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Preparasi Katalis Abu Kulit Kerang untuk Transesterifikasi Minyak Nyamplung Menjadi Biodiesel Zuhra, Zuhra; Husin, Husni; Hasfita, Fikri; Rinaldi, Wahyu
Agritech Vol 35, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (257.964 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9421

Abstract

Biodiesel, as a potential substituted energy, has attracted a great attention in recent years, which can be produced from o3 renewable sources and provides complete combustion with less gaseous pollutant emission. Biodiesel is produced conventionally via transesterification of vegetable oils using homogeneous catalysts, e.g. KOH, NaOH, and HaSO4. The homogeneous catalytic process, however, provides some disadvantages, such as, a huge production of wastewater from washing process of catalyst residues and non-reusability of the catalysts. In order to circumvent most of the economical and environmental drawbacks of homogeneous process, heterogeneous catalysts, this can be easily separated from reaction mixture by filtration. These catalysts are less corrosive and more environment-friendly. The objective of this work was to develop the effectivity of using waste of cockle (Clinocardium nuttalli) shell as a heterogeneous base catalyst for the biodiesel production. The catalysts were prepared by simple calcination methods, at temperatures of 600, 700, 900 oC, and without calcination. Calcined catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technique. Transesterification process of Calophyllum inophyllum L.oil and o methanol were carried out under bath reactor over the cockle shellcatalysts to produce biodiesel. The XRD patterns depicted that CaCO3 was successfully converted into CaO. SEM recorded demonstrates that the particle catalyst become smaller after heating. The highest activity was found at calcined catalyst of 900 oC, with the yield of biodiesel reaching 87.4% during 3 hours. The solid catalyst from waste cockle shell was proven to be durable for the transesterification of edible oil.ABSTRAKBiodiesel, sebagai sumber energi potensial telah menarik perhatian dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, karena dapat diproduksi dari sumber terbaharukan dan menghasilkan polutan yang rendah. Secara konvensional, biodiesel diproduksi melalui transesterifikasi minyak nabati menggunakan katalis homogen, yaitu: KOH, NaOH, dan H2SO4. Proses katalitik homogen memiliki beberapa kekurangan, seperti: banyak mengeluarkan air buangan dari pencucian residu katalis dan tidak dapat digunakan kembali. Untuk mengatasi kekurangan penggunaan katalis homogen baik secara ekonomi maupun lingkungan ditempuh dengan mengembangkan katalis heterogen atau katalis padat, yang dapat dengan mudah dipisahkan dari campuran reaksi secara filtrasi. Katalis ini juga rendah korosi dan lebih ramah lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas penggunaan abu kulit kerang yang mengandung CaO (kalsium oksida) sebagai katalis heterogen terhadap rendemen biodiesel. Bahan baku untuk pembuatan biodiesel adalah minyak nyamplung. Katalis disiapkan dengan metode kalsinasi sederhana pada temperatur: 600, 700, 900 oC, dan tanpa kalsinasi. Setelah kalsinasi, katalis dikarakterisasi denganmetode X-ray Diffraction (XRD) dan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Reaksi transesterifikasi minyak nyamplung dengan metanol dilangsungkan di dalam reaktor berpengaduk menggunakan katalis padat dari kulit kerang. Dari pola XRD mengindikasikan bahwa CaCO3 terkonversi dari kulit kerang sempurna menjadi CaO ketika kulit kerang dikalsinasi pada suhu 900 oC. Hasil rekaman SEM diperoleh ukuran partikel katalis setelah dipijar menjadi kecil. Aktivitas katalis tertinggi diperoleh pada penggunaan abu kulit kerang yang dikalsinasi pada suhu 900 oC. Rendemenmetil ester tertinggi mencapai 87,4% setelah 3 jam reaksi. Katalis abu kulit kerang telah terbukti dapat digunakan untuk reaksi transesterifikasi minyak nabati menjadi biodiesel.
STUDI PENGGUNAAN KATALIS ABU SABUT KELAPA, ABU TANDAN SAWIT DAN K2CO3 UNTUK KONVERSI MINYAK JARAK MENJADI BIODIESEL Husin, Husni; Mahidin, Mahidin; Marwan, Marwan
Reaktor Volume 13, Nomor 4, Desember 2011
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (280.026 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.13.4.254-261

Abstract

A STUDY ON THE UTILIZATION OF OIL PALM FIBRE AND FRUIT BUNCH ASH AND K2CO3 FOR CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF JATHROPA OIL TO BIODIESEL. Study on the use of coconut fiber ash, palm bunch ash and K2CO3 as the catalysts for conversion of jatropha oil into biodiesel using methanol solvent has been done. The biodiesel is produced by converting unpurified jatropha oil over catalyst through transesterification reaction. The catalysts are burned at temperature of 500, 600, 800 and 900oC for 10 hours. Transesterification reaction is conducted in three-neck flask at constant temperature of 60oC for 3 hours. The results showed that the unburned and burned coconut fiber ashes at 800oC catalysts give the highest biodiesel yield (87.05 and 87.97%) with low soap content (0.23-0.26%). The characteristic of biodiesel produced over those catalysts met the Indonesian and international quality standards, therefore those catalysts can be used as substitute for K2CO3 commercial catalyst.Abstrak   Studi penggunaan katalis abu sabut kelapa, abu tandan sawit dan K2CO3 untuk konversi minyak jarak menjadi biodiesel dengan pelarut metanol telah dilakukan. Biodiesel dibuat melalui konversi minyak jarak yang belum dimurnikan, menggunakan katalis, melalui reaksi transesterifikasi. Katalis-katalis tersebut dipijarkan pada temperatur 500, 600, 800 dan 900oC selama 10 jam. Reaksi dilangsungkan dalam labu leher tiga pada temperatur konstan 60oC selama 3 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggunaan katalis abu sabut kelapa tanpa pemijaran dan dengan pemijaran pada 800oC memberikan perolehan biodiesel tertinggi (87,05 dan 87,97%) dengan kadar sabun rendah (0,23-0,26%). Karakteristik biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari penggunaan katalis-katalis tersebut ini telah sesuai dengan syarat mutu yang ditetapkan oleh Standar Indonesia dan Internasional, sehingga katalis-katalis tersebut layak digunakan sebagai pengganti katalis K2CO3 komersial
Pengaruh Temperatur reaksi terhadap Aktivitas Katalis Besi Molibdenum Oksida Berpromotor Kromium Oksida Hasfita, Fikri; Husin, Husni
Industrial Engineering Journal Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Malikussaleh Industrial Engineering Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Malikussaleh

