Articles

ENZYMATIC INTERESTERIFICATION OF FISH OIL WITH LAURIC ACID FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF STRUCTURED LIPID Subroto, Edy; Hidayat, Chusnul; ., Supriyadi
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 19 No. 2 (2008): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

Structured lipid (SL) containing of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) at sn-2 position has superior dietary and absorption characteristics. The most methods for the enzymatic synthesis of SL were through two steps process, so that it was inefficient. Caprilic acid was usually used as a source of MCFA. In this research, SL was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification between fish oil and lauric acid. The specific lipase from Mucor miehei was used as catalyzed. Factors, such as the incubation time, substrate mole ratio, and reaction temperature were evaluated. The incorporation and the position of lauric acid on glycerol backbone and glyceride profile were determined. The results showed that SL containing of lauric acid at the outer position and PUFA at sn-2 was successfully synthesized, and it was done through one step process. From regiospecific determination, it showed that the position of lauric acid incorporation was only at the sn-1 and sn-3. Only 0.87% of lauric acid was incorporated at the sn-2. The optimum time and temperature of the reaction, and the substrate mole ratio were 12 h, 50?C and 1:10, respectively, in which the incorporation of lauric acid was 62.8% (mol). Glyceride profile was affected by incubation time, substrate mole ratio and reaction temperature. Triglyceride concentration decreased with an increase in the incubation time (> 12 h). In contrast, the diglyceride concentration increased at longer incubation time (> 12 h). Beside, triglyceride concentration increased with an increase in substrate mole ratio to 1:10, but it decreased when mole ratio of substrate was 1:15. At higher temperature (50?C), triglyceride decreased with an increase in the reaction temperature. In summary, the SL was successfully synthesized by the interesterification of fish oil and lauric acid using specific lipase of Mucor miehei.Key words : Interesterification, fish oil, lauric acid, structured lipids, lipase
HIDROLISIS PATI DARI BATANG KELAPA SAWIT DENGAN KOMBINASI PERLAKUAN ASAM SITRAT DAN STEAM EXPLOSION TERHADAP SIFAT FISIKO KIMIA DEKSTRIN Yusra, Syarifah; Pranoto, Yudi; Anwar, Chairil; Hidayat, Chusnul
Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan Vol 9, No 1 (2020): February 2020
Publisher : Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Modifikasi pati dilakukan untuk memperbaiki sifat fungsional pati dan memperluas penggunaan pati dalam produk pangan. Modifikasi pati menjadi dekstin dapat dilakukan baik secara fisik, kimiawi, atau kombinasi fisiko-kimia. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan modifikasi pati dengan kombinasi pregelatinisasi-steam explosion (Pregel-SE), dan kombinasi pregelatinisasi-asam sitrat-steam explosion pada pH 4 (pregel-pH-SE4) dan pH 3 (pregel-pH-SE3) untuk produksi dekstrin. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh metode hidrolisis terbaik dalam pembuatan dekstrin. Produk yang dihasilkan diamati tingkat kelarutan, berat molekul (Mw), dextrose equivalent (DE), Spectra Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), SEM, dan viskositas pasta. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa kondisi terbaik modifikasi pati menjadi dekstrin diperoleh pada perlakuan pregel-pH3-SE. Pada perlakuan ini diperoleh kelarutan 75,94 %, berat molekul 60100 g/mol dan DE 15,92%. Pita vibrasi baru terlihat di wilayah bilangan gelombang 1717 cm-1 pada analisis FTIR. Hasil SEM menunjukkan bahwa bentuk granula pati yang bulat sudah tidak terlihat setelah kombinasi perlakuan. Pengujian RVA menunjukkan penurunan viskositas berkorelasi positif terhadap penurunan berat molekul, peningkatan kelarutan dan DE setelah kombinasi perlakuan ditingkatkan. Starch modification is performed to improve the functional properties of starch and starch utilization in food products. Modification of starch, such as dextrin, can be performed by physical and chemical methods, or a combination method, such as physico-chemical. In this research, starch modification was carried out by a combination between pregelatinization and steam explosion (Pregel-SE), a combination between pregelatinization, citric acid and steam explosion at pH 4 (Pregel-pH-SE4) and at pH 3 (Pregel-pH-SE3) for the production of dextrin. The objective of this research was to obtain the best method for dextrin production. The results were observed, such as levels of solubility, molecular weight (Mw), dextrose equivalent (DE), Spectra Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), SEM, and pasting properties (RVA). The results showed that the best condition of starch modification for dextrin production was obtained by Pregel-pH3-SE. Solubility, molecular weight, and DE of dextrin were 75.94%, 60100 g/mol, and 15.92%, respectively. A new peak was observed in the region of the wavenumber 1.717 cm-1 at FTIR analysis. SEM analysis indicated that the round form of starch granules did not observed after the treatments. RVA analysis showed that the decrease in viscosity was correlated with a decrease in molecular weight, an increase in solubility, and DE after the treatments.
