The aim of this research was to find out the influence of the chronic hormone LHRH-a and 17Î±-MT on non-specific immune response of mangrove grouper, Epinephelus coioides broodstock. Female and male fish weight used in this experiment ranged 4.7-10.4 kg and 10.4-17.8 kg, respectively. The female fish were treated with hormone 17Î±-MT at a dosage of 50 Âµg/kg body weight, while the male fish treated with hormone LHRH-a at dosages of 50 and 100 Âµg/kg body weight. Fish were kept separately in two concrete tanks contained 100 mÂ³ sea water, and 2 meters depth. The stocking density was 15 fishes/tank with male and female ratio 1 : 2. The blood samples were colected before treatment by hormone and every two months, subsequently. The non-specific immune response parameters evaluated were phagocytic activity (PA), phagocytic index (PI), and lysozyme activity (LA). Results indicated that chronic hormone could increase non-specific immune response especially phagocytic activity up to 17.3%.
An experiment on application of immunostimulant bacterin in order to prevent Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) in seed production of humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis has been conducted in Gondol Research Institute for Mariculture hatchery. The experiment arranged in completely randomized design with two replicates. One thousand and five hundred fry with total length 4 cm were treated as followed ; 1 ml bacterin/L sea water by immersion (Treatment A), 1 ml bacterin/kg pellet by oraly (Treatment B), and without bacterin as a control (C). Bacterin was immersion and oraly every 10 days for 60 days rearing period. Challenge test with VNN was carry out at day 30 and 60. At the end of experiment the non-spesific immune were examined. Result of challenge test performed at day 30 showed that treated fish gave positive response to bacterin treatment. The highest survival showed by treatment B (65.0%) followed by treatment A(50.0%) and C (22.5%). The same result also showed after challenge test at day 60. The highest survival was 72.5% (treatment B) followed by 67.5% (treatment A) and 35.0% (control). Phagocytic activity (PA) of treatment B was 15.5%, and 14.0% from treatment A compared to 8.0% in control. Lysozyme activity (LA) of treated groups were also higher than control namely 1.8 cm for treatment B followed by 1.6 cm for treatment A, and only 1.2 cm in control. Addition of bacterin immunostimulant in feed gives is survival rate higher compared to way of immersion and control. Statistically non-spesific immune response of humpback grouper was significant different among treatment (P<0,05).
An experiment to evaluate the effectiveness immunostimulant and bacterin on humpback grouper have been conducted at the Disease Laboratory of Research Institute for Mariculture, Gondol, Bali. The experiment was designed in completely randomized design with four treatments in duplicates. Two hundred of humpback grouper juveniles (15-18 cm of total length, 55-65 g of body weight) were injected intraperitoneally with (A) bacterine at 107 cfu/kg body weight (BW), (B) peptidoglycan at 100 mg/kg BW, and (C) immuno star at 100 ml/kg BW, (D) control. The fish were then challenged with VNN by intramuscular injection at 10 days post treatment. Results showed that survival rates of juvenile after challenged with VNN were 60.00% (B & C), 53.34% (A), and 1.67% (control). Parameters of non-spesific immune respons showed that phagocytic activities were 17.56% (B), 17.55% (C), 13.11% (A), and 9.33% (control). In addition, lisozyme activities were 1.64 cm (B), 1.58 cm (C), 1.55 cm (A), and 1.46 cm (control). Immunostimulant and bacterin stimulated non-specific immune response, and increased survival rate of humpback grouper juvenile.
An Â experiment Â to Â increase Â of Â immune Â system Â of Â mangrove Â grouper, Â Epinephelus coioides seed with application of vitamin C and immunostimulant have been done. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three treatments in twoplicates. The mangrove grouper seed (5 cm total length) were treated with 1000 mg vitamin C/kg diet (A), 1000 mg vitamin C + 1 ml bacterin/kg diet (B), and control (C). Vitamin C and bacterin were given every 10 day during 60 days rearing. After 30 and 60 days fishes were challenged with irridovirus. At the end of experiment, the non-specific immune responses were examined. The result showed that at challange test I, the highest survival rate was at treatment B (56.6%), followed by A (55.0%) and control (41.7%). On challenge test II, the higest survival rate was at treatment B (76.7%) followed by treatment A (68.4%) and control (48.3%). Â The highest phagocytic activity (PA) was obtained at treatment B (21.0%), followed by treatment A (18.5%) and control (9.5%). The highest of lysozyme activity (LA) value was obtained on treatment B (2.0 cm), followed by treatment A (1.9 cm) and control (1.3 cm). Â Combination of addition of ascorbic acid and immunostimulant gave higher survival rate compared to addition of immunostimulant only and control. Non-spesific immune response of mangrove grouper fry was significant different among treatment (P<0,05).
The purpose of this experiment was to know gonad maturation and spawning frequency of the first generation in humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis. This experiment had two groups of feed types (A and B). Both groups were put in circular concrete tanks with water volume of 75 m3 each. Each tank was stocked 40 fishes with body weight of 500â1,000 g/fish and total length of 28â38 cm. Group (A) was fed with trash fish, squid, and vitamin mix, while group (B) was fed with artificial diet. Both groups were fed once a day, in the morning. The water was exchange continuously, of 300%â500% per day. The result showed the fish spawn after 31 months rearing. During the experiment, the range of water temperature and salinity were 28.4Â°Câ31.7Â°C and 30.2â34.4 ppt, respectively.
Penyakit investasi parasit merupakan penyakit investasi yang sering diabaikan, padahal investasi parasit merupakan salah satu masalah serius dalam produksi ikan laut di Indonesia. Suatu penelitian untuk aplikasi dan menguji efektivitas vaksin inaktif terhadap parasit telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Patologi, Balai Besar Riset Perikanan Budidaya Laut, Gondol-Bali. Benih ikan kerapu pasir disuntik secara intraperitoneal dengan vaksin anti parasit inaktif dengan dua konsentrasi, yaitu (A). 0,1 mL/ekor (100 Âµg vaksin/ekor ikan); (B). 0,1 mL/ekor (10 Âµg vaksin/ekor ikan); dan (C). tanpa perlakuan vaksin hanya disuntik dengan 0,1 mL PBS/ekor (kontrol). Penyuntikan ulang (booster) dilakukan 15 hari pasca penyuntikan pertama. Efektivitas vaksin dievaluasi melalui uji tantang ikan yang divaksin dan kontrol dengan menginfeksikan parasit Benedenia hidup. Daya imunogenisitas dievaluasi setiap 10 hari selama 30 hari pemeliharaan dengan mengukur titer antibodi ikan yang divaksin dibandingkan dengan ikan yang tidak divaksin. Hasil uji tantang menunjukkan bahwa sintasan ikan yang divaksin lebih tinggi (100,00% dan 98,89%) daripada kontrol (88,89%). Titer antibodi kelompok ikan yang divaksin juga lebih tinggi (1:32 dan 1:16) dibanding kontrol (1:2). Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa vaksin parasit inaktif mampu meningkatkan kekebalan ikan kerapu pasir terhadap infeksi parasit Benedenia.Parasite infestation is one of serious problems that have to be faced in marine fish culture in Indonesia. Mass mortality may occur when fish are infected with this disease. Experiment with aim to evaluate effectiveness of inactivated vaccine against parasite has been conducted at Fish Pathology Laboratory of Research Institute for Mariculture, Gondol-Bali. The juveniles of coral grouper, Epinephelus corallicola were intraperitoneally injected with inactivated vaccine against parasite (A). 0.1 mL/fish (100 Âµg vaccine/fish), (B). 0.1 mL/fish (10 Âµg vaccine/fish), and (C). 0.1 mL of PBS solution as a control. Booster was delivered 15 days post first vaccination. The immunogenicity of vaccine were evaluated every 10 days for one month of rearing period by looking at the production of antibody titer level of vaccinated fish compared to unvaccinated fish group. The results of challenge test with live Benedenia parasites showed that the survival rates of vaccinated fish were higher (100.00% and 98.89%) than that of unvaccinated fish (88.89%). Antibody titer levels of vaccinated groups ranged from 1:32 to 1:16, while in the control group was only 1:2. It is suggested that inactivated parasite vaccine is effective against Benedenia parasite.
