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Pengendalian Serangan Ganoderma spp. (60-80%) pada Tanaman Sengon sebagai Pelindung Tanaman Kopi dan Kakao Herliyana, Elis Nina; Taniwiryono, Darmono; Minarsih, Hayati; Firmansyah, Muhammad Alam; Dendang, Benyamin
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 16 No. 1 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Information about genetic variation of Ganoderma spp. As a couse of rot disease on plantation crops is necessary for consideration in efforts to protect crops. Exploration of the use of biological agents, especially Trichoderma spp., for the control of Ganoderma on forestry crops is still limited to laboratory testing. Its effectiveness to control Trichoderma spp. To protect plants in the nursery sengon being carried out, as well as to deternime its role in improving plant growth.
Skrining Bakteri Selulolitik Asal Saluran Pencernaan Rayap Untuk Mendekomposisi Tunggul Karet Arsyad, Silviana; Wiyono, Suryo; Herliyana, Elis Nina
Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika Vol. 9 No. 3 (2018): Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika
Publisher : Departemen Silvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB)

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The rubber tree stump is a source of white root fungus inoculums and as a source of infection that causes the death of rubber plant. The emergence of this disease is closely related to the cleanliness of the land such as leftover trees or stumps, shrubs and bushes which stacked or still in the ground. One of the symbionts organisms found in gut of termite and play a role in the decomposition of cellulose, are bacteria. Termite are social insects that are efficiently decompose lignocelluloses with the aid of their associated microbial symbionts located in termite gut. The purpose of this study was to obtain cellulolytic bacterial isolates are derived from gut of termite and getting an cellulolytic which showed the best ability in decomposing rubber tree stumps. The result termite samples from oil palm, rubber, and dry wood contain cellulolytic bacteria characterized by clear zones around bacterial colonies. Bacterial isolates showing the ability to degrade cellulose are 31 isolates and five isolates are safe for plants, animals, or mammals. The three bacterial isolates (NK 4, NS 4, and NS 5) used in the test on rubber tree stumps able to decompose rubber tree stump. Bacterial isolates were each obtained NK 4 13.52%, NS 4 18.40% and NS 5 17.88%.Keywords: bacteria cellulolytic, rubber tree stumps, termite
Analisis keragaman genetik Ganoderma spp. yang berasosiasi dengan tanaman kakao dan tanaman pelindungnya menggunakan Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Genetic diversity analysis of Ganoderma spp. associated with cocoa and its shade trees using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) MINARSIH, Hayati; LINGGA NP, Dyah; DARMONO, TW DARMONO; HERLIYANA, Elis Nina
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 79, No 1: Juni 2011
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (272.206 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v79i1.72

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AbstractInformation on genetic diversity of Ganoderma spp.causing root rot disease in crops is important to developa proper strategy for the control of Ganoderma disease. Theobjectives of this research were to study the genetic diversityof Ganoderma spp. associated with cacao and its shade trees(Albazia faltacaria, Swietenia mahogani, Adenatheramicrosperma and Leucaena leucocephala) by randomamplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Fourty fivesamples of Ganoderma spp. were used in this research. Theresults showed that DNA amplification using 10 arbitraryoligonucleotide primers produced 220 DNA fragmentsshowing polymorphisms. The cluster analysis showed that 45number of Ganoderma samples had a high variability with thecoefficient value ranged from 0.71 to 0.91. Further analysisusing Winboot software showed that three groups ofGanoderma spp. had a high degree of confidence (>50 %),which were Ganoderma samples from sengon (Paraserianthessp.) of Tasikmalaya, sengon (Paraserianthes sp.) ofPalembang, and mahogany of Jember; whereas the othergroups of samples had a low degree of confidence (<50%).AbstrakInformasi tentang keragaman genetik Ganoderma spp.sebagai penyebab penyakit busuk akar pada tanamanperkebunan sangat diperlukan untuk menerapkan strategiyang tepat dalam upaya perlindungan tanaman perkebunan.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman genetikGanoderma spp. yang berasosiasi dengan tanaman kakao dantanaman pelindungnya (sengon, mahoni, saga dan lamtoro)dari berbagai wilayah di Indonesia menggunakan penandamolekuler random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).Sebanyak 45 sampel Ganoderma spp digunakan dalampenelitian ini. Amplifikasi DNA dengan 10 primer terpilihmenghasilkan 220 fragmen DNA yang menunjukkan adanyapolimorfisme. Hasil analisis menunjukkan adanya keragamanyang cukup tinggi di antara sampel Ganoderma spp. daripohon inang dan wilayah yang berbeda, dengan nilaikoefisien 0,71-0,91. Berdasarkan analisis bootstrapdiketahui bahwa tiga kelompok sampel Ganoderma spp.memiliki tingkat kepercayaan yang tinggi (>50 %) yaitukelompok Ganoderma spp. yang berasosiasi dengan pohonsengon asal Tasikmalaya, sengon Palembang, dan mahoniJember; sedangkan pengelompokan lainnya menunjukkmenunjukkan tingkat kepercayaan yang rendah (<50 %).
Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani Achmad, A; Hadi, Soetrisno; Herliyana, Elis Nina; Setiawan, Agus
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 5 No. 1 (1999)
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

