Basically, nature has the ability to perform the restoration of environmental damage caused by increased human activity, but because of the limited carrying capacity, then the environment has decreased the quality from year to year. In saving the environment, technology plays a role in reducing the risk of pollution, increased efi siensi process, and creating processes and environmentall friendly products, monitoring and prediction of environment quality, environmental pollution control, restoration and environmental improvement. Waste Technology (end of pipe technology) are widely used to cope with environmental pollution, both for liquid waste, solid and air. Waste processing technology developed for the waste can be in accordance with quality standards thathave been established, while monitoring technology has been developed either manually or automatically. For recovery and improvement of technology has been developed remedies and restoration that rely on bacteria in nature.Keywords: end of pipe technology, reuse, recycle, reduce (3R), carrying capacity, and environment pollution
The rapid growth of population in developing country causes environmental contamination by increasing significantly pollution load inÃ‚Â river and other water body. It needs efficient and effective strategy to overcome contamination in certain areas. Technical identification of pollution source and its influence to environmental quality is important to should be known and socialized to community. Land use to is important to getÃ‚Â priorityÃ‚Â and should beÃ‚Â managed consistently environmentally sound, beside solid waste and domestic wastewater. Law enforcement also should be applied, especially to company or industry which significantly gives contribution to environmental degradation. Environmental restoration need fund, so government as regulator need partnerÃ‚Â from private to overcome environmental problem. Environmentally based industries and services is needed to be developed as government counterpart, but up to now the development of them retarded caused by non competitive interest of commercial bank. Environmental fund should be collected from polluter through regulated mechanism and In the next futureÃ‚Â environmental bank should possible manage the fund and finance environmental industry and services to overcome environmental pollution, in this case government act as regulator only.Key words : water polution, management, water resources, strategies
Pangkajene archipelago, is archipelago comprising 117 islands scattered in the West Coast District Pangkajene. The islands were inhabited by populations ranging from 10 to 250 heads of families. Most of the population livelihood as a fisherman. To support the daily basic needs are still supplied from the mainland, including the need for clean water. Community water needs during this time a lot depends on rain water that collected or from shallow groundwater. In line with population growth, water demand increases, so frequent water shortages, especially during the dry season. Sea water treatment technology with reverse osmosis systems is an alternative to the settlement of water shortage on the island, but because the number of islands many, it will be difficult to meet the needs of water in a short time. Therefore chosen the middle position of the three islands (Cakdi Saroppe Island, Island and Island Sanane view) as a distribution center. Installed capacity for each of the islands is 10 m3/day, which can serve to the needs of drinking water a thousand people. Water treatment technology with reverse osmosis pretreatment consist of the form of multi-media filter consisting of silica sand, zeolite, and activated carbon, followed by cartride filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. Construction of the water treatment unit involves people since it began surveying best location, construction, training and initial operation. Water that has been processed can drink for everyday purposes, therefore, to support the operations of the water is sold to the public for replacement of operational money. The biggest cost needed to produce water is the cost of fuel. By managing the sale of water expected operating costs can be met and comunity get drinking water at an affordable price.Keyword : dringking water, reverse osmosis, society engangement.
Dantar Village can be reached from Bandar Lampung in one hour. There are 250 families or around 1250 people dwell there. In Dantar, groundwater is difficult to tap, especially during dry seasons, and the water is usually turbid and salty due to hydrothermal activities at several places. Sarpalam 100 UF is the accronym of Saringan Pasir Lambat (Slow Sand Filter), which has capacity of 100 m3/day with an up flow system. Standard design for the first filtration is 6 m3/m2/day, and 4 m3/m2/day for second one, with media 1 m thickness. Sarpalam 100 UF utilizes double system is intended to keep the running even though the whole unit is being cleaned. The unit is also equippped with top and bottom flushing systems to ease maintenance. The water processed comes from Way Sanggi Rivers situated 300 m from the location of the equipment, with an elevation difference of 4,5 m. Its watercatchment uses branching porous pipe, submerged in the ground, so a constant water supply can be maintained although a flood is coming. The Sarpalam 100UF has operated for 2 months and its distribution network development is underway.