Production and Optimization of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester Synthesis Using Lipase From Rice Bran (Oryza sativa L.) and Germinated Jatropha Seeds (Jatropha curcas L.) by Response Surface Methodology Prastowo, Indro; Hidayat, Chusnul; Hastuti, Pramudji
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 17, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Recently, the fatty acid ethyl ester has been synthesized in place of fatty acid methyl ester since ethanol has been more renewable. In this research, oleic acid ethyl ester (OAEE) was synthesized using germinated jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas.L) and rice bran (Oryza sativa) as source of lipase. The objective of the research was to optimize the synthesis conditions using Response Surface Methodology. Factors, such as crude enzyme concentration, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol, and the reaction time, were evaluated. The results show that lipase from germinated jatropha seeds had the hydrolitic and esterifi cation activity about 6.73 U/g and 298.07 U/g, respectively. Lipase from rice bran had the hydrolitic and esterifi cation activity about 10.57 U/g and 324.03 U/g, respectively. The optimum conditions of esterifi cation reaction using germinated jatropha seed lipase as biocatalyst were crude enzyme concentration of 0.31 g/ml, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol of 1 : 1.81, and reaction time of 50.9 min. The optimum conditions of esterifi cation reaction using rice bran lipase were crude enzyme concentration of 0.29 g/ml, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol of 1 : 2.05, and reaction time of 58.61 min. The obtained amounts of OAEE were 810.77 μmole and 626.92 μmole for lipases from rice bran and germinated jatropha seed, respectively.
Ethanol Fermentation on Mixed Sugars Using Mixed Culture of Two Yeast Strains ., Jasman; Prijambada, Irfan Dwidya; Hidayat, Chusnul; Widianto, Donny
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 18, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of mixed cultures of the recommended yeast strainsfrom a previous study on ethanol fermentation using a substrate mixture consisting of sucrose, glucose, andfructose. There were three mixed (combination) cultures namely OUT7096/OUT7913, OUT7096/OUT7921,and OUT7913/OUT7921. The fermentation medium contained sugar mixture consisting of glucose, fructose,and sucrose with a composition generally close to the composition of sugars in sweet sorghum juice. Overall,fermentation is carried out in two stages. First fermentation was performed using the three mixed culturesto determine the best combination based on the concentration of ethanol produced and the concentration ofresidual sugar. Second fermentation was conducted using the best mixed culture obtained from the fi rst stage.This second stage was intended to describe the pattern of the changes in the concentration of ethanol, sugarsand biomass during the fermentation progresses and to determine some kinetic parameters namely ethanolyield (Yp/s), growth yield (Yx/s) and specifi c growth rate (μ). The results of the fi rst fermentation showed thatthe best mixed culture was OUT7913/OUT7921 and the subsequent fermentation using this culture providethe highest ethanol yield (Yp/s) = 0.47 g.g-1 that was reached at 53rd hour, growth yield (Yx/s) = 0.425 g.g-1, andμ = 0.12 hour-1.Keywords : fermentation, ethanol, mixed culture, mixed sugar
PROFIL AROMA ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA HASIL DISTILASI FRAKSINASI BERTINGKAT PADA BERBAGAI PERLAKUAN SUHU Profile Liquid Smoke Aroma of Coconut Shell Products at Various Temperatures Using Multistages Distillation Vessel Kadir, Syahraeni; Darmadji, Purnama; Hidayat, Chusnul; ., Supriyadi
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 01 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

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Abstract

Have been carried out in stages distillation liquid smoke at a temperature of  90, 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140 °C,which aims to assess the decrease in the intensity of the aroma of coconut shell liquid smoke through fractionation by distillation storey.The results were obtained a total recovery of 90.52 % with the highest at a temperature range of 100-130 °C distillation ie 88.88 %. Sensory evaluation results showed that the liquid smoke fraction II at a temperature of 120 °C obtained the highest percentage of acceptance by panelists namely 65 %. The main volatile components as a liquid smoke aroma contributors are grouped into four, namely: Group alcohols, acids and esters, carbonyl group, phenol and its derivatives as well as guaiacol and its derivatives. All of the tested liquid smoke fractions containing groups of the compounds with varying intensity.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan distilasi asap cair secara bertingkat pada suhu 90; 100; 110; 120; 130 dan 140 °C, yang bertujuanmengkaji penurunan intensitas aroma asap cair tempurung kelapa melalui distilasi fraksinasi bertingkat. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh total rendemen sebesar 90,52 % dengan hasil tertinggi pada suhu distilasi berkisar 100-130 °C yakni88,88 %. Hasil pengujian sensoris menunjukkan bahwa asap cair fraksi ll yang didistilasi pada suhu 120 °C memperoleh persentase penerimaan tertinggi oleh panelis yakni 65%. Komponen volatil utama sebagai kontributor aroma asap cair dikelompokkan ke dalam empat golongan yaitu: (1) Kelompok alkohol, asam dan ester, (2) Kelompok karbonil, (3) Fenol dan turunannya serta (4) Guaiakol dan turunannya. Seluruh fraksi asap cair yang diujikan mengandung kelompok senyawa tersebut dengan intensitas yang bervariasi.
