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KARAKTERISTIK FISIK DAN KIMIA SUSU JAGUNG MANIS PADA BERBAGAI LAMA PEREBUSAN Muhajir, Rahmat; Rahim, Abdul; Hutomo, Gatot Siswo
Agroland: Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Pertanian Vol 21, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

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Abstract

The research of the objectives is know of boiling time sweet corn kernels on the physical, chemical and organoleptic properties of corn milk that quality to produce. The research were used a completely randomized design (CRD) with using boiling time sweet corn as a treatment that consisting of four levels, i.e 30, 45, 60 and 75 min. The treatment was repeated three times, so that would be obtained 12 trials. The treatment were effected significantly further tested with real honest test (HSD) at 5%. The results showed that the yields (75.22%) of sweet corn highest at the of 60 min boiling time, the viscosity (983 cp) of highest at the 45 min and the  emulsion stability (16.41%) of the best it was 30 min boiling time. The chemical properties were founded of the best such as water content (78.5%) at 60 min, sugar content (14.4%) at 45 min, protein content (3.36%) at 60 min, fiber content (0.45%) at 75 min and ash content (0.22%) at 60 min. Key Words : Boiling, corn milk, physical and chemical characteristics, sweet corn.
Karakteristik Kimia Dan Sensoris Biji Kakao Hasil Fermetasi Pada Tingkat Petani Dan Skala Laboratorium Dome, Zulkifli SY.; Rahmatu, Rostiati Dg; Hutomo, Gatot Siswo
AGROTEKBIS Vol 1, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : AGROTEKBIS

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Abstract

Fermentation is a very vital stages of processing to ensure the production of a good chocolate flavor. The main purpose of this study to determine the chemical and sensory characteristics of fermented cocoa beans at the farm level and laboratory scale.  Fermentation methods do farmers with cocoa beans entering into fermnetasi box 50 kg and on the top of a banana leaf coated cocoa beans, then covered with a burlap sack with a rock ditindis. Further laboratory fermentation method by taking 5 kg of dry cocoa farmers who are not fermented cocoa plus 5 kg of wet samples, and then poured enough water until evenly distributed.  Fermentation box measuring 25x25 cm used for 5 days. During cocoa fermentation pengadukann every 48 hours the fermentation process running. Observations of temperature, pH and sampling was conducted every 6 hours fermentation, samples taken vriser stored in preparation for analysis of water content, protein content, soluble sugar content, and sensory properties. Temperature observations at the farm level rise slower than laboratory scale, where the maximum temperature reaches 45oC farmers (96 hours) and laboratory temperature of 45 ° C (33 hours). In the fermentation pH scale farmers and are relatively the same laboratory, where the pH optimum of 4.60 further 4.44 at the end of fermentation. Water content in the fermentation of farmers is higher than the laboratory-scale fermentation, where the initial fermentation reached 37.08% and 36.12% in laboratory scale, then the final moisture content of 29.29% farmers ferment and 27.85% in laboratory scale. Protein levels at the beginning of fermentation farmers are 4.78% and 5.13% laboratory scale, then the protein at the end of fermentation farmer 4.70% and 4.98% laboratory scale.  Sugar levels at the beginning of fermentation farmers as much as 15.54 mg / g and laboratory SKAL 15.34 mg / g, and at the end of the fermentation of sugar farmers be 8.86 mg/g and laboratory skla be 8.90 mg / g. Sensory test results using 16 panelists, where panelists really liked fermentation of cocoa beans in the roaster laboratory scale and alkalization.
KARAKTERISTIK BUAH KAKAO YANG DIPANEN PADA BERBAGAI KETINGGIAN TEMPAT TUMBUH DAN KELAS KEMATANGAN Nur Alam, Nur Alam; Saleh, Muhammad Salim; Hutomo, Gatot Siswo
Agroland: Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Pertanian Vol 17, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

