Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari perkembangan dan perbanyakan Cendana menggunakan kultur jaringan mata tunas. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah mata tunas yang diinkubasi Â dalam Â mediaÂ Murashige Â dan Â Skoog Â (MS) Â dengan Â variasi Â penambahan Â Zat Â Pengatur Tumbuh yang terdiri atas BAP (benzyl-amino-purine), NAA (napthalene-acetic-acid), IAA (indole- acetic-acid), dan Kinetin (furfuril-amino-purine) pada tahapan induksi, multiplikasi dan perakaran. Hasil induksi kultur jaringan mata tunas menggunakan media MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 0,01 mg/l NAA memberikan respon terbaik pada klon A.III.4.14 dengan rerata persentase induksi 85%. Hasil multiplikasi menggunakan media MS + 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,01 mg/l NAA memberikan pertumbuhan panjang tunas dan perkembangan jumlah tunas terbaik pada klon A.III.4.14. Hasil perakaran menggunakan media Â½ MS + 20 mg/l IBA + 1 mg/l IAA dan 0,01 mg/l NAA diperoleh rerata induksi perakaran dari seluruh klon yang diuji sebesar 37%. Hasil aklimatisasi di rumah kaca menunjukkan bahwa klon WS 6 memberikan respon persen tumbuh tertinggi sebesar 56%.
The research aim is to observe tissue culture method for Sandalwood using node explants. TheÂ explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium solidified with agar and supplementedÂ with varies combination of hormones: BAP (benzyl-amino-purine), NAA (napthalene-acetic-acid),Â IAA (indole-acetic-acid) and Kinetin (furfuril-amino-purine) for shoot induction, multiplication andÂ rooting. The results of study showed that the medium of MS+1 mg/l BAP+0.01 mg/ lNAAÂ provided aÂ good response for shoot induction of Sandalwood clones number A.III.4.14 at around 85%. TheÂ medium of MS+0.5 mg/l BAP+0.01 mg/l NAA provided a good response for shoot multiplication ofÂ the clones number A.III.4.14 (number of shoot and shoot elongation). The rooting medium ofÂ Â½MS+20 mg/l IAA+1 mg/l IAA and 0.01 mg/l NAA resulted rooting percentage across the clones atÂ around 37%. The highest survival rate after acclimatization was found at clone number WS6 atÂ around 56%.
Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) is a tree which has a high rate of natural sprouting ability. Eventhough the propagation by the conventional techniques (shoot and root cuttings) and by the tissue culture have been reported, the percentage of plants regeneration is still low. The propagation using somatic embryogenesis was reported as better result than using shoots multiplication technique or organogenesis. The objective of this research is to examine the effect of clones, type and concentration of plant growth regulator on the development embryogenic callus of sandalwood. The three tested clones are C1, C2, and C3. The plant growth regulators are 2.4-D, Dicamba, and Picloram with the three level of concentrations:1 mg/L, 3 mg/L, and 5 mg/L. The result of study showed that the clone of C3 performed best on embryogenic callus development. It was observed through morphological analysis that 58.12% of explants performed embryogenic callus with friable texture and white, yellowish in colours. However, there were not significant differences between the types of plant growth regulator, the level of concentrations and their interactions on embryogenic callus development of sandalwood
The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of auxin (NAA) and cytokinin (BAP) on shoot initiation in tissue culture of sengon (Falcataria moluccana)using cotyledon segment. Cotyledon segments were colleect from aseptic seedlings. Cotyledon segments were aseptically cultured on a murashige andÂ Shoogâs (MS) medium containing different concentrations of Benzyl-amino-purine (BAP) ranging from 1 to 3 mg/l and Naphtalene-acetic-acid (NAA) ranging from0,01 to 0,03 mg/l. Result of analysis of variance inicates that plant groeth regulator of BAP and NAA had significant effect on shoot formation up to 4 months age. The subsequent Duncan Multiple Range Test indicates that concentration of 0,001, 0,02 and 0,03 mg/l gave no significant effect on shoot formation and shoot growth
Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg.) Domke is including one of superior agarwood-producing plants and naturally growing in Eastern Indonesia as Nusa Tenggara and Papua. Indonesia has been trading agarwood products both domestically and overseas which one of them is agarwood produced by G.versteegii. This study purpose was to develop an in vitro culture method for mass propagation of G. versteegii. Shoot induction conducted on MS medium supplemented with Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) 0.7; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 mg/l. The shoots multiplication conducted on MS medium supplemented with the best concentration of BAP from shoot induction phase. The rooting of shoots conducted on half strength MS medium supplemented with interaction of Napthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) 0.01 mg/l with concentration of Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; and 4.0 mg/l. Epicotyl explant with a given concentration level of BAP 0.7 mg/l produce the highest rates number of shoots and shoot length compared to other explant respectively 4.8 shoots and 0.41 cm within 6 weeks. The best explant developments in the best medium able to promote the growth of the length and number of shoots are 0.28 shoots and 0.3 cm within 4 weeks. Explants easiest, quickest and most high sprouting ability as a factor of success in terms of multiplication is epicotyl. The combination treatment of material explant with concentration of BAP only affect to growth of shoots length. The combination treatment of NAA with concentration of IBA has no effect against root formation and growth rootlength.
Since 2005, ramin has been included in CITES Appendix II and according to IUCN red list, ramin is also regarded as vulnerable (VU A1cd). The Lack of information on explant sterilization techniques in ramin tissue culture is one reason why there has not been enough initiation to develop ramin micro propagation. Plant tissue culture contamination has economic impact due to its direct influence in losses during in vitro culture of plants. The aim of this study was to observe the influence of explants sterilisation technique on acquisition rate of ramin axenic tissue culture with the rate of contamination increase, acsenic culture acquisition and shoot elongation as parameters. Ramin seedlings as explants source were collected from Tumbang Nusa, Central Kalimantan. Fifty replicating explants of one nodule each in 3 techniques were used in this study based on in vitro incubation time: sterilization 1 (24 hours incubation), sterilization 2 (48 hours incubation) and sterilization 3 (72 hours incubation) with non metallic antimicrobial compounds namely detergent, ditiocarbamate with mankozeb active ingredient (compound A), a compound containing 5.25% NaOCl added sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen oxide (compound B), 70% alcohol (compound C) as explants surface sterilants. Murashige-Skoog was used as media for evaluation of sterilization technique and explants regeneration on one year incubation. The results of this study indicate that the lowest rate of contamination was found in sterilization 3 (28%) with the success number of axenic tissue culture at 46%. The average shoot elongation of the axenic culture was 5.91 cm after 12 months subcultured in every month.
Effect of Gibberellins (GA4) on Germination Time and Height of Cendana (Santalum album Linn.) The hemiparasite Santalum album Linn. (cendana) grows very slow, in nature the rare and difficult seeds need stimulation to germinate. Gibberellins (including GA4) are growth regulators, usually used to increase growth as well as to break seed dormancy. The objectives of this research were to investigate the influence of gibberellins on germination percentage and height of cendana growth. Experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with 3 replicates of 300 seeds for germination percentage and 3 replicates of 10 seeds for seedling growth. Gibberellin was applied as treatment with 100, 300, and 500 ppm. The seed germination was recorded until 9 weeks, and height of plants measured until 8 months at the greenhouse. The results showed that the addition of gibberellins at all treatment increased the percentage of germination and caused the seeds germinated four weeks earlier than the control. In the first 4 months, 500 ppm gibberellins gave the highest acceleration of germination, afterward all treatments have relatively the same influences. Gibberellins gave positive effect on height of cendana growth. After 7 months, the growth decreased although all gibberellin treatments gave higher growth than the control.
Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is native species of Indonesia, especially in East Nusa Tenggara, is oneof the twenty two species of the genus Santalum in the world. Sandalwood is an important tree because it hashigh economic value can produce sandal oil these can be used for perfumes, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, andare often used in religious ceremonies. In vitro particularly somatic embryogenesis has been widely appliedin the propagation of sandalwood. The Objective of this research is to obtain regeneration of sandalwoodthrough somatic embryogenesis using leaves explant from various clones. Medium for embryo induction is MS(Murashige and Skoog, 1962) solid medium containing treatment of 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)at various concentrations. To the media 0,15 mg /l kinetin, 40 g/l sucrose, and 2,5 g/l gelrite were added.Culture were incubated in the dark. Medium for Embryo development (maturation) is MS solid mediumcontaining treatment of BAP (Benzyl-amino-purine) at various concentrations. To the media 0,01 mg /l NAA(Napthalene-acetic-acid), 40 g/l sucrose, and 2,5 g/l gelrite were added. Culture were incubated in the light. Tostudy the specifi c structure of sandalwood somatic embryo early detection was conducted using histologicalanalysis. Results of anova showed that the clones, media, and interaction between clones with media did notsignifi cantly affect the development of sandalwood callus percentage. Results of anova showed that the clonesand BAP concentration signifi cantly effect to the embryo development of sandalwood.
Cendana (Santalum album Linn.) is one of the important hemiparasite species due to its high value essential oil for pharmaceutical industries. However, since1998 this species has been categorized as vulnerable by the IUCN Red List. The propagation of cendana has been hampered by inadequacy in regeneration, either through sexual or vegetative propagation. Regeneration of cendana through in vitro technique is still limited due to the difficulty in rooting and acclimatization. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of clones, in vitro and ex vitro techniques on the primary and secondary root development. Two clones of cendana: Clone A.III.4.14 and WS28 were tested in Gresshoff & Doy culture media enriched by IBA 20 mg/l; IAA 0.15 mg/l and kinetin 0.15 mg/l. Root development was observed for six months of culture for in vitro and three months after acclimatization in a greenhouse for ex vitro. The results of this study showed that Clone A.III.4.14 formed primary root in lower percentage rate (41.85%) than Clones WS28 (60,44%), on the contrary it grew secondary root in higher percentage rate (58.15%) than Clone WS28 (39,56%). The ex vitro following the acclimatization showed that the root hairs grew only in the plantlets which formed secondary root during in vitro. This result indicates an important of clone’s selection for secondary root development during in vitro to obtain a better root system in the success of acclimatization of cendana.
Cendana (Santalum album Linn.) produces high-value aromatic timbers that are needed in various industries. Cendana is proclaimed by IUCN including critically endangered tree species. Tissue culture for conservation and propagation of cendana is a promising technique to lessen endangered level and increase industrial raw material supply. The main problems of cendana tissue culture are stunted growth and high mortality of plantlet at acclimatization stage. The purpose of this research is to identify the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal application in acclimatization of cendana tissue cultured plantlets with and without hostplant. A.III.4.14 clones from Genetic Conservation Plot in Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta were used as rooting plantlet material; Acaulospora sp. and Gigaspora sp. were used as MA isolates, and Portulaca sp. was used as hostplant. Sand and compost were used as media acclimatization in nurseries. Fungicide solution was used for sterilizing plantlets. Cendana plantlets were planted together with the host and MA added according to the treatment. Incubation was carried out in a greenhouse for 16 weeks. Observation of seedlings height was carried out 4 weeks after the polybag cover opened. The results of this study showed that 5 grams and 7 grams of mycorrhizal treatment on a cendana plantlet planted without Portulaca sp. produced the lower mortality (8%) after 12 weeks incubation. The best average seedling height growth was in 5 grams MA with hostplant (5,17 cm ±1,21) after 16 weeks incubation in green house. The results of this study prove the importance of exogenous mycorrhizal enrichment and hostplant in the acclimatization of cendana tissue culture.