Milkfish, Chanos chanos and humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelisÂ hatcheries have developed at Gondol, Bali since 1995 and until now still rely on rotifers, the main natural food, supply. Recent problem on mass culture of rotifer, Brachionus sp. is harvest failure caused by fungus infection. Under light microscope, infected eggs and bodies of the rotifers was filled with numerous aseptate hyphae. Two isolates of fungi were isolated from rotifer eggs and carcass on June 21st, 2004 and on June 25th, 2004 obtained from milkfish and humpback grouper hatcheries at Gondol. Based on its morphological characteristics, the pathogenic fungus was identified as Lagenidium callinectes which grows optimally at 25Â°C and survives in 1.0%, 2.5%, and 5.0% NaCl as well as in 1.0% and 2.5% KCl. Both of the present isolates utilize only 8 out of 26 carbohydrates and derivatives tested as carbon, nutrition and energy sources. This finding is the first report on rotifer, Brachionus sp. infected with L. callinectes causing up to 100% mortality.
Suatu percobaan untuk memisahkan bahan aktif imunostimulan dari dinding sel bakteri Vibrio harveyii dan uji efektivitasnya dalam upaya meningkatkan imunitas benih ikan kerapu bebek, Cromileptes altivelis telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Patologi Balai Besar Riset Perikanan Budidaya Laut, Gondol-Bali. Dari dinding sel bakteri Vibrio harveyii telah berhasil dipisahkan dan dikoleksi lipopolisakarida (LPS) setengah murni dan murni. Koleksi LPS selanjutnya dilakukan untuk uji efektivitas pada benih ikan kerapu bebek dengan ukuran panjang total 6â8 cm. Benih ikan kerapu bebek sebanyak 360 ekor dipelihara dalam bak polikarbonat volume 100 L sebanyak 12 bak dengan kepadatan 30 ekor/bak, diinjeksikan secara intra peritoneal imunostimulan hasil pemisahan denganÂ dosis sebesar 0,1 mL bakterin/ekor (A); dosis 0,1 mL LPS setengah murni/ekor (B); dosis 0,1 mL LPS murni /ekor (C); dan tanpa perlakuan imunostimulan sebagai kontrol (D). Imunostimulan diberikan setiap 5 hari, dan pada hari ke-10, 20, dan 30 dilakukan koleksi darah untuk pengamatan aktivitas fagositik (PA) dan aktivitas lisozim (LA) dari masing-masing perlakuan. Pada hari ke-30 dilakukan uji tantang dengan menggunakan inokulum VNN. Percobaan dirancang dengan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) menggunakan 4 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa PA, LA, dan sintasan ikan yang diberi perlakuan imunostimulan lebih tinggi dibanding kontrol. Dari percobaan ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa imunostimulan yang berasal dari dinding sel bakteri Vibrio harveyii efektif meningkatkan imunitas non-spesifik benih ikan kerapu bebek.A serial of experiments to extract immunostimulant from cell walls of Vibrio harveyii and its effectiveness to stimulate non-specific immunity of juvenile humback grouper Cromileptes altivelis have been conducted in pathology Laboratory of Research Institute for Mariculture, Gondol-Bali. Lipopolysaccaride (LPS) both in pure and crude forms were collected. Formalin-killed Vibrio harveyii (bacterin) was also prepared as an immunostimulant. Thirty juvenile humback groupers 6â8 cm (total length) were intraperitoneally-injected with 0.1 mL/pc of bacterin (treatment A), 0.1 mL crude LPS/pc (treatment B), 0.1 mL pure LPS/pc (treatment C), and without immunostimulant as a control (D). The fish were then reared in 100 L circular polycarbonate tank equipped with aeration system. The immunostimulant were administered every five days, the experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with three replicates. The blood of fish from each group were collected on day 10, 20, and 30 to measure non-specific immune parameters, including phagocytic activity (PA) and lyozyme activity (LA). Result showed that both PA, LA, and survival rate of fish treated with immunostimulants were higher than that of control. It is suggested that bacterin and LPS are potential materials to use as immunostimulants.
Penelitian dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan dosis vaksin dan perendaman terhadap ketahanan yuwana kerapu bebek terhadap infeksi VNN, telah dilakukan dilaboratorium Patologi Balai Besar Riset Perikanan Budidaya Laut Gondol