OPTIMASI EKSTRAKSI OLEORESIN PALA (Myristica fragrans Houtt) ASAL MALUKU UTARA MENGGUNAKAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM) Assagaf, Muhammad; Hastuti, Pudji; Hidayat, Chusnul; ., Supriyadi
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 04 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to obtain the optimum extraction conditions by performing the optimization of temperature and extraction time and characterization of constituent chemical components of oleoresin nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) Origin of North Maluku. Oleoresin extracted using maceration method, for optimization of extraction conditions was done by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) design with the Central Composite Design (CCD) two factors X1 (temperature / oC) and X2 (times / minute). As for the characterization of the chemical constituent components of nutmeg oleoresin used GC-MS. From the results obtained by the optimization of extraction conditions for extracting the optimum temperature of 51.98 °C and the optimum extraction time was 273.82 minutes with the results for the optimum result of oleoresin obtained by 14.88%. The results of characterization by using GC-MS obtained with 39 components making up oleoresin chemical compound with the largest relative area of ​​the compound methyleugenol (33,397%), myristicine (10,898%), cis-methyl isoeugenol (9,086%), elemicin (8,329% ), and isocoumarin (5,608%) with 34 percent of the components that have relatively minor area.Keywords: Nutmeg oleoresin, extraction optimization, Response Surface Methodology, characterization ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh kondisi ekstraksi yang optimum dengan melakukan optimasi suhu dan lama ekstraksi dan karakterisasi komponen kimia penyusun oleoresin pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt) Asal Maluku Utara. Oleoresin diekstrak menggunakan metode maserasi, untuk optimasi kondisi ekstraksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Response Surface Methodology (RSM) dengan disain rancangan Central Composite Design (CCD) dua faktor yaitu X1 (suhu/oC) dan X2 (waktu/menit). Sedangkan untuk karakterisasi komponen senyawa kimia penyusun oleoresin pala digunakan GC-MS. Hasil optimasi kondisi ekstraksi diperoleh suhu optimum ekstraksi sebesar  51,98oC dan waktu optimum ekstraksi adalah selama 273,82 menit dengan hasil optimum hasil oleoresin yang diperoleh sebesar 14,88 %. Hasil karakterisasi dengan menggunakan GC-MS diperoleh 39 komponen dengan 5 senyawa kimia penyusun oleoresin dengan luas area relatif terbesar yaitu senyawa methyleugenol (33.397%), myristicine (10.898%), cis-methyl isoeugenol (9.086%), elemicin (8.329%), dan isocoumarin (5.608%) dengan 34 komponen  yang memiliki persen relatif luas area minor. Kata kunci: Oleoresin pala, optimasi ekstraksi, Response Surface Methodology, karakterisasi
EFEKTIVITAS MIKROEMULSI O/W DENGAN SURFAKTAN NON IONIK DALAM MENGHAMBAT FOTOOKSIDASI VITAMIN C PADA MODEL MINUMAN (Effectiveness of Oil-in-Water Microemulsions with Nonionic Surfactants in Inhibiting Photooxidation of Vitamin C in Beverage Model) Suhendra, Lutfi; Raharjo, Sri; Hastuti, Pudji; Hidayat, Chusnul
Jurnal Agritech Vol 33, No 01 (2013)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to obtain the effectiveness of oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion using nonionic surfactans to improve the stability and inhibit the deterioration rate of vitamin C in beverage model systems caused by photooxidation. O/W microemulsions were formulated with oil-surfactan ratio (15:85 v/v), with surfactant mixture consisting of Tween 80:Span 80:Tween 20 = 92:5.5:2.5 (% v/v) and water content 65%. O/W microemulsions were subjected to stability towards pH and dilution. The dilution were done by dilute microemulsions with water and citrate buffer (pH: 3.5; 4.5 and water pH 6.5) with proportion 1:1, 1:9 and 1:99. The microemulsios were tested the stability on heating treatment at 105 °C for 5 hours and during storage for 8 weeks at room temperature. The baverage models were vitamin C solution (450 mg/L, citric acid (1%) and sucrose (6%). The o/w