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Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani was studied by evaluating the ability of the pathogen to attack several ages of Pinus merkusii and Acacia mangium seedlings. Results showed that R. solani attacked P. merkusii from seed stage up to seven week-old seedlings, while eight week-old ones were free from the pathogen’s attack. On A. mangium, 16 day-old seedlings were uninfected by R. solani, while 12 day-old ones were still attacked by the pathogen. Pathogenesis of R. solani was also studied by evaluating the activities of cellulolytic and pectolytic enzymes produced by the fungi and compared them with the activities of the same enzymes produced by Fusarium oxysporum. Result showed that R. solani’s cellulolytic enzymes activity, reflected by the activity of C1-cellulase, was lower compared with that of F. oxysporum. On the other hand, R. solani was more intensive degrading pectin medium than F. oxysporum, such phenomenon reflected higher activity of pectolytic enzymes activity of R. solani compared with that of F. oxysporum. 
Fermentabilitas Rumen dan Kecernaan In Vitro Ransum yang Disuplementasi Kulit Buah Kopi Produk Fermentasi Jamur Pleurotus ostreatus Badarina, Irma; Evvyernie, Dwierra; Toharmat, Toto Toharmat; Herliyana, Elis Nina
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia Vol 9, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Bengkulu

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ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi potensi kulit buah kopi yang telah difermentasi jamur Pleurotus ostreatussebagai pakan suplemen secara in vitro berupa tingkat fermentabilitas dalam rumen dan kecernaan bahan kering serta bahan organik ransum. Kulit buah kopi produk biokonversi ditambahkan ke dalam ransum konsentrat sebanyak 0%(R0), 2%(R2), 4%(R4) dan 6%(R6) dari total bahan kering ransum. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dan tiga sumber cairan rumen kambing sebagai blok dan level pemakaian kulit buah kopi dalam ransum sebagai perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan tidak memberikan pengaruh yang nyata terhadap pH rumen dan NH3-N. Nilai rerata pH rumen dalam penelitian ini berada dalam kisaran normal. Suplementasi sampai level tertinggi (6%) tidak mengganggu metabolisme protein dalam rumen. Kadar VFA nyata menurun pada ransum yang disuplementasi dibandingkan ransum kontrol, dan tidak terdapat perbedaan yang nyata dalam produksi VFA diantara ransum yang disuplementasi. Produksi VFA berada dalam kisaran normal. Perlakuan tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap populasi mikrobia rumen (protozoa dan bakteri). Hal ini memberikan indikasi bahwa suplementasi kulit buah kopi produk biokonversi sampai level 6% tidak membahayakan kehidupan mikroba rumen. Kecernaan bahan kering dan bahan organik ransum yang disuplementasi menurun dibandingkan ransum kontrol. Level 6% penambahan di dalam ransum, kecernaan masih dikategorikan baik.Kata Kunci : Kulit buah kopi, P.ostreatus, fermentabilitas, kecernaan, rumen
Root Diseases Ganoderma sp. on the Sengon in West Java and East Java Herliyana, Elis Nina; Taniwiryono, Darmono; Minarsih, Hayati
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 18 No. 2 (2012)
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

