To be viable, fast-growing energy plantations must be large in volume, harvested at early age, and maximized calorific value which linked to heartwood proportion. This study examines 38 families in the second generation (F2) progeny trial of Acacia auriculiformis for energy. Heartwood proportion, calorific value and lignin content were assessed at ages 22, 30, 35, and 40 months. Wood samples from around 300 selected individuals of observed ages from all families were examined. Quality was based on heartwood and sapwood development until reaching the commercial requirement of >33% for lignin content and >4,500 cal g-1 for calorific value. When required quality has been obtained at particular age, assessment of biomass was carried out from all final individuals in the progeny test. Heartwood proportion varies among families. Heartwood possesses higher values than sapwood in lignin content and calorific value. Individuals with higher heartwood proportion are preferred. Both wood types only reached the required quality for solid wood energy after 3.5 years, however lignin content at much early age are appropriate for wood pellet and briquette. Selection improves heartwood proportion and quality from the first generation (F1) into F2 with an increase of 52% at three years. Mean annual increments at 3.5 years is 43 m3ha-1yr-1.
Global warming causes extreme weather and temperature leading to drought. Identification of drought adaptive species is essential. This research is aimed to examine growth, proline content and root anatomy of Acacia auriculifomis, Tectona grandis, Alstonia spectabilis, and Cedrela odorata and to compare the most adaptive species under drought condition. Controlled dry treatments applied were 10, 20, 30, and 40 days unwatered, and compared with control plants, each with 3 replications. Characteristics measured were height, diameter, leaf number and area, root proline content and root tracheal diameter. Data and samples were collected every 10 days. Growth and physiological data were analyzed by using T-Test, while anatomical data were analyzed by using ANOVA and DUNCAN test. Results showed that drought on A. auriculiformis, T. grandis, A. spectabilis, and C. odorata has decreased plant height, stem diameter and number of leaves but increasing proline content, and diameter of tracheas belonging to the roots. This study indicates that the most likely tolerant and adaptive species to drought are those that have the most variation of mechanisms to respond in which these characters would likely to appear at higher level of stress condition.
Global changes together with rising number of human population, industrial development, and exploitation of natural vegetation, are the main factors causing high salinity in many regions of the world. Trees tolerant to grow in saline regions are crucially needed and can be used as an effective means to control or even decrease salinity. Eucalyptus occidentalis, a Western Australia native tree spesies that is highly tolerant to salt has a wide range of natural habitats from waterlogged, highly saline to arid regions. Selections of provenances and families from throughout its natural distribution are needed to identify the most tolerant genotypes within this species. Comparative performances of E. occidentalis under salt and/or waterlogged conditions were investigated under controller condition and in field trial. An initial screening of 25 provenances was conducted for salt tolerance ranging from 0 mM to 300 mM under control, waterlogged, dry salt and salt treatments. Nine provenances selected from the first screening were exposed to similar treatments up to 550 mM of salt concentration. The same seed collections of 23 provenances were germinated at the same time and planted in field trial in Roberts, South Western Australia. Salt concentration of 300 mM did not affect E. occidentalis growth, and therefore it is not an appropriate level for selection. Under 550 mM of salt concentration, plants were depressed and differences between provenaces are much more noticeable. There were different responses of E. occidentalis populations on selection under high salinity between controlled condition and in field trial.
Global energy crisis raises biofuel prices significantly. It has driven the world to enhanceÂ environmentally-friendly renewable-energy (biofuel) production. Calophyllum inophyllum (Nyamplung) is one of the potential biofuel sources, extracted from its seeds which can be harvested up to 50 years. Technical-practices of biofuel production for nyamplung seeds have been developed at industrial scale by cooperations in Cilacap (Java) and Energy Self-Sufficient Villages (Desa Mandiri Energi) in Banyuwangi, Purworejo, Kebumen, Ujung Kulon (Java) and Selayar (outside Java). However, there is only a limited-information available on biofuel productivity and quality from nyamplungÂ populations. This paper studies the biofuel-potential-variations among 12 populations in Indonesia (6 from Java, 6 outside Java) in terms of genetically-improved seed-sources. The oil was extracted using a combination of vertical hot pressÂ (VHP) and screw press expeller (SPE) followed by degumming to make refined oil, and esterification-transesterification to turn it into biodiesel. The result shows great variation of biofuel content among the population. Oil production percentage varies from 37-48,5% (VHP) and 50-58% (SPE) crude oil, 36-48% (VHP) and 40-53% (SPE) refined oil, and 17-33% (SPE) for biodiesel. The highest variation after degumming is due to high seed resin content. DNA analysis shows genetic-variations among populations from intermediate (Java) to high (ouside Java) and intermediate within populations. Information of biofuel content, DNA analysis and environmental conditions for each population are considered to be important factors to establish genetically-improved seed-sources.