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Abstract

The aim of the research was to determine the effect of altitude and cacao maturity class on cacao fruit characteristics and seed quality. Cacao fruits were harvested from three different altitudes  (first factor): 1-<400, >400-800 and >800 m above sea level (asl); and three different maturity classes (second): maturity class B (yellow on the fruit skin groove), maturity class A (yellow on the whole fruit skin surface) and maturity class A+ (dark yellow on the whole fruit skin surface).  Physical fruit characteristics were analysed on weight, fruit skin content, placenta, dental pulp, wet and dry seed yield, seed number/100 g, unfermented seed, and pulp content and its chemical components (sugar and total acid content).  The combination of the two factors resulted in  27 experimental units. The research resuts showed that cocoa fruit harvested from the plants growing at >400-900 m asl produced highest fruit weight (494.76 g), dry seed yield (8.43% dry weight) and seed size (90 seeds/100g).  Whereas at 1 - <400 m asl, the cacao fruit produced highest pulp sugar content (8.83%), lowest seed size (116 seeds/100 g) and unfermented seed (3.16%). Cacao fruit harvested from plant growing at >400 - <800 m asl with maturity class A produced seed which meet most the quality standard set by the SNI trade 01-2323-2002. The altitude as a growth factor is more dominant in influencing the cacao fruit characteristics than either the fruit maturity class or its combination with the altitude factor.
Ekstraksi Selulosa dari Pod Husk Kakao Menggunakan Sodium Hidroksida Hutomo, Gatot Siswo; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso; Anggrahini, Sri; Supriyanto, Supriyanto
Agritech Vol 32, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (352.411 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9612

Abstract

Cacao pod husk contains some compounds like pectin, lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, and other compounds suchas caffeine and theobromine. Especially for cellulose should be modiÞ ed as derivates which it have multi functionsin food application. Extraction cellulose from pod husk cacao was investigated. The aim of the research was to Þ ndthe concentration of sodium hydroxide for cellulose extraction from pod husk cacao. Bleaching for cellulose werecarried out twice using sodium hypochlorite 3% (oxydator) and sodium bisulÞ t 3% (reductor) to rise lightness. FT-IRand X-Ray spectra were detected in cellulose. Cellulose extracted using sodium hydroxide from pod husk cacao about26.09% (db) with crystalline 27.14%, ash content 6.56% (db), WHC 5.87 g/g and OHC 2.74 g/g. It could be concludedthat sodium hydroxide 12% is the best level to extract cellulose from pod husk cacao with double bleaching.ABSTRAKPod husk kakao banyak mengandung komponen kimia seperti pektin, lignin, hemiselulosa dan selulosa serta beberapakomponen yang lain yaitu caffein dan theobromine. Khusus selulosa dapat dilakukan modiÞ kasi sebagai turunanselulosa yang mempunyai banyak fungsi serta dapat diaplikasikan untuk pangan. Penelitian ekstraksi selulosa dari podhusk kakao telah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh konsentrasi sodium hidroksida sebagaibahan untuk ekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao. Selulosa pada pod husk kakao terikat sangat kuat dengan lignin,sodium hidroksida akan memutus dengan baik ikatan antara selulosa dengan lignin. Bleaching pada selulosa jugadilakukan dengan menggunakan sodium hipoklorida 3% dan sodium bisulÞ t 3% untuk meningkatkan lightness. SpektraFT-IR dan X-ray juga dilakukan untuk pendeteksian pada selulosa hasil ekstraksi. Hasil ekstraksi selulosa dari pod huskkakao menggunakan sodiumhidroksida 12% menghasilkan rendemen sekitar 26,09% (db) dengan kristalinitas 27,14%,kadar abu 6,56% (db), WHC 5,87 g/g dan OHC 2,74 g/g. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa sodium hidroksida 12% adalahkonsentrasi yang paling baik untuk mengekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao.
CHANGE PATTERN OF MONO AND DIACYLGLYCEROL IN ETHANOLYSIS REACTION OF CRUDE PALM OIL Hasanuddin, Asriani; Mappiratu, .; Hutomo, Gatot Siswo
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 14 No. 3 (2003): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

