Abdul Hapid
Pusat Penelitian Tenaga Listrik dan Mekatronik LIPI, Komp. LIPI Bandung, Jl Sangkuriang, Gd 20, Lt 2, Bandung, Jawa Barat 40135

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IDENTIFIKASI PERUBAHAN MINERAL SELAMA PROSES PEMANASAN PELET KOMPOSIT NIKEL DENGAN ANALISIS DIFRAKSI SINAR X ( IDENTIFICATION OF MINERAL CHANGES DURING HEATING OF NICKEL COMPOSITE USING X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS ) Permatasari, Nur Vita; Kawigraha, Adji; Hapid, Abdul; Wibowo, Nurhadi
Majalah Ilmiah Pengkajian Industri Vol 12, No 1 (2018): Majalah Ilmiah Pengkajian Industri
Publisher : BPPT

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29122/mipi.v12i1.479

Abstract

Logam nikel didapat dari proses pengolahan bijih nikel yang salah satunya adalah saprolit. Pada penelitian ini proses reduksi pelet komposit yang merupakan masa campuran bijih nikel serta batubara kadar rendah dan bahan tambahan dilakukan dalam tungku tabung. Proses reduksi dilakukan pada temperatur 450 °C, 700 °C serta 1100 °C selama 0 jam. Proses reduksi juga dilakukan pada temperatur yang lebih tinggi yaitu 1300 °C namun dengan pemanasan terlebih dahulu pada temperatur 700 °C dan ditahan pada 1 jam dan 2 jam. Produk pelet komposit dianalisis dengan metode difraksi sinar X untuk mengetahui kandungan mineralnya. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa pemanasan pelet komposit menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan warna dari warna coklat menjadi abu-abu. Pemanasan juga menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan komposisi mineral dari masing-masing pelet. Mineral-mineral yang terdapat dalam pelet komposit dan produknya adalah antigorit, klinoklor, kuarsa, enstatit, forsterit,gutit, hematit, magnetit, nikel dan besi. Pemanasan pelet pada temperatur rendah yang lebih lama akan menghasilkan jumlah logam besi yang lebih rendah. Nickel is obtained from saprolite through nickel ore processing. In this study, reduction of composite pellet has been done in a tube furnace. The pellet comsist of nickel ore, coal and additive. The reduction process carried out at 450˚C, 700˚C and 1100˚C for 0 hour. Moreover the reduction is also carried out at 700 °C during 1 and 2 hours followed by heating at 1300˚C for 2 and 1 hours. Reduction product was analyzed by X-Ray diffraction to determine the mineral content. The results indicate that the heating causing color changes from red brown to gray. Heating changes the mineral composition of the pellet. The minerals are antigorite, clinoclore, quartz, enstatite, forsterite, goethite, hematite, magnetite, nickel and iron. Heating the pellets at low temperature longer will produce lower iron.
PENGARUH KONSENTRASI DAN LAMA PERENDAMAN BAHAN PENGAWET DAUN TEMBELEKAN (Lantana camara L.) PADA KAYU BAYUR (Pterospermum sp.) TERHADAP SERANGAN RAYAP TANAH (Coptotermes sp.) Salmayanti, Salmayanti; Ariyanti, Ariyanti; Hapid, Abdul
Warta Rimba Vol 1, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Warta Rimba

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Abstract

There are about ± 4.000 wood species in Indonesia. In small amount of that woods were categorized as durable wood (Class I and II) while mostly (80-85%) were categorized non-durable wood (Class III to V). This study was aimed to determine the effects of Lantana camara L. leaves extracts as preservation material of Pterospermum sp wood on the Coptotermes sp. attacks. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Forestry science, Forestry Faculty, Tadulako University, from May to June 2013. The study was using completely randomized design with pattern. The treatment of study was applying two factors. First, concentration of L.camara L. extracts with three levels, namely ;9,09 g (K1), 13,04 g (K2), and 16,66 g (K3). Second, Dipping time with three levels, namely: 1 day (L1), 3 days (L3), and 5 days (L5). Data was analyzed by using analysis (Anova).The results showed that water contents and density of Pterospermum sp. woods was 8,37% and 0,321 g/cm³, respectively. Hence, the highest weight loss was achieved by K1L1 combination treatment (9,99%) while the lowest was achieved by K3L5 combination treatment (8,93%). Generally, concentration of L.camara L. and dipping time extracts did not affect significantly the weight loss of Pterospermum sp woods. Keywords: Concentration, Dipping, Lantana camara L., Pterospermum sp., Coptotermes sp.
KERAGAMAN JENIS RAYAP PADA PERUMAHAN DI KABUPATEN SIGI SULAWESI TENGAH Hapid, Abdul; Ariyanti, Ariyanti; Zulkaidhah, Zulkaidhah
ForestSains Vol 15, No 1 (2017): Desember
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

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Abstract

Termite control activities in Indonesia, particularly in Central Sulawesi until the moment still confront obstacles in the forms not yet complete information on the diversity of the termite itself and knowledge of the characteristics bioecology and habit in this spread. This is the cause so far undertaken control measures are still limited to the spraying of chemicals that require high costs and have negative impacts on the environment and the potential to kill organisms that are beneficial. This study was aimed known the diversity of termitesattacking in the buiding Sigi District, Central Sulawesi.The study was conducted at termite habitat. These termite sample were collected by getting baitting method and direct taking of the habitat of termites, which continued with the identification of activities for determining the types of termites. The result showed that there are six genera of termites from 15 Subdistrict in Sigi District were Microcerotermes, Odontotermes, Nasutitermes, Schedorhinotermes dan Parrhinotermes.
KERAGAMAN JENIS RAYAP PADA KEBUN MONOKULTUR KAKAO DI HUTAN PENDIDIKAN UNIVERSITAS TADULAKO SULAWESI TENGAH Zulkaidhah, Zulkaidhah; Hapid, Abdul; Ariyanti, Ariyanti
ForestSains Vol 14, No 2 (2017): Juni
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

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Abstract

This research had the objectives  to find out  examine the structure and the termite community monoculture cocoa gardens. The research was conducted from March 2016 to May 2016 in Education Forest of Tadulako University  area around the village 0f Bukit Makmur, Bolano Lambunu Subdistrict, Parigi Moutong Regency. The observation of termites was conducted using transect method. Parameters observed were environmental parameters, and microclimate. The total diversity of termite species found was 7. the biomass of Nekromass on the monoculture cocoa  system was 0.92 Mg/ha, and litter was 7 Mg/ha. Plants in the garden is dominated by cocoa as a staple crop, undergrowth found 20 species. microclimate at the study site, the average soil temperature, air temperature, humidity and the soil moisture content were 23.82 ° C,  24.29 ° C, 78.11%, and 39.28% respectively.
PENGARUH KONSENTRASI DAN LAMA PERENDAMAN KAYU SENGON (Paraserianthes falcataria L. Nielsen) DALAM EKSTRAK DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata L.) TERHADAP SERANGAN RAYAP TANAH (Coptotermes sp.) Ardiansa, Budi; Ariyanti, Ariyanti; Hapid, Abdul
Warta Rimba Vol 2, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Warta Rimba

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Abstract

Wood has many contribution for life. It can be useful for bueldings, huose ware, and for other using. The use of wood are followed by huma needs for manufactured wood in creasingly, while long life wood tend to be more scarce and higher in price. This research aims to know the influence of the concentration and the immersion time for sengon wood treated in extracted soursop leaf to defence from subterranean termite. This research was conducted in both forestry Laboratorium, Departement and faculty of forestry, University of Tadulako and in rural of Baiya, Distict of Tawaely. Starting from Desember 2013 till Februari 2014. This research used a complete randomized factorial design. The first factor was the concentration of extracted soursop leaf (A) was 4.76% (A1), 13.04% (A2) and 16.66% (A3). The second factor was the immersion time for sengon wood treated in extracted soursop leaf (B) was 5 days (B1), 10 days (B2), and 15 days (B3). The results show that the highest of losing weight is in the control (A0B1) with 3.3%, and the lowest of losing weight is in the concentration of 150g with 10 days immersion (A1B2) with 1.21%. The concentration of extracted soursop leaf and the immertion time of sengon wood did not significantly influence to the lose of weight in tested sample. Keywords: Concentration, Dipping, Paraserianthes falcataria L. Nielsen, Annona muricata L, Coptotermes sp.
RETENSI BAHAN PENGAWET EKSTRAK DAUN TEMBELEKAN (Lantana camara L) PADA BEBERAPA JENIS KAYU DAN EFEKTIFITASNYA TERHADAP SERANGAN RAYAP TANAH (Coptotermes sp.) Riska, Riska; Erniwati, Erniwati; Hapid, Abdul
Warta Rimba Vol 2, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Warta Rimba

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Abstract

High-grade durable wood could not be longer to meet the various needs, this caused by limited and the more expensive price, so it must use low grade durable wood. The use of low grade durable wood should be followed by the wood preservation process. This study aims to determine the preservative retention of leaves tembelekan (Lantana camara L) on bayur (Pterospermum sp), benuang (Octomeles sumatrana Miq) and durian (Durio zibethinzs) and its effectiveness against subterranean termites (Coptotermes sp), attack. It was conducted at the Laboratory of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University Tadulako in March to june 2014. Testing Subterranean termites (Coptotermes sp) test was carried out at the Maku Village, District of Dolo, Sigi Regency, Central Sulawesi, using a completely randomized design (CRD), with treatment of different wood species and 3 days soaking duration at a concentration of 1% preservative with 6 replications. The results show the moisture content of bayur, benuang and durian woods are 13,10%, 10,81% and 11,35% respectively. The wood densiy of bayur 0,480g/cm3, benuang 0,277 g/cm3 and durian 0,402g/cm3 and the highest retention values is found at wood of durian 59,09 g/cm3 and the highest retention values is at bayur 41,67 g/cm3. In addition, the highest weeight loss (leas effectiveness) of 15,02% on the wood of bayur (control) and the lowest (highest Effectiveness) on wood of benuang 0,72%. Key words: Leaf extract of tembelekan, Lantana camara L, Octomeles sumatrana Miq, Pterospermum sp, durio sibethinzs
EFEKTIVITAS BAHAN PENGAWET ALAMI DARI TANAMAN TEMBELEKAN (Lantana camara L) PADA BEBERAPA JENIS KAYU TERHADAP SERANGAN RAYAP TANAH (Coptotermes sp.) Safitri, Risky; Erniwati, Erniwati; Hapid, Abdul
Warta Rimba Vol 2, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Warta Rimba

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Abstract

Many favorable properties of wood are available in almost all parts of the world, easily obtained in different shapes and sizes, relatively easy to process, as well as very decorative appearance. However, wood also has a weakness that could be damaged by a variety of factors either biological, physical, mechanical or chemical. In reality, the main factors causing damage to the wood are fungi, bacteria, insects and marine animals (marine borer). The organisms might damage the wood because they make as a shelter or as feed. Therefore, there should be conducted wood preservation to overcome the unfavorable properties of the woods. Wood preservation aims to extend the use of low-class durability of timber species such as Bayur (Pterospermum sp), Durian (Durio zibethinus) and Benuang (Octomeles sumatrana Miq). This study aimed at determining the effectiveness of a natural preservative tembelekan (Lantana camara L). The research was conducted at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Department of Forestry, Forestry Faculty, Tadulako University and Talise Mantikulore Sub-district, started from May to July 2013. The study was designed with the method of completely randomized design (CRD) with three wood species treatment, namely bayur, durian and benuang. Each was preserved with a natural preservatives of tembelekan extract with a concentraation of 13,04%. There were 10 samples of each type of wood, consisting of 5 test samples preserved and 5 controls (without preserrvatives). There were 30 test samples. The parameters observed were preservative effectiveness of the sample weight after feeding on soil termites. The study shows that highest natural preservative effectiveness on benuang wood was preserved with the sample weight loss of 2,25% and the lowest on bayur wood was preserved with the sample weight loss of 3,47% when they were compared with the control sample (without preservative). Using tembelekan extract might increase wood resistance to soil termite attacks. Keywords: Captotermes sp, Durio zibethinus, Lantana camara L, Octomeles sumatrana Miq, tembelekan.
POTENSI TUMBUHAN OBAT DI KAWASAN HUTAN TAMAN NASIONAL LORE LINDU (STUDI KASUS DESA NAMO KECAMATAN KULAWI, KABUPATEN SIGI) Hapid, Abdul
ForestSains Vol 14, No 1 (2016): Desember
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