microemulsions added in the beverage models were microemulsion that had been diluted 50 and 100 times with water pH 6.5. The beverage model was added with 5 ppm erythrosin as sensitizer and without erythrosin as control. The models were exposed to fl ourescent light with an intensity of 2000 lux. Vitamin C concentration was mesured by the method of ribofl avin-sensitized photodynamic UV spectrophotometry every 2 hours. The o/w microemulsion was stable at pH 3.5 to 6.5 and dilution (1:1, 1:9, and 1:99), heating and storage. The o/w microemulsions which were diluted 100 times effectively increased the stability of vitamin C, but the o/w microemulsions diluted 50 times was more efective to inhibit the rate of distruction of vitamin C due to photooxidation in beverage model.Keywords: Microemulsions, vitamin C, photooxidation, surfactant ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh efektivitas mikroemulsi o/w dengan surfaktan non ionik untuk meningkatkan stabilitas dan menghambat laju kerusakan vitamin C akibat fotooksidasi pada model minuman. Mikroemulsi oil-inwater(o/w) dibentuk dari campuran minyak–surfaktan (15:85 v/v) dengan perbandingan surfaktan Tween 80:Span 80:Tween 20 = 92:5,5: 2,5 (% v/v) dengan kadar air 65%. Mikroemulsi o/w diuji stabilitas terhadap pH dan pengenceran dengan cara mengencerkan mikroemulsi dengan media air dan buffer sitrat (pH: 3,5; 4,5 dan aquades pH 6,5) dengan proporsi 1:1. 1:9 dan 1:99, selanjutnya mikroemulsi o/w yang telah dilakukan pengenceran dengan pH berbeda ini diuji stabilitasnya pada pemanasan 105 °C selama 5 jam dan stabilitas penyimpanan selama 8 minggu pada suhu ruang. Model minuman terdiri dari larutan vitamin C (450 mg/L), asam sitrat (1%) dan sukrosa (6%). Mikroemulsi o/w yang ditambahkan ke dalam model minuman adalah mikroemulsi diencerkan 50 kali dan 100 kali dengan aquades pH 6,5. Selanjutnya ditambahkan dengan/tanpa eritrosin sehingga masing-masing larutan mengandung eritrosin 5 ppm sebagai sensitiser. Sampel tersebut kemudian dipapar dengan lampu fl uoresen dengan intensitas cahaya 2000 lux. Konsentrasi vitamin C diukur dengan metode ribofl avin-sensitized photodynamic UV spectrophotometry tiap 2 jam. Mikroemulsi o/w stabil pada pH 3,5 sampai 6,5 dan pengenceran (1:1. 1:9 dan 1:99), pemanasan dan penyimpanan. Mikroemulsi o/w diencerkan 100 kali efektif meningkatkan stabilitas vitamin C, namun mikroemulsi o/w diencerkan 50 kali lebih efektif untuk menghambat laju kerusakan vitamin C akibat fotooksidasi pada model minuman.Kata kunci: Mikroemulsi, vitamin C, fotooksidsi, surfaktan
OPTIMASI KONDISI FERMENTASI WHEY DANGKE SEBAGAI PRODUK MINUMAN DENGAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY Maruddin, Fatma; ., Soeparno; ., Nurliyani; Hidayat, Chusnul; Taufik, Muhammad
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 03 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

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Optimization of Fermentation Conditions of Dangke Whey as Beverage Product by Using Response SurfaceMethodologyABSTRAKWhey dangke merupakan limbah dangke yang belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Whey dangke dipisahkan dari curdmenggunakan getah buah pepaya sebagai sumber enzim. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi kondisifermentasi (level inokulum, waktu inkubasi dan level tapioka) whey limbah dangke sebagai produk minuman denganresponse surface methodology. Minuman fermentasi komersial digunakan sebagai target dalam menentukan kondisioptimal. Whey dicampur tepung tapioka level 0, 0,35., 0,7., 1,05 dan 1,4% dan dipanaskan sambil diaduk selama 5menit suhu 70 oC. Whey selanjutnya dipasteurisasi suhu 80oC selama 30 menit. Setelah dingin diinokulasi L.acidophiluslevel 1, 3, 5, dan 7% serta diinkubasi suhu 37 oC selama 8, 12, 16, 18 dan 24 jam. Karakteristik produk minuman yangdiperoleh dengan penambahan level inokulum 5%, tapioka level 0,7% dan diinkubasi 16 jam hampir sama karakteristikminuman fermentasi komersial adalah kandungan asam laktat 0,58%, viskositas 0,21 poise dan pH 3,7. Karakteristiktersebut dapat didekati dengan mengoptimasi kondisi fermentasi menggunakan metode RSM.Kata kunci: Whey