The Changging Pattern of Mono and Diacylglycerol concentration as respon to Reaction time during ethanolysis of Crude Palm Oil was influenced by the ration of ethanol/CPO. By using the ration of 0.25-0.5, the changing pattern of MAG concentration followed the parabolic curve, while that of DAG. By using the ration of ethanol/CPO of 1.5, the change of MAG concentration followed polynomyal curve, while that of DAG followed hyperbolic curve. The changing pattern of MAG dan DAG concentration during ethanolysis reaction of crude palm oil may caused by difference of reactivity and position of fatty acid as well as reactivity of lipid group (TAG, DAG, and MAG) Key Word : Ethanolysis, Monoacylglycerol, Diacylglycerol, crude palm oil.
KARAKTERISTIK FISIK DAN KIMIA MIE ANTIOKSIDAN DARI PATI SAGU DENGAN EKSTRAK KULIT BUAH NAGA MERAH Pratiwi, Yuliani; Rahim, Abdul; Hutomo, Gatot Siswo
AGROTEKBIS Vol 5, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : AGROTEKBIS

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Abstract

The objective of this research was to figure out the physical and chemical characteristic of antioxidant noodle and sago starch with peels extract of red dragon fruit. The reseach design was used Completely Randomized Design with six treatment and triplicate in order to obtain 18 units of trials. The treatment that have been tried namely sago paste that mixed into sago starch that consist of six levels : 100 g ; 110 g ; 120 g; 130; 140 g dan 150 g. The observation variable that to done including water content, water holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC), cooking loss and antioxidant content. The data were analysed with analysis of variance and continued with further test of honestly significance difference (HSD) 5%. The result of research shown that the water content tend to increase with the increased of sago starch. Cooking loss tend to increase with increased amount sago starch (110 to 150 g). The antioxidant properties of the noodles are best obtained in the treatment of sago starch 100 g.  Key Words : Antioxidants, noodles, peels of red dragon fruit, Sagu starch.
PEMBUATAN MINUMAN INSTAN FUNGSIONAL DARI BIOAKTIF POD HUSK KAKAO Wasmun, Herwanto; Rahim, Abdul; Hutomo, Gatot Siswo
AGROTEKBIS Vol 4, No 6 (2016)
Publisher : AGROTEKBIS

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Abstract

This research consists of two stages in which the first stage aims to find out the weight of the best cocoa pod husk powder that can be produced instant cacao pod husk beverages. The results of the analysis of the antioxidant capacity levels of total phenol showed that the use of dried cocoa pod husk by ethanol solvent has the highest level of both total phenols and antioxidant capasity. The second phase activity aims to find out the levels of total phenols and antioxidant capacity of instant beverages from various extracts of cocoa pod husk. This study used a completely random design (CRD) with one factor which was consisting of four levels namely cocoa pod husk weight 5 g, 10 g, 15 g and 20 g. Maltodextrin 20 g and 10 g of sucrose was added to thicker the instant beverage. The analysis showed that the highest of total phenols and antioxidant capacity in the drink when used 20 g of cocoa pod husk. The best phenols and antioxidant capacity content was from 10 g cocoa pod husk extratraction thus this amount has to be used as standard to produce this instant drink.Key Word: Extraction, Instant Drink, Pod husk.ABSTRAK
HIDROLISIS SELULOSADARI BAHAN POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN ASAM KLORIDA Rizal, Rizal; Hutomo, Gatot siswo; Rahim, Abdul
AGROTEKBIS Vol 4, No 6 (2016)
Publisher : AGROTEKBIS