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Abstract

Preparation of iron molybdenum oxide promoted chromium oxide (Cr2O3/Fe2 (MoO4) 3) hasbeen done. The sample is synthesized by precipitation method. The performance of the catalyst isevaluated by the catalytic oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. For comparison, in this experimentalso use Fe2(MoO4)3 without promoter and Fe2 (MoO4)3 commercial. The samples are characterized by xray diffractometer (XRD) to determine its composition. XRD results indicate that the catalyst componentcomprised of Fe2 (MoO4)3, Fe2O3, and MoO3. The reaction is conducted in a tubular reactor with fixed-bedcatalyst, operating at temperatures of 250, 300, 350 °C, and atmospheric pressure. The products areanalyzed by Shimadzu gas chromatography using a porapak-Q column. The highest yield offormaldehyde of each catalyst, i.e: Fe2(MoO4)3, Cr2O3/Fe2 (MoO4)3 of 83%, 86% at temperatures of 300 °Cand Fe2(MoO4)3 commercial reach 96% at a temperature of 350 oC, respectively. The addition of Cr2O3 asa promoter shows increased the activity of iron molybdenum oxide catalysts.
H2 EVOLUTION ON LANTHANUM AND CARBON CO-DOPED NATAO3 PHOTOCATALYST Husin, Husni; Mahidin, Mahidin; Zuhra, Zuhra; Hafita, Fikri
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2014: BCREC Volume 9 Issue 2 Year 2014 (SCOPUS Indexed, August 2014)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (15.997 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5530.81-86

Abstract

We report a carbon-modify lanthanum doped sodium tantalum oxide powders (La-C-NaTaO3) by sol-gel process. The resultant materials are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The X ray diffraction of La-C-NaTaO3 show a single phases with a good crystallinity and without any impurity. The samples is exactly indexed as NaTaO3 monoclinic structure with the space group P2/m. The SEM measurements give a smaller particle size of doped NaTaO3 than pure NaTaO3. The effect of dopant on the photocatalytic activity of La-C-NaTaO3 in the photocatalytic of hydrogen generation is studied and compared with pure NaTaO3. The results show that the rate of hydrogen evolution over La-C-NaTaO3 is higher as compared to that of pure NaTaO3. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of La-C-NaTaO3 nanocrystalline is mainly due to their capability for reducing the electron hole pair recombination. The La-C-dopant is believed to play a key role in the enhancement of photocatalytic properties of La-C-NaTaO3 crystalline.Submitted: 28th September 2013; Revised: 16th February 2014; Accepted: 28th February 2014[How to Cite: Husin, H., Mahidin, M., Zuhra, Z., Hafita, F. (2014). H2 evolution on Lanthanum and Carbon co-doped NaTaO3 Photocatalyst . Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2):81-86. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5530.81-86)][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5530.81-86] 
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production over Ni/La-NaTaO3 Nanoparticles from NaCl-water Solution in the Presence of Glucose as Electron Donor Husin, Husni; Pontas, Komala; Yunardi, Yunardi; Salamun, Adi; Alam, Pocut Nurul; Hasfita, Fikri
ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol 17, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (727.757 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ajche.49553

Abstract

Nanoparticles La-NaTaO3 photocatalyst has been synthesized via a sol-gel route. A Ninanoparticle (NPs) as a cocatalyst is loaded on La-NaTaO3 by a simple impregnation method.The products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope(SEM), a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (XPS). X-ray diffraction of the La-NaTaO3 samples shows perovskite-typecrystalline orthorhombic structure. Small particulate solids of La-NaTaO3 (30-250 nm) areobserved by SEM measurement. The nickel particles are detected from HRTEM images isaround 4-8 nm. The hydrogen evolution over La-NaTaO3 with NaCl is much higher than thatwithout NaCl. The photoactivity of La-NaTaO3 is enhanced when Ni is loaded on the surfaceof La-NaTaO3. The optimum loading amount of nickel is found to be 0.3 wt.% for La-NaTaO3,and it is more effective for H2 production from NaCl-water solution in the presence glucose.It is revealed that the loaded Ni can interact with each other and cooperate on improving thephotocatalytic activity. In the case of glucose as an electron donor, the activity ofphotocatalytic hydrogen generation over Ni/La-NaTaO3 increases dramatically. NaCl andglucose can promote markedly the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. The Ni/La-NaTaO3nanoparticles system appears to be a promising candidate, which is very important to practicalapplications, including the production of H2 from NaCl-water solution in the presence ofglucose.