dangke, kondisi fermentasi, produk minuman, response surface methodologyABSTRACTDangke whey is a dangke by-product that has not been widely utilized. Dangke whey is separated from curd using thepapaya latex as source of enzymes. The objectives of the study were to optimize fermentation conditions (tapioca level,inoculum level, and incubation time) of whey from dangke waste by using a response surface methodology. Commerciallyfermentative beverage was used as a target to determine the optimal conditions. Whey was mixed with tapioca level of0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, and 1.4%, and was heated by stirring for 5 minutes at temperature of 70 oC. The whey was pasteurizedat the temperature of 80 oC for 30 minutes. The whey was cool, and inoculated with L.acidophilus at the level of 1,3, 5, and 7%, and incubated at 37 °C for 8, 12, 16, 18, and 24 hours, respectively. The characteristics of fermentationbeverage obtained by the addition of inoculum level of 5%, tapioca 0.7% level and incubated for 16 hours were similarto the characteristics of commercially fermentative beverage. The characteristics of fermentated beverage were asfollows: lactic acid was 0.58%, viscosity was 0.21 poise and pH was 3, 7, respectively. These characteristics could beobtained by optimization of fermentation conditions by using RSM method.Keywords: Dangke whey, fermentation conditions, beverage product, response surface methodology
KARAKTERISTIK WHEY LIMBAH DANGKE DAN POTENSINYA SEBAGAI PRODUK MINUMAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 (Characteristics of Whey from Dangke Waste and Its Potential as Beverage Product by using Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051) ., Fatma; ., Soeparno; ., Nurliyani; Hidayat, Chusnul; Taufik, Muhammad
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 04 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

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ABSTRACT Dangke whey has not been widely utilized.  Dangke  whey handling is required  for the prevention of environmental pollution, especially  in  Enrekang.  Evaluating the characteristics of dangke whey is the initial step of dangke  whey handling. Complete data about the dangke whey would be  scientific information for researchers or the public to further the utilization. Nutritional value of dangke whey allows the use of  Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 to be processed into  beverage  products. This research objectives were to investigate the characteristics of whey from dangke waste, which were obtained from milk protein separation by using lyophilization of papaya latex, and it also to evaluate the potential of dangke whey as beverage product by using Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051. A commercial fermented beverages product is used as a comparison, based on the activity  of growth/bacteria numbers, lactic acid and pH. Milk was added with enzyme solution (lyophilized latex) on the level of 0.4 to 1% (v/v). The best level was used for the production of the fermented whey beverage products. Whey was mixed with tapioca level of 0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, and 1.4%, and was heated by stirring for 5 minutes at temperature of 70oC. The whey was pasteurized at the temperature of 80oC for 30 minutes. The whey was cooled, and inoculated with L.acidophilus at the level of 1, 3, 5, and 7%, and incubated at 37°C for 8, 12, 16, 18, and 24 hours, respectively. The characteristics of whey dangke were as follows: the solid total was 6.95 ± 0.23%, lactic acid was 0.1 ± 0.003%, fat was 0.2 ± 0.05%, protein was  0.63 ± 0.009%, lactose was 5.08 ± 0.009%, pH was 6.31 ± 0.01, and viscocity was 0.19 ± 0.004 poise. Dangke whey is potential as a beverage products with the addition of  Lactobacillus acidophilus with quality similar to the commercial fermented beverage after incubated for 16 hours, with the addition of inoculum level of 5% and tapioca level of 0.35% based on the activity of growth, lactic acid and pH. Keywords: Dangke whey, characteristics, potential, beverage product, Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 ABSTRAK