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Abstract

The aims of this experiment were to obtain the best concentration of HCl and the optimum length of boiling time in producing liquid sugar from cacao pod husk. Analysis of data of extracted cellulose (Phase I) used completely randomized design (CRD), which consisted of 3 NaOH concentrations tested namely : 10%, 12% and 14%. Each treatment was replieated 4 times, and therefore there were 12 experimental units used. Analysis of variance showing significant or highly significant effects were subsequently analysed by HSD at 5% or 1%, respectively. Experimental design used in the hydrolysis of cellulose (Phase II) was randomized block design (RBD) with four levels of hydrochloric acid (HCl) tested, namely: K1 = 1%; K2 = 1.5%; K3 = 2% and K4 = 2.5%. Treatments were grouped based on the length of pod husk cellulose hydrolysis time in hydrochloric acid solution, namely R1 = 2 hours, R2 = 4 hours, R3 = 6 hours, R4 = 8 hours, R5 = 10 hours and R6 = 12 hours. Each treatment was replicated three times in each group, and therefore there were 72 experimental units observed. Analysis of variance showing significant or highly significant effects were subsequently analysed by HSD at 5% or 1%, respectively. The best NaOH concentration was obtained at 12% and the optimum length of boiling time was 8 hours.Key Words: Cacao pod husk, cellulose, Hydrochloric acid.
EKSTRAKSI PEKTIN POD HUSK KAKAO SECARA KERING MENGGUNAKAN ASAM KLORIDA PADA BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI LARUTAN Saputra, Adhi; Hutomo, Gatot Siswo; Rahim, Abdul
AGROTEKBIS Vol 5, No 6 (2017)
Publisher : AGROTEKBIS

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Abstract

The research aimed to gain the characteristic of pectin from dry cacao pod husk and the best physical or chemical quality of pectin resulted from dry extraction of cacao pod husk by using hydrochloric acid at the best concentration. This research used Completely Randomized Design under one single factor consisting of 5 treatments of concentration of solution, i.e 0.5 M, 1 M, 1.5 M, 2 M, 2.5 M which were replicated 4 times so that 20 units of experiment were obtained. The treatment with significant or very significant affect was then tested with Honest Significant Difference (HSD) test on the level of 5% or 1%. It was then analyzed with derivatives of quadratic functions formula to produce the best treatment of extraction of concentration of solution. The research reveal that the best pectin extraction was obtained at concentration of HCl 1.50 M with 15.09% of rendement value, 69.11% of methoxyl content, 54.56% of galacturonic acid and 68.24% of pectin clarity. Based on those findings, it can be concluded that HCl 1.50 M concentration is very good to extract the pectin from dry cacao pod husk with hydrochloric acid. Key Words: Cacao Pod Husk, Concentration of solution, Hydrochloric acid, pectin.
KARAKTERISTIK FISIK DAN KIMIA BUAH TOMAT HASIL PELAPISAN DENGAN PATI TALAS Rusmanto, Eko; Rahim, Abdul; Hutomo, Gatot Siswo
AGROTEKBIS Vol 5, No 5 (2017)
Publisher : AGROTEKBIS

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Abstract

The tomato fruit is the klimaterik fruit easily broken after harvested. One of the post harvest handling technology that can be applied on tomato fruit, namely edible starch taro-based coating. This research aims to know the best taro starch concentration can be used as upholstery materials (edible coating) in the handling of post harvest of tomatoes based on its chemical and physical characteristics. This research was carried out in January to April 2016, in the Laboratory of Industrial agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tadulako, Palu, Central Sulawesi. Research design used was complete randomized design (CRD). This research using the method of immersion (dipping) on tomato fruit coating by using 5 starch concentration of taro treatments are: 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7% and it repeated twice. The results showed that the concentrations of taro starch is best for coating edible materials (coatings) in post-harvest handling tomato fruit is of 1-3%. As for the physical characteristics of tomato fruit is relatively the same red color is determined visually and smoothly (0,31 mm -0,32/g/s), while the chemical characteristics of tomato fruit including moisture content (93,32-94,61%), vitamin C (10,12-11,30 mg/100 g), sugar levels (1,51-1,54%) and respiratory rate (0,24-0,29 mg CO2/kg/hour). Keywords : Edible Coating, Taro Starch, Tomatoes.