cilebut and Bogor Animal House of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production.  Five sheep breeds used were Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC), Garut Composite (KG), Garut Local (LG), Sumatera Composite (KS) and St. Croix Cross (SC), with total sample of 50 heads.  A total of 10 variables of behavior traits were observed in this study. Analysis of variances and significance tests were applied to compare between sheep breeds and performed for all of behavior traits using PROC GLM of SAS Program ver. 9.0. PROC CANDISC was used for canonical discriminant analyses, the hierarchical clustering was performed using the PROC CLUSTER by Average Linkage method (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Averages, UPGMA), and the dendogram for the five sheep breeds was described using PROC TREE.  The differentiator variables for the behavior traits were standing and feeding duration.  The canonical plotting based on behavioral characteristics could differentiate BC, KS and LG (with KG and SC) sheeps. Estimation of genetic distance based on the behavior traits is less accurate for grouping of sheep breeds.
Performances of composite genotype resulting from crossingbetween local sumatera and hair sheep under confinement condition ., Subandriyo; Setiadi, Bambang; Handiwirawan, Eko; Suparyanto, Agus
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 5, No 2 (2000): JUNE 2000
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (205.448 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v5i2.202

Abstract

Under semi-intensive conditions, the composite genotype (K) (25% Barbados Blackbelly; BB, 25% St. Croix; SC, 50% Sumatra Thin Tail; DETS) showed relatively have similar weaning weight as compared to other contemporary crossbred, therefore under intensive conditions (confined), they are expected to have better performances. The objective of the study are to find performances of the second generation composite genotype lambs and the first generation performances of the ewes, as well as several genetics parameters under intensive conditions, and compared to the Barbados Blackbelly Cross (BC) as contemporary crossbred. The growth of pre- and post-weaning of BB crossbred (BC) and the second generation of composite genotype (K-F2) are relatively the same. Growth curve using Von Bertalanffy model with the equation of Wt (t) = A*(1-B*e**(- K*t)), show that the equation for BC is Wt (t) = 26.8(1-0.92e**(-0.01t) and for K-F2 is Wt(t) = 26.1(1-0.92e**(-0.01t). This equation indicate that the growth of BC and K-F2 is not significantly different. The BC and K-F2 genotype reach maturity at the weight of 26.8 and 26.1 kg, respectively, and both with rate of reaching maturity of 0.01. Mating weight and weight at lambing of those two genotypes are around 29 - 30 kg dan 31 kg, respectively. The mean of litter size of BC and K-F1 are 1.52 and 1.48, respectively or around 1.5. The average litter size at weaning are 1.39 and 1.34, respectively for BC and K-F1. This means that pre-weaning mortality are around 5.37 and 9.76%, respectively for BC and K-F1. The lambing interval of BC and K-F1 are 211 and 223 days, or 0.58 and 0.61 year, respectively. Therefore the reproductive rate (RR) of the respective genotype are 1.39/0.58 = 2.39 and 1.34/0.61 = 2.19, respectively. The average of litter weight at weaning (LWW) of BC x BC, SC crossbred (HC) x BC and K-F1 x K-F1 are 11.62, 12.60 and 11.83 kg, respectively. Therefore based on the ewe genotype the LWW of BC and K-F1 are 11.74 and 11.83 kg, respectively. Flock productivity (FP) for those two genotypes per year are 20.24 and 19.39 kg, respectively for BC and K-F1. Dam productivity index (DPI) that calculated as /ewe weight for those two genotypes are 0.67 and 0.66, respectively for BC and K-F1. Meanwhile, the flock efficiency index (FEI) that calculated as FEI = FP/ewe weight0.75 for the respective genotypes are 1.57 and 1.54 for BC and K-F1. The estimates of repeatability of litter weight at weaning show relatively low value (0,092), therefore the estimate of MPPA (Most Probable Producing Ability) for predicting the future productivity is relatively the same. The estimate of MPPA for litter weight at weaning (LWW) for the respective genotype are 11.79 and 11.81 kg, respectively for BC and K-F1. Results of the study show that performances of composite genotypes (F) and the contemporary crossbred (BC) are relatively similar in the traits of growth, dam productivity and the estimate of MPPA.   Key words : Composite sheep, performance of production and reproduction, intensif condition
Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in Mono Amine Oxidase A (MAO-A) Gene as a genetic marker for aggressiveness in sheep Handiwirawan, Eko; Noor, Ronny R; Sumantri, C; ., Subandriyo; Inounu, I
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 17, No 4 (2012): DECEMBER 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v17i4.692

Abstract

In the population, there are aggressive sheep in a small number which requires special management those specific animal house and routine management. The purpose of this study was to identify the variation of DNA marker SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) as a genetic marker for the aggressive trait in several of sheep breed. The identification of point mutations in exon 8 of MAO-A gene associated with aggressive behavior in sheep may be further useful to become of DNA markers for the aggressive trait in sheep. Five of sheep breed were used, i.e.: Barbados Black belly Cross sheep (BC), Composite Garut (KG), Local Garut (LG), Composite Sumatra (KS) and St. Cross Croix (SC). Duration of ten behavior traits, blood serotonin concentrations and DNA sequence of exon 8 of MAO-A gene from the sheep aggressive and nonaggressive were observed. PROC GLM of SAS Ver. 9.0 program was used to analyze variable behavior and blood serotonin concentrations. DNA polymorphism in exon 8 of MAO-A gene was analyzed using the MEGA software Ver. 4.0. The results show that the percentage of the aggressive rams of each breed was less than 10 percent; except for the KS sheep is higher (23%).  Based on the duration of behavior, aggressive sheep group was not significantly different with non aggressive sheep group, except duration of care giving and drinking behavior. It is known that concentration of blood serotonin in aggressive and non aggressive rams was not significantly different. The aggressive trait in sheep has a mechanism or a different cause like that occurs in mice and humans. In this study, aggressive behavior in sheep was not associated with a mutation in exon 8 of MAO-A gene. Key Words: Sheep, Aggressive, Exon 8 Of MAO-A Gene, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism