Ratih Dewanti Hariyadi
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor

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KAJIAN STANDAR CEMARAN MIKROBA DALAM PANGAN DI INDONESIA Martoyo, Pratiwi Yuniarti; Hariyadi, Ratih Dewanti; Rahayu, Winiati P
JURNAL STANDARDISASI Vol 16, No 2 (2014): Vol 16, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Badan Standardisasi Nasional

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Abstract

Standar cemaran mikroba pada pangan olahan di Indonesia termuat dalam Peraturan Kepala Badan POM tahun 2009 No. HK.00.06.1.52.4011 tentang Penetapan Batas Maksimum Cemaran Mikroba dan Kimia Dalam Makanan dan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) komoditas pangan. Dalam implementasinya, terdapat beberapa permasalahan dan kriteria yang tidak dapat dipenuhi karena terlalu ketat dan metode analisis yang tidak tersedia. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan pemenuhan standar cemaran mikroba dalam pangan di Indonesia dan beberapa negara lain di dunia terhadap kaidah kriteria mikrobiologi pangan yang dikembangkan Codex serta mengkaji kriteria cemaran mikroba pada pangan prioritas dan memberikan rekomendasi kriteria cemaran mikroba. Pengkajian dilakukan dengan membandingkan dan menganalisis kriteria mikrobiologi Indonesia dengan 10 standar negara lain yaitu Australia dan Selandia Baru, Eropa, Filipina, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong, India, Jepang, Singapura dan Afrika Selatan berdasarkan Codex Principles for The Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL 21-1997) yang sedang dalam proses revisi pada step 5/8. Studi kasus dilakukan pada beberapa jenis pangan prioritas berdasarkan permasalahan dan kriteria. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa Australia dan Selandia Baru, Eropa, Canada dan Filipina telah mengikuti kriteria Codex, sementara Indonesia, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Jepang, Singapura dan Afrika Selatan tidak. Hasil kajian juga menunjukkan bahwa standar mikrobiologi air minum dalam kemasan, kopi instan dan pangan steril komersial perlu revisi. Untuk tujuan verifikasi proses produksi dan penerimaan lot, direkomendasikan untuk menetapkan satu batas maksimum ALT. Penetapan kriteria mikrobiologi kopi instan tidak relevan, kecuali OTA. Persyaratan bagi pangan proses steril komersial dapat dilakukan dengan pemenuhan kecukupan proses sterilisasi komersial atau uji inkubasi untuk menetapkan mikroba pembusuk.
PENGHAMBATAN EKSTRAK ETANOL SEREH (CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS (DC) STAPF ) TERHADAP PRODUKSI VEROTOKSIN ESCHERICHIA COLI VEROTOKSIGENIK Cepeda, Gino Nemesio; Hariyadi, Ratih Dewanti; Supar, Supar
Jurnal Natur Indonesia Vol 13, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Universitas Riau

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (58.97 KB) | DOI: 10.31258/jnat.13.1.72-76

Abstract

Citronella was a spicy plant used as seasoning in Indonesian food. It was reported to have antimicrobial activity. Itsextract in form of volatile oil prepared by distilation can inhibit the growth of some bacteria. The objective of theresearch was to know the inhibition of ethanolic extract of the citronella on growth and verotoxin production ofverotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The assay of antimicrobial activity was done by using broth dilution and verocellassay. The results indicated that minimum inhibitory concentration of extract can inhibit effectively verotoxinproduction of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli.
SURVIVAL OF CRONOBACTER SAKAZAKII IN SKIM MILK DURING SPRAY DRYING, STORAGE AND RECONSTITUTION [KETAHANAN HIDUP CRONOBACTER SAKAZAKII DALAM SUSU SKIM SELAMA PROSES PENGERINGAN SEMPROT, PENYIMPANAN DAN REKONSTITUSI] Hariyadi, Ratih Dewanti; Larasati, Fenny; Nuraida, Lilis
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 23 No. 2 (2012): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (403.966 KB) | DOI: 10.6066/jtip.2012.23.2.186

Abstract

Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen known to survive dry conditions and its presence in powder infant formula (PIF) has been linked to several outbreaks. In Indonesia, isolation of this bacterium from various foods have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spray drying and storage humidity on the survival of C. sakazakii YRc3a in skim milk and their viability upon reconstitution. The survival of Cronobacter during spray drying was determined by comparing the number of bacteria before and after drying. The viability of Cronobacter in spray dried skim milk (SDSM) during storage was observed at weeks 1 to 8 and 12. At the same intervals, SDSM containing the pathogens was reconstituted at either 27°C or 50°C and the survivors were enumerated. The data were plotted to yield survival curves. Spray drying caused 4.19 log CFU/g reduction of Cronobacter and the bacteria experiencing drying were less sensitive to reconstitution at 50°C. During storage, the water activity of SDSM reached equilibrium at week 2 and afterwards, they started to decrease when stored at 50% or 90% RH, but maintained its viability at 70% RH. Storage at 50% and 90% RH accelerated the death rate of C. sakazakii YRc3a, resulting in the decline of the viable counts for 3 log cycles. At 50% RH, C. sakazakii Yrc3a decreased significantly, but the survivors exhibited increased heat resistance with the lowest reduction upon reconstitution at 50°C (0.16 log CFU/ml).
Kajian Isolat Bakteri Asam Laktat dalam Menurunkan Kolesterol Secara In Vitro dengan Keberadaan Oligosakarida Maryati, Yati; Nuraida, Lilis; Hariyadi, Ratih Dewanti
Agritech Vol 36, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (590.675 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.12865

Abstract

This work evaluated the abilities of five isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from different sources, i.e Lactobacillus fermentum S21209 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1-S27202 from tempe, Lactobacillus rhamnosus R23 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A38 from human breast milk and a commercially available human isolates Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC0051 in lowering cholesterol by in vitro and metabolizing the prebiotic oligosaccharide compounds. The effects of oligosaccharide compounds on the performance of the LAB isolates in lowering cholesterol were also evaluated. The tests were done in MRS based medium in vitro with or without oligosaccharides i.e. galactooligosacharrides (GOS), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, hydrolyzed inulin or combination of oligosaccharides as prebiotics. The results revealed that all isolates were able to reduce cholesterol in the medium, and the highest cholesterol reduction was observed for L. acidophilus FNCC0051 and L. rhamnosus R23. There are two different mechanism in the loweringof cholesterol; cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol binding on the cell surface. For the case of P. pentosaceus 1-A38, it involves the assimilation, while the other four isolates may involve cholesterol binding on the cell surface. In addition, the tested LAB’s has different ability to use prebiotics, as shown by the reduction of total sugar in the medium. Oligosaccharides metabolism by L. acidophilus FNCC0051 and L. rhamnosus R23 resulted in several organic acid and SCFA with lactic acid produced as the largest proportion followed by acetic acid. Furthermore, the proportion of propionic and butyric acids were influenced by the type of isolates and carbon source. L. acidophilus FNCC 0051 was able to reduce cholesterol in the MRS based medium with oligosaccharides and their combination as carbon source and cholesterol reducing ability seems to involve both assimilation and cholesterol binding on the cell surface.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini mengevaluasi lima isolat bakteri asam laktat (BAL) dari sumber yang berbeda, yaitu Lactobacillus fermentum S21209 dan Lactobacillus plantarum 1-S27202 dari tempe, Lactobacillus rhamnosus R23 dan Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A38 dari ASI dan isolat komersial Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 dari percernaan manusia dalam kemampuannya menurunkan kolesterol secara in vitro dan kemampuannya memetabolisme senyawa oligosakarida prebiotik. Pengaruh senyawa oligosakarida terhadap kemampuan isolat BAL terpilih untuk menurunkan kolesterol juga dievaluasi. Pengujian dilakukan pada media berbasis MRS dengan atau tanpa oligosakarida terdiri dari galaktooligosakarida (GOS), fruktooligosakarida (FOS), inulin, hidrolisat inulin atau kombinasi oligosakarida sebagai prebiotik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua isolat mampu menurunkan kolesterol, dan penurunan kolesterol tertinggi ditunjukkan oleh isolat L. acidophilus FNCC0051 dan L. rhamnosus R23. Penurunan kolesterol diduga terjadi melalui dua cara yang berbeda. Mekanisme penurunan kolesterol oleh isolat P. pentosaceus 1-A38 melibatkan asimilasi kolesterol, sedangkan pada keempat isolat lainnya kemungkinan melibatkan pengikatan kolesterol pada permukaan sel. Selain itu, isolat BAL juga memiliki kemampuan yang berbeda dalam memanfaatkan oligosakarida prebiotik, terlihat pada penurunan total gula dalam medium. Metabolisme senyawa oligosakarida oleh L. acidophilus FNCC0051 dan L. rhamnosus R23 menghasilkan beberapa asam organik termasuk SCFA dengan proporsi terbesar asam laktat diikuti oleh asam asetat. Selain itu, proporsi asam propionat dan butirat dipengaruhi oleh jenis isolat dan sumber karbon. L. acidophilus FNCC 0051 mampu menurunkan kolesterol dalam media berbasis MRS dengan keberadaan oligosakarida baik tunggal maupun kombinasi sebagai sumber karbon dan melibatkan mekanisme baik asimilasi dan pengikatan kolesterol pada permukaan sel.
Prevalensi Gen tdh dan trh Vibrio parahaemolyticus pada Udang Vaname Di Wilayah Indramayu, Jawa Barat Yennie, Yusma; Hariyadi, Ratih Dewanti; Poernomo, Achmad
Jurnal Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 10, No 1 (2015): Juni 2015
Publisher : Balai Besar Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15578/jpbkp.v10i1.245

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi Vibrio parahaemolyticus patogenik pada udang vaname yang berasal dari tambak tradisional dan intensif berdasarkan keberadaan gen tdh dan trh. Isolasi dan konfirmasi Vibrio parahaemolyticus mengacu pada BAM (2004), yang dilanjutkan dengan konfirmasi gen tdh dan trh Vibrio parahaemolyticus  menggunakan metode PCR.  Hasil identifikasi menunjukkan bahwa  sebanyak 16/32(50%) dan 6/32 (18,8%) udang dari tambak tradisional dan intensif positif Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Berdasarkan gen tdh, ditemukan Vibrio parahaemolyticus patogenik pada udang tambak tradisional dan intensif berturut-turut adalah 81% (13/16) dan 50% (3/6). Sementara itu, jika didasarkan pada gen trh, Vibrio parahaemolyticus patogenik pada udang tambak tradisional dan intensif berturut-turut adalah 15/16 (93,8%) dan 4/6 (66,7%). Secara keseluruhan prevalensi udang vaname yang positif gen tdh adalah sebesar 72,2% (16/22) gen trh sebesar 86,4% (19/22) dan yang memiliki kedua gen adalah sebanyak 63,6% (14/22).
Antisipasi terhadap Isu-Isu Baru Keamanan Pangan (The Anticipation of New Issues Food safety) Hariyadi, Ratih Dewanti; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno
JURNAL PANGAN Vol 21, No 1 (2012): PANGAN
Publisher : Perum BULOG

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (291.288 KB) | DOI: 10.33964/jp.v21i1.97

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Kemunculan emerging dan kontaminan baru yang berkaitan dengan keamananpangan merupakan isu yang tidak bisa dihindari. E. coli enterohemoragik misalnya,merupakan contoh emerging baru yang menyebabkan kematian dan kerugian ekonomi di Eropa, sedangkan di Cina melamin adalah contoh mutakhir kontaminan pada susu formula bayi yang telah menyebabkan kematian dan kerugian perdagangan di dunia. Paper ini mengulas berbagai potensi emerging dan kontaminan baru yang mungkin muncul dalam sistem pangan. Tujuannya adalah untuk memberikan pemahaman mengenai emerging dan kontaminan baru tersebut sehingga kemunculannya bisa diantisipasi dengan tepat, baik oleh pemerintah emerging pangan maupun konsumen. Penggunaan kerangka kerja analisis risiko merupakan pendekatan logis yang perlu ditempuh oleh pemerintah untuk melahirkan kebijakan dan tindakan keamanan panganyang tepat untuk keperluan antisipasi tersebut. Sementara itu, emerging pangan perlu secara cermat mengkaji ulang praktek dan tindakan keamanan pangan, termasuk program dan rencana HACCP yang ada. Beberapa hal yang perlu dilakukan oleh emerging antara lain, mengevaluasi kembali spesifikasi ingriedien dan titik-titik kendali kritis, mengembangkan program pengambilan contoh dan pemantauan lingkungan, serta menyesuaikan program pengambilan contoh produk. Dalam kaitannya dengan pengendalian kontaminan yang sengaja ditambahkan (intentional contamination), rencana HACCP perlu mencakup juga bahaya-bahaya yang telah diidentifikasi pernah secara sengaja dimasukkan dalam sistem produksi, serta mengidentifikasi dan mengevaluasi bahaya-bahaya lain yang diketahui atau yang diduga bisa secara sengaja dimasukkan sistem produksi.Emerging pathogens and food contaminants important for food safety are inevitable issues. Enterohemorhagic E. coli, for example, is the latest one to cause fatality and economic loss in Europe while in China melamine is a very important adulaterant in powdered infant formula that has cost life and trade worldwide. This paper discusses the emergence of foodborne pathogens and contaminants in food system. The objective is to provide better understanding regarding the emerging foodborne pathogens and contaminants so that their emergence should be well anticipated by government, food industries as well as consumers. Use of risk analysis framework is the logical approach for government to produceappropriate food safety measures and policies. Meanwhile,food industry should take into precaution their existing food safety measures and revisit their HACCP plan. The most likely aspects to be reconsidered include re-evaluation of the specification for ingredients and critical control points, establishment of environmental monitoring and sampling, and adjustment of sampling plan. With respect to preventing intentional contaminations, HACCP plan should include hazards that may be intentionally introduced, identify and evaluate known or reasonably foreseeable hazards that may be associated with the facility. 
Pengembangan Sistem Cara Produksi Makanan Enteral yang Baik (CPMEB) dan Aplikasinya di Rumah Sakit (Development of Good Manufacturing Practices System for Enteral Foods and Its Application at Hospital) Amiroh, Amiroh; Rahayu, Winiati Pudji; Hariyadi, Ratih Dewanti
Jurnal Mutu Pangan (Indonesian Journal of Food Quality) Vol 3, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Jurnal Mutu Pangan (Indonesian Journal of Food Quality)

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Abstract

Hospital formula enteral food is a special food targeted specifically for a group of people with health risk. Therefore its safety needs to be controlled more stringently for example through the application Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). Presently, the guidelines for good processing practices for enteral food is not available yet. This research aims to develop a Good Enteral Food Manufacturing Practices (GEFM) consisting of a guideline as well as a sysstematic audit system that can be applied easily in the hospital. The system was developed based on the Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia Regulation Number:1096/MenKes/PER/VI/2011 on hygiene and sanitation for food service industries and other relevant references. Based on the literature review and trials, thirteen aspects were defined for the require- ments; including four main aspects pertaining production room, production equipment, process control and workers' hygiene. Other aspects include building and its facilities, sanitation facility, raw materials storage, monitoring, pest control, distribution, training, patient feeding, and documentation. An audit trial at a hospital Y suggested that its enteral food production unit was categorized as good; but needed improve- ment in several aspects such as: production equipment storage, hygiene and sanitation maintenance, food distribution and food handle training. 
Analisis Pemenuhan Persyaratan Subbab 103 dan 106 US FDA FSMA di Industri Minyak Cengkeh Indonesia Lendrawati, Lendrawati; Hariyadi, Ratih Dewanti; Wulandari, Nur
Jurnal Mutu Pangan (Indonesian Journal of Food Quality) Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Jurnal Mutu Pangan (Indonesian Journal of Food Quality)

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Nowadays, intentional contamination of food product has become an additional concern in food safety management system (FSMS) such as that in the United State Food Drug Adminstration (US FDA) Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). Therefore, it is necessary to raise awareness and take into consideration of intentional contamination into any production chain. The purpose of this study was to provide recommendation for updating the FSMS in PT XYZ to integrate intentional contamination. The research was conducted by reviewing regulations related to the safety of clove oil as flavoring agents, identify adulterant compounds in clove oil, assessing the existing food safety management system in PT XYZ, performing gap analysis using the main provision of  FSMA pertaining hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls (section 103) and protection against intentional adulteration (section 106) as reference, and developing recommendations for the gaps. Pertaining to section 103 and section 106 requirements, the assessment suggested that PT XYZ fullfilled 54% of the requirements i.e  52% (section 103) and 2% (section 106). Education to raise employee awareness and develop a food defense plan are recommended to meet the FSMA requirement.
Inaktivasi Bakteri Patogen Planktonik dan Biofilm oleh Sanitaiser Komersial (Inactivation of Planktonic and Biofilm of Pathogenic Bacteria by Commercial Sanitizers) Hariyadi, Ratih Dewanti; Cynthia, Cynthia
Jurnal Mutu Pangan (Indonesian Journal of Food Quality) Vol 1, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Jurnal Mutu Pangan (Indonesian Journal of Food Quality)