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Sengon tree (Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen) currently becomes a major forest tree species widely planted by smallholders in Indonesia. The wood of this is quick growing and relatively easy to sell.  However, level of plant safety sengon between crop plantations and other forestry need to be assessed considering the sengon tree is alternative host of Ganoderma spp. Studies have been conducted to know the presence and diversity of Ganoderma spp. on the sengon tree and some ways inoculation on sengon plant in the nursery.  Survey of Ganoderma conducted in several locations of community forests and cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantations in West Java and East Java. Testing of genetic diversity based on RAPD technique. This conducted at the Biotechnology Research Institute of Plantation Indonesia Bogor. Inoculation testing conducted at the Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University.  The results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was found on the sengon tree and cacao plant, generally on the dead stump. The test results of genetic diversity obtained genetic similarity between G. lucidum from sengon and cacao are quite close. The results of inoculation of G. lucidum testing on seedlings sengon showed that both isolate from cacao and sengon tree able to infect a sengon tree back. The existence of sengon tree as shade plants for cacao plant need to watch out, because production cycle of sengon tree faster than production cycle of cacao plant that is protected.
Ketahanan Kayu Sengon terhadap Pycnophorus sanguineus dan Pleurotus djamor untuk Uji Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) 01-7207-2006 Herliyana, Elis Nina; Hanifa, Nifa; Hadi, Yusuf Sudo; Ariana, Ariana; Tsunoda, Kunio
Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika Vol. 2 No. 3 (2011): Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika
Publisher : Departemen Silvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB)

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The Resistance of Sengon against Pycnoporus sanguineus and Pleurotus djamor Using the SNI Methods (Standar Nasional Indonesia) 01-7207-2006Fungi is a organism which does not have chlorophyll and receives the energy resources by absorption system to the organic matters. A wood contains cellulose, hemicelluloses, and  lignin which in the wood decay fungi is very good needs. The kind of tree which the most acquainted with commercial trading till now is about 400 kinds of botanical (species). Around 80 – 85% of Indonesian woods had low class which it’s very easy attacked by wood decay fungi for instance Sengon. Kinds of it which potentially most decaying off the woods are Schizophyllum commune, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Dacryopinax spathularia, and Pleurotus djamor. This study was purposed to determine the potential of two kinds wood decay fungi to Sengon based on SNI Method (Standar Nasional Indonesia : SNI 01-7207-2006). Based on SNI 01-7207-2006 point out of wood weight loss percentage by the wood decay fungi knows that Sengon belong to IV - V resistance class (not resistant till very not resistant). The wood weight loss percentage was Sengon by P. sanguineus breed (31,09%) belong to V resistance class (very not resistant) and the wood weight loss percentage by P. djamor (20,51 %) belong to IV (not resistant).
Schizophyllum commune Fr. Sebagai Jamur Uji Ketahanan Kayu Standar Nasional Indonesia pada Empat Jenis Kayu Rakyat : Sengon (P. falcataria), Karet (H. brasiliensis), Tusam (P. merkusii), Mangium (A. mangium) Herliyana, Elis Nina; Maryam, Laila Fithri; Hadi, Yusuf Sudo
Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika Vol. 2 No. 3 (2011): Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika
Publisher : Departemen Silvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB)