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Abstract

Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP) is one of Biosphere Reserves, the habitat of various types of potential medicinal plants as an asset of biodiversity that should be managed properly for the welfare of the local communities and the ecosystem sustainability. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of medicinal plants in the area of Lore Lindu National Park, precisely in Namo Village, Kulawi Sub-district, Sigi District. Continuous strip sampling was opted as the research method by carrying out purposive sampling in the site where medicinal plants were discovered firstly, by establishing 5 (five) lines with a length of 100 m per line, each line consisted of 4 (four) plots, the distance between the line was 25 m. Total plots were 20 plots with 20 m x 20 m in size per plot. The study found out there were 18 species of medicinal plants that consisted of 14 families in Namo Village, Kulawi, Sigi. Subsequently, it also figure out the numbers of medicinal plants at tree level, pole level, sapling level, and seedling-understorey level, respectively, were 43; 160; 860; 20750 per hectare. Medicinal plant dominated the area at the tree level was Pterospermum celebicum Miq. with Importance Value Index (IVI) of 97.64%, at the pole level of was Huka (Gnetum gnemon L.) with IVI of 84.64%, at the sapling level of Huka (Gnetum gnemon L.) with IVI of 72.69%, and the seedlings and understorey level was Naho (Pandanus sp.) with IVI of 19.50%.
KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS RAYAP PADA LAHAN AGROFORESTRI DAN KEBUN KEMIRI DI DESA BAKUBAKULU KECAMATAN PALOLO KABUPATEN SIGI Hapid, Abdul; Zulkaidhah, Zulkaidhah
Biocelebes Vol. 13 No. 2 (2019)
Publisher : Biology Department, Mathematics and natural science, Tadulako University

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Abstract

Termites play important roles in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, and soil structure in tropical rain forests. When forests are replaced by agriculture, termite species richness, abundance, and function often decline. This research was aimed to determine diversity and composition of termites in three land use types (kemiri gardens, simple and complex agroforestry). Methods of sample collection using transects with a size of about 2 x 100 m, divided into 20 sections (2 x 5 m). The collected samples were collected for identification purposes. Variables measured the diversity of termites which includes the type and number of species (species richness) found in each land use. Diversity and abundance of species of termites were analyzed using the Shannon Diversity IndexWienner. The results showed that the total number of termite species founded in all area was 6 species comprising 2 families, i.e. termitidae and rhinotermitidae. Alpha diversity of termite founded in kemiri gardens was 4 species, and 5 species founded in complex agroforestry and 3 species founded in simple agroforestry. The highest frequency of termite species was 0,5 that achieved by Odontotermes sp in kemiri gardens and simple agroforestry, while the lowest frequency was 0,05 that achieved by Schedorhinotermes sp. in candlenut gardens. Further, the Shannon species diversity Index (H?) of each land use types were 0,93, 0,95 and 1,47 in simple agroforestry, kemiri gardens and complex agroforestry, respectively.
KERAGAMAN JENIS RAYAP PADA PERUMAHAN DI KABUPATEN SIGI SULAWESI TENGAH Hapid, Abdul; Ariyanti, Ariyanti; Zulkaidhah, Zulkaidhah
ForestSains Vol 15, No 1 (2017): Desember
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Termite control activities in Indonesia, particularly in Central Sulawesi until the moment still confront obstacles in the forms not yet complete information on the diversity of the termite itself and knowledge of the characteristics bioecology and habit in this spread. This is the cause so far undertaken control measures are still limited to the spraying of chemicals that require high costs and have negative impacts on the environment and the potential to kill organisms that are beneficial. This study was aimed known the diversity of termitesattacking in the buiding Sigi District, Central Sulawesi.The study wasconducted at termite habitat. These termite sample were collected by getting baitting method and direct taking of the habitat of termites, which continued with the identification of activities for determining the types of termites. The result showed that there are six genera of termites from  15  Subdistrict  in  Sigi  District  were  Microcerotermes,  Odontotermes,  Nasutitermes, Schedorhinotermes dan Parrhinotermes.