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Cleaning and sanitizing are important aspects in providing quality and safe foods. In the US, contaminated equipment is the third most important factor contributing to foodborne disease outbreaks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of commercial sanitizers against planctonic cells and biofilms of pathogenic bacteria Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Commercial sanitizers used in this study were single sanitizers (quaternary ammonium, peroxy acetic acid, coconut fatty acid) and combined sanitizers (Oxyquart®, Bioclean 520®, Bioclean 540®) at the recommended application concentrations. Of the sanitizers tested on planctonic cells, peroxy acetic acid at 100 ppm as well as Oxyquart® and Bioclean 540® at concentrations of 0.010% are effective against S. Typhimurium; while Oxyquart® at a concentration of 0.005% is the most effective sanitizer against S. aureus. The study also shows that Oxyquart® is more effective against biofilms and capable of inactivating 3.94-5.02 log CFU/cm2 of S. Typhimurium or S. aureus biofilm. 
Analisis Kecukupan Panas Pada Proses Pasteurisasi Puree Mangga (Mangifera Indica L) Sukasih, Ermi; Setyadjit, nFN; Hariyadi, Ratih Dewanti
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian Vol 2, No 2 (2005): Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jpasca.v2n2.2005.56-65

Abstract

Selama ini suhu dan waktu pasteurisasi puree mangga masih mengacu pada produk lain karena belum ada data tentang suhu dan waktu yang optimal pasteurisasi puree mangga sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk menghitung kecukupan panasnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji ketahanan panas mikroba penyebab kerusakan puree mangga melalui penghitungan nilai 0 (waktu yang diperlukan untuk mereduksi mikroba sebesar satu siklus log pada suhu tertentu, nilai z (perubahan suhu yang menyebabkan reduksi mikroba sebesar satu nilai D) dan menghitung nilai P (kecukupan panas pada proses pasteurisasi). Uji ketahanan panas dilakukan terhadap isolat mikroba dari puree mangga yang telah rusak yaitu isotat bakteri A, isolat bakteri B, isolat khamir C, isolat khamir E, isolat kapang G dan isolat kapang H dengan media puree mangga yang disterilisasi pada suhu 121oC selama 15 menit. Selain itujuga dilakukan terhadap mikroba populasi alami dalam puree Illangga yaitu dengan memanaskan puree mangga dan menghitung jumlah mikrobanya. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode tabung pada kombinasi suhu pemanasan 55,65,75 dan 85oC selama 0, 5,10, 15 dan 20 menit dengan tiga kali ulangan. Parameter yang diamati adalah jumlah mikroba akhir setelah pemanasan. I-lasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolat bakteri A dengan nilai z sebesar 21 ,23oC mempunyai ketahanan panas yang lebih tinggi dari isolat bakteri B dengan nilai z sebesar 15,04oC, isolat khamir C dengan nilai z sebesar 24,39oC mempunyai ketahanan panas lebih tinggi dari isolat khamir E dengan nilai z sebesar 20,28oC, dan isolat kapang G dengan nilai z sebesar 18,76oC mempunyai ketahanan panas lebih tinggi dari kapang H dengan nilai z adalah 17,48oC. Sementara itu mikroba tunggal hasil isolasi mempunyai ketahanan panas lebih rendah daripada populasi mikroba yang secara alami terdapat pada puree mangga. Dari uji ketahanan panas diperoleh bahwa mikroba yang paling tahan panas adalah bakteri populasi alami dengan nilai z sebesar 52,91oC, dan ini digunakan untuk menghitung nilai P. Berdasarkan perhitungan diperoleh bahwa nilai P puree mangga adalah 15,5 menit. Hal ini berarti bahwa puree mangga akan tercapai kecukupan panasnya bila dipasteurisasi pada kombinasi suhu dan waktu yang mempunyai nilai P sebesar 15,5 menit. Heat adequacy analysis of mango puree pasteurization process The optimum lime and temperature for pasteurization of mango puree is still unavailable, so it requires to do research on this area. Determination of heat resistant microorganism isolated from rotten mango puree was conducted to determine the D, z and P value. Isolated microbes used were bacteria A, bacteria B, yeast C, yeast E, mold G, mold H and they were inoculated into sterilized mango puree. In addition, the nonsterilized mango puree containing mixture of unknown microorganisms was also evaluated for its heat resistance. Mango puree was pasteurised at 55, 65, 75 and 85oC for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. The results showed that bacteria A with z value of 21.23oC has higher heat resistant than bacteria B with z value of 15.04oC, yeast C with z value of 24.39oC has higher heat resistant than yeast E with z value of 20.28oC and mold G with z value of 18.76oC has higher heat resistant than mold H with z value of 17,48oC. The single microorganism isolated has lower heat resistant than the natural population microorganism in mango puree. The natural population bacteria of mango puree has highest heal resistant with z value of 52.91 oC. This value was used to determine of P value. The result was 15.5 minutes, which means that mango puree will achieve adequate heal treatment if it is pasteurized at time and temperature which has P value of 15.5 minutes.