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Schizophyllum commune Fr. As Indonesian National Standard Wood Resistance Test Fungi on Four Kinds of Community Wood : Sengon, Rubber, Tusam, and MangiumSchizophyllum commune Fr. is a vicious wood decaying fungi that in several cases could cause to 70 % weight loss. These fungi could attack various kind of woods (more than 25 wood species). It has been widely distributed especially in tropical area, and could easily grow in many conditions. This wood decaying fungi has an ability to decompose cell components of the woods through enzymatic processes from a complex to simpler form. Resistance of wood is strongly influenced by the content of extractive substances, although not all of these extractive substances are nocuous to wood destroying organisms. Based on the resistance, most common community woods have a low grade of resistance (grade III, IV, and V). This study aimed to determine the resistance of the four kind community woods which are sengon wood (P. falcataria), rubber (H. brasiliensis), tusam (P. merkusii), and mangium (A. mangium) against S. commune based on SNI 01.7202-2006. Parameters of the wood resistance against S. commune attack could be seen from the sample of weight loss. Based on the results of testing, it was known that sengon wood resistance was classified to a class IV-V (weak to extremely weak resistance to fungal attack) with the weight loss of longitudinal sengon and cross sengon respectively 32.2 and 15.7 %. Rubber wood resistance was classified to a class IV (weak resistance) with the weight loss value of longitudinal rubber and cross rubber respectively 13.8 and 12.0 %. Tusam and mangium wood’s resistance was clasified to a class III (moderate resistance) with the weight loss value of longitudinal tusam and cross tusam respectively 8.0 and 9.3 %. As for the mangium, the weight loss of longitudinal mangium and cross mangium respectively 6.3 and 6.3 %. Thus, the recommended wood as the control for the test of resistance against S.commune attack was sengon wood with the longitudinal direction of fiber. Fungi S. communne could use as the standard and was a recommended fungi for the the resistance test of the wood as it could cause the weight loss up to 3.2 % on sengon wood with the longitudinal direction of fiber.
Pretreatment dengan Phanerochaete chrysosporium dalam Hidrolisis Asam Encer Sludge Kertas Herliyana, Elis Nina; Aisah, Ai Rosah; Isroi, Isroi
Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika Vol. 2 No. 3 (2011): Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika
Publisher : Departemen Silvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB)

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Pretreatment with Phanerochaete chrysosporium in Paper Sludge  Dilute Acid HidrolisisFungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium is one of Basidiomycetes, which is able to degrade lignocelluloses materials, such as paper sludge. The cellulose from paper sludge could been as bioethanol raw materials, so there is need a delignification process in order to remove lignin. The delignification process could be performed by utilizing fungi P. chrysosporium as lignin degrading agent. In this work, duration of incubation (6 days, 12 days and control) and acid concentration (2.5 %, 5 % and control) factors were used to determine the reducing sugar content of paper sludge. The contents of cellulose and hemicelluloses exhibited increase as compared with those of control namely between 3.5-4.5% and 0.4-1.7% respectively, whereas kappa number exhibited decrease as compared to control namely between 10.2-15%. The enzyme activities of LiP, MnP and cellulase of 6 days incubation as much as 0.789 and 0.062, and 0 U/ml, whereas those of 12 days incubation as much as 0, 0.069 and 0.165 U/ml. The reducing sugar produced was still relatively low, namely between 0.3x10-2-2.6 g/l.  Factor of acid concentration gave significant effect on reducing sugar produced, and on the basis of Duncan advanced test, each level of the acid concentration differed significantly from each other.
Bakteri Endofit dari Tanaman Kehutanan sebagai Pemacu Pertumbuhan Tanaman Tomat dan Agens Pengendali Meloidogyne sp. Munif, Abdul; Wibowo, Arif Rafi; Herliyana, Elis Nina
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 11 No 6 (2015)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (317.311 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.11.6.179

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Meloidogyne sp. is one of the main constraints of tomato production in Indonesia. Endophytic bacteria may be considered as biocontrol agents for controlling Meloidogyne sp. The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic bacteria from forestry plants and to evaluate its potential for controling Meloidogyne sp. on tomato. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots of mahoni (Swietenia mahogany), trambesi (Albizia saman), gaharu (Aquilaria malacensis), and meranti (Shorea sp.). Isolation of bacterial endophytes from plant tissue was conducted using surface sterilization method with 70% alcohol, 3% NaOCl and sterile water on medium trypsic soy agar. Endophytic bacteria was separated and purified based on shape and color of the colony. A total of 33 isolates of endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots of mahoni (11 isolates), trambesi (5 isolates), gaharu (7 isolates), and meranti (10 isolates). The bacteria was tested for the hypersensitivity reaction on tobacco plants and the result showed that 22 isolates did not cause necrosis, indicated they are not pathogenic. Ten isolates of endophytic bacteria was selected for further experiment, i.e. to evaluate their potential as biocontrol agent for Meloidogyne sp. and as growth promotor for tomato plants. The experiment was conducted in the screenhouse using seed treatment. The result showed that two isolates of endophytic bacteria, i.e. MSJ1H and AGS1F were able to increase the growth of tomato plants up to 60% and reduce the number of root knot caused by Meloidogyne sp. Endophytic bacteria isolated from forestry plants have the potential as a biocontrol agents to plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne sp.