Clonal materials are often collected for testing under extreme condition. Clonal production through mass vegegetative propagation is also common for deployment of improved genotype. Root development of clones compared to that of seedlings will further determine the subsequent growth. Eucalyptus occidentalis ability to grow under extreme conditions (waterlongging and/or salinity) drives the importance of provenance and family selection from materials collected throughout its natural distribution. Performance of clone and seedling under waterlogging and saltÂ waterlogging conditions of two E. occidentalis families, high and low salt tolerant, were investigated. Seedling (4.5 months) and cutting/clones (5.5 months) were exposed to control, waterlogged and salt waterlogged conditions reaching to sea salt level (500 mM Nacl). Seeding and cutting performances were determined by ability of plant type and family to produce roots and consequently initial leaves to support their growth. Seedlings and cutting of high torelant family 153-Red Lake perform better than low tolerant family 96 Lake Magenta under high level of salinity. Under high salt concentration, seedling are better than cutting for family 153- Red Lake, but both plant types perform similiarly for family 96-Lake Magenta. Sanility hinders shoot and root development. Under inundation, E. occidentalis tends to decrease shoots rather than roots. For clonal growth improvement, propagation method to produce root abundance is necessary.Â
Kementerian Kehutanan, melalui Badan Litbang Kehutanan yang dituangkan dalam Roadmap 2010-2025 telah mencanangkan kegiatan untuk mengantisipasi terjadinya perubahan iklim global. Berbagai Rencana Penelitian Integratif (RPI) telah ditetapkan termasuk RPI Adaptasi Bioekologi dan Sosial Ekonomi Budaya terhadap Perubahan Iklim yang diinisiasi pada tahun 2010. Dalam RPI ini salah satu penelitian dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi berbagai spesies pohon dari berbagai provenans yang potensial untuk mengantisipasi perubahan iklim dengan penekanan untuk tujuan pengujian pada daerah kering. Pada makalah ini, hasil identifikasi dan seleksi yang dilakukan tahun 2010 didiskusikan. Identifikasi dari daerah bercurah hujan rendah (<1000-1500mm/tahun) di Indonesia (Sulawesi, Madura, JawaTimurdanNusaTenggaraTimur)sertaseleksidenganmempertimbangkantampilansebagaipohon, manfaat, kemungkinannya untuk koleksi materi genetik, rekomendasi dan beberapa kriteria lain akhirnyamendapatkan29spesies potensialyangadaptifpadadaerahkeringuntukdiujilebihlanjut.
In tree improvement program, vegetative propagules, including grafting, from improved materials will developÂ into individuals with the same genetic structures from its improved clonal sources. Vegetative propagules are also advantagous due to their earlier flowering and fruiting if compared to seedlings. Grafting success will be etermined by compatibilities between 2 different tissues from different genetic sources. In this study, grafting success of E. occidentalis between rootstocks and entries of different provenans and families were examined using scions collected from mature (6.5 year) trees to hasten deployment of improved genotypes. Reciprocal grafting between provenances with different provenanceÂ rootstocks and scions were conducted with successvaried from none to complete survival. Abilities of two best provenans under waterlogging, Dumbleyung andÂ Young River, to perform highest survival in grafting provide advantages for deployment of their geneticÂ materials. Genotype differences between scions were more obvious to influence survival than betweenÂ rootstocks. Small number of grafted plants initiated flowers 4 months after grafting. Scion diameter, length and initial leaves affect the growth of new shoots. The best E. occidentalis grafting success were determined byÂ scion length of 2.5 - 4 cm, diameter of 6 - 7 mm with all leaves removed.
Nyamplung (Callophylum inophyllum L.) and johar (Cassia florida Vahl.) are alternative plants that are resistant to drought. Global warming that occurred in the last few years caused extreme climate change, one of which is drought. The purpose of this research were to examine and determine the growth and development of plants and the response of morphology, physiology, and anatomy of these plants to drought condition, and adaptive species to drought. This research used drought stress treatment for 10 days, 20 days, 30 days, and 40 days, while control plants were watered every 2 days. Each treatment used 3 replications. Parameters observed were plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, proline levels, plant water content, total dry weight, root dry weight, stomata index, root anatomy, anatomy of stem, and leaf anatomy. Physiological data obtained were analyzed using T-test. The results showed that plants responded to drought stress by decreasing plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, root dry weight, total dry weight, water content of plants, transpiration rate, stomata lindex, root cortex thickness, leaf mesophyll thickness, leaf phloem thickness, other wise occurred increasing level of proline, root epidermis thickness, stem xylem diameter, stem cortical thickness and leaf xylem thickness. Johar plant was more adaptive plant to drought stress than nyamplung plant.
Calliandra calothyrsus, a rhizobium associated legume, fixes atmospheric nitrogen by forming root nodules. Rhizobium availability is crucial for Calliandraâs growth especially on new sites. Additive or synergic effects of rhizobium and mycorrhiza are found to improve seedling quality. Genetically improved Calliandras require optimum silvicultural practices including rhizobium and mycorrhiza application and differences among families need to be observed. This followed with combination treatment of 5g rhizobium and different mycorrhiza level at 0, 5 and 10g applied to 5 families in 30 x 30 cm polybag. Assessments were for leaf number, height, diameter at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and number of root nodules at 4 and 8 weeks after application. Results show that rhizobium application has no significant effects although it enhances grow, while mycorrhiza application improve leaf number after 14 weeks. Second experiment for 3.5 month seedlings, indicates interaction on family-mycorrhiza level to seedling height and root nodules. Very positive correlations show that more root nodules improved leaf number (r=0.41), height (r=0.3) and diameter (r=0.45) up to planting time. Quite cheap rhizobium and mycorrhiza application is therefore beneficial to optimize the growth of genetically improved C. calothyrsus, although genotype differences may eXist.
Flowering stimulation were investigated to accelerate deployment of E. occidentalis. It was found that extended daylength (16-h) in juvenile plants stimulate flowers of very limited individuals/family with less number of buds than normal inflorescences. Extended daylength (16-h) promote flowering of most families from 2 year-old E. occidentalis plants. In combination with paclobutrazol (1 mg. a.i/mm), number of buds were doubled. Under 16-h daylength, juvenil plants were taller up to 25 weeks than under natural light but shorter for family 96-LM that produced more flowers than others. There were no height differences between 16-h daylength and in combination with paclobutrazol in 2-year old plants.