In big cities, the water quality of rivers used as the main raw water sources is getting worse and worse. That is caused by a lot of improper wastewater management systems, especially in industrial and settlement areas. As an example, the raw water of PDAM TKR Bojong Renged which is taken from CisadaneÃ‚Â Rives contains Ammonia 3.8 mg/l and it means that the content is not allowed to be used as the raw water for drinking water purpose. To cope with the problem, a bofiltration process can be used as one alternative to reduce Ammonia till the required standard quality.Ã‚Â A honeycomb tube type made plastic was the media of biofilter reactor. Operational condition was varied with HRT (Hydrolysis Retention Time) between 1-4 hours and air supply between 0-30 l/minute. The best process condition was found at 2 hour-HRT and 20 l/minute air supply and the Ammonia removal efficiency was about 65%. The linear regression equation wasÃ‚Â yaÃ‚Â = -91.19xa + 77.12, where Y is for removal efficiency and the axis X is for Ammonia loading. Ã‚Â Keywords:Ã‚Â rawÃ‚Â water quality, ammonia, biofiltration, honeycomb tube, removal efficiency,
Pasir Regency (Tanah Grogot) has coastal areas which is potential economically. To support the development of the area the local government is planning the development of proper and efficient plan to overcome the waterÃ‚Â problem of a coastal area. The plan could be implemented by conducting geophysical research and analysis of water quality of existing water resources. Based on this research hopefully an economically proper and efficient plan to develop the potency of existing water resources will be implemented. Ã‚Â Katakunci : Wilayah Pesisir, Dua Dimensi, Geofisik, Akuifer, Air Tanah, Kualitas Air, Kabupaten Pasir,Tanah Grogot
Waste to energy now become one of the technology solution that is in many developed Ã‚Â countries, in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from waste. Urban organicÃ‚Â waste is a potential source of greenhouse gases. Methane gas is an energy sourceÃ‚Â that can be used as fuel. It is difficult to find land for Landfill alocation in the major citiesÃ‚Â and often becomes a difficult social problem. Structured Landfill Cell is used to treat theÃ‚Â waste at the landfill, with the aim to use land more scalable, easier waste managementÃ‚Â and control, better sanitation, better water control leachate and gas produced can bemanaged optimally and compost can be utilized with the production and quality control.This new system was first used in Indonesia by PT Navigats Organics Energy Indonesia inÃ‚Â landfill Suwung, Denpasar, Bali. There are 5 cells already built in Suwung and two of cellsÃ‚Â have been filled with garbage. Each cell contains 12,000 m3 soliswaste. ObservationsÃ‚Â carried out on gas productivity of two cells that have been filled, with a dry treatment onÃ‚Â cell 1 (dry cell) and a wet treatment in cell 2 (wet cell). The observed gas is CH4, CO2,and O2 as the main parameters, with the addition parameters are CO and H2S. TheÃ‚Â instrument used is the GA 2000 Plus. Observations of two cells made for 4 months, withÃ‚Â the content of CH4 around 40 to 50% in the first month and gradually decreased to reachÃ‚Â 18 to 25% in the fourth month. Carbondioxyde going up and down following condition ofÃ‚Â CH4 and its value ranges between 16 and 28%. Oxygen consentration around 2 to 14%.For keeping engine performance the consentration of methane should more than 28%and O2 content lower than 6%. Cell with watering will temporarily reduce CH4 and CO2Ã‚Â and O2 increase, but it is slowly rising again. Carbonmonoside values tend to increaseÃ‚Â with age garbage (10 sd 350 ppm), whereas irregular H2S values ranging 0 up to 24Ã‚Â ppm, allegedly associated with the low protein content in the trash. Sewage treatmentÃ‚Â system is proven to increase CH4 gas, yet still needed modifications of structure andÃ‚Â the gas collector pipe system so that productivity can be improved.Key Words : Solidwaste, Metana, Cell System
The total population Bontang in 2014 is around 187,346 peoples. With the level of domestic water demand of 110 liters /person/day, the water needs of the city for at least Bontang 238.52 liters/sec. Currently for the needs of the community water supply received from the local water company with a capacity of 80 liters/sec, and It will be developed further to 250 liters/second in 2015. There are two big industries that need huge of water, namely LNG and Fertilizers Factory.Ã‚Â Factory of East Kalimantan (PKT) need additional water supply around 1000 m3/h or (166.67 liters/sec) with the specifications for the Water IndustryÃ‚Â Ã‚Â and 200 m3/h will be used to supply the needs of water for 21 818 inhabitants. Bontang city water source can be derived from groundwater, rivers, and rain water storage (reservoirs of water). In recent decades Bontang relied upon groundwater for water supply industry and some communities, the rest use river water and rain water tandah. With a very heavy rainfall (> 2500 mm / year), then the making of ponds in large quantities can help to reserve water in the future. For the purposes of future water supplies, it would require an asessment of all potential water resources utilization and planning for the use of adapted to the urban development plan. Water recycling of domestic waste is also a potential source of fresh water in the future, especially for industrial use. The drainage system needs to be directed at a large holding pond located in a low area, before going into the sea. The rain that fell in the city drained and collected would be of potential if utilized. In short-term utilization of water of the Bontang river is very of potential, given its location in the city center and is one of the many watersheds in Bontang, causing floods in the rainy season. Control and management of water is needed to support the use of river water.Keywords: Water resources, Water Demand, Water Supply, and Water Balance
Slow Sand Filter Technology is very common water technology that is used inmany villages in Indonesia, because very simple, low operating and lowinvestment cost. Sarpalam is the acronym of Saringan Pasir Lambat (Slow SandFilter). For optimal process, the system should meet with the standard design forSlow Sand filter. Somba is one village that is situated in Northern Part of SouthSulawesi. In that village there is a Slow Sand Filter with 5 l/s capacity to servearound 5.000 people. The problem is the quality of water is very low, turbid andsmell. The source of water come from the hill, in the eastern part (around 3 kmup hill). After investigation founded that, the system is not meet with standardSlow Sand filter and need modification for increasing the quality of product water. There are some constrain in the modification of the system, namely : existing construction, lack of space in the hill, stability of land, and quality of product water.
Wastewater treatment of a combined anaerobic-aerobic system is secondarywastewater treatment after physical treatment. Basically this wastewater treatment relies on bacteria in degrading pollutants. The use of honeycomb biofilter is to increase specific surface of media for attaching bacteria. Total volume of reactors is 280 liter, made of glass, equipped with two circulating pump and blower in the aerobic zone. The Biofilter is made of plastic, structurally like honeycomb. Its dimension is 28 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm, very light and easy to clean. It takes 14 days for seeding.The reactors were run in four different resident time, namely 7 days, 5 days, 3 days and 1 day. The raw water used in this experiment is wastewater from tofu and fermented soybean cake industries that have BOD around 300 - 500 mg/l. The water is sampled weekly and the results from 1,872 physical and chemical parameters from 144 water samples show that the reactors that using biofilters have better performance than the reactors using no biofilters. The Efficiency process in decreasing BOD value is around 51 - 91 % for resident time one day up to 7 days. Besides such a good relatively high efficiency, the hydraulic loading is around 0,48 - 3,33 m3/m2/ day and BOD loading is around 0, 20 - 0,43 kg BOD/m3/day.