Whey dangke belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Penanganan whey dangke sangat diperlukan untuk pencegahan pencemaran lingkungan khususnya di Kabupaten Enrekang. Evaluasi karakteristik whey dangke merupakan langkah awal penanganan whey dangke. Data yang lengkap tentang karakteristik whey dangke akan menjadi informasi ilmiah bagi para peneliti ataupun masyarakat untuk pemanfaatan whey dangke lebih lanjut. Nutrisi whey memungkinkan penggunaaan Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 untuk diolah menjadi produk minuman. Penelitian ini  bertujuan mengetahui karakteristik whey limbah dangke, diperoleh dari pemisahan protein susu dengan menggunakan getah pepaya liofilisasi serta mengetahui potensi whey dangke sebagai produk minuman menggunakan Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 dengan menggunakan produk minuman fermentasi komersial sebagai pembanding, berdasarkan aktivitas pertumbuhan/jumlah bakteri, kandungan asam laktat dan pH. Susu ditambahkan larutan enzim (getah liofilisasi) level 0,4 - 1% (v/v), dan level terbaik digunakan untuk  pembuatan produk minuman whey fermentasi. Whey dicampur tepung tapioka  level 0, 0,35., 0,7., 1,05 dan 1,4% dan dipanaskan sambil diaduk selama 5 menit suhu 70oC. Whey selanjutnya di pasteurisasi suhu 80oC selama 30 menit. Setelah dingin diinokulasi L.acidophilus level 1, 3, 5, dan 7% serta diinkubasi  suhu  37oC selama 8, 12, 16, 18 dan 24 jam. Karakteristik whey dangke adalah; total padatan 6,95±0,23%, asam laktat 0,1±0,003%, lemak 0,2±0,05%, protein 0,63± 0,009%, laktosa 5,08 ±0,009%, pH 6,31±0,01 dan viskositas 0,19±0,004 poise. Whey dangke berpotensi sebagai produk minuman dengan penambahan Lactobacillus acidophilus dengan kualitas yang hampir sama dengan produk minuman fermentasi komersial setelah diinkubasi selama 16 jam, penambahan level inokulum 5%  dan penambahan level tapioka 0,35% berdasarkan aktivitas pertumbuhan, asam laktat dan pH. Kata kunci: Whey dangke, karakteristik, potensi, produk minuman, Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051
PRODUCTION OF OLEIC ACID ETHYL ESTER CATALYZED BY CRUDE RICE BRAN (ORYZA SATIVA) LIPASE IN A MODIFIED FED-BATCH SYSTEM: A PROBLEM AND ITS SOLUTION Prastowo, Indro; Hidayat, Chusnul; Hastuti, Pudji
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2015: BCREC Volume 10 Issue 3 Year 2015 (SCOPUS Indexed, December 2015)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

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Abstract

A fed-batch system was modified for the enzymatic production of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester (OAEE) using rice bran (Oryza sativa) lipase by retaining the substrate molar ratio (ethanol/oleic acid) at 2.05:1 during the reaction. It resulted in an increase in the ester conversion of up to 76.8% in the first 6 h of the reaction, which was then followed by a decrease from 76.8% to 22.9% in 6 h later. The production of water in the reaction system also showed a similar trend. The water was hypothesized to lead lipase to reverse the reaction which resulted in a decrease in both (water and esters) in the last 6 h of the reac- tion. In order to overcome the problem, zeolite powder (25 and 50 mg/mL) were added into the reaction system at 5 h of the reaction. As the result, the final ester conversions increased drastically up to 90 - 95.7%. Thus, the combination of a constant substrate molar ratio (ethanol/oleic acid) during the reaction (at 2.05:1) with the addition of zeolite powder (25 and 50 mg/mL) to the reaction system at 5 h is effective for the enzymatic synthesis of OAEE. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd May 2015; Revised: 20th June 2015; Accepted: 2nd July 2015 How to Cite: Prastowo, I., Hidayat, C., Hastuti, P. (2015). Production of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester Catalyzed by Crude Rice Bran (Oryza sativa) Lipase in a Modified Fed-batch System: A Problem and its Solution. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (3): 230-236. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.3.8511.230-236) Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.3.8511.230-236