Syahraeni Kadir
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SIFAT SENSORIS ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA HASIL ADSORPSI PADA ZEOLIT kadir, syahraeni
Agroland: Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Pertanian Vol 22, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

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Abstract

Liquid smoke has a strong and pungent distinctive aroma caused by some contributor compounds within the product including phenolic, carbonyl and acid. Adsorption using zeolites in this study aimed to reduce the levels of strong pungent aroma contributor compounds so that the liquid smoke can be accepted by consumers. Zeolite of various pH ie. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were used as adsorbent liquid smoke. The fraction produced the adsorption was sensory analyzed by 20 panelists selected.  The liquid smoke fraction selected based on the results of sensory testing was further analyzed using GC-MS. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPSS software version 16, followed by Duncan range test at 1% level. The results showed that of 25 fractions of coconut shell liquid smoke generated by the zeolite adsorption at pH range of 2 ? 6, 14 fractions were qualified for sensory tested while the remaining fractions had strong and pungent aroma. The contributor substances with strong and punge aroma in the liquid smoke found include phenol groups, carbonyl and acid. The adsorption of coconut shell liquid smoke using zeolite effectively reduce strong pungent aroma of the product. It is necessary to evaluate the shelf life of the liquid smoke adsorbed by zeolite.
KARAKTERISTIK FISIKOKIMIA PATI AREN ASETAT Heriawan, I Kadek Agus; Rahim, Abdul; Kadir, Syahraeni
Agroland: Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Pertanian Vol 23, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

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The purpose of the research was to identify the physicochemical characteristics of acetatedarenga starch produced by way ofan acetylation technique. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with treatments consisted of five different time lengths of reaction between the arenga starch and acetic anhydride 5 % i.e. 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 minutes.  The reaction between the arenga and the acetic anhydride 5% was being maintained at pH 8.0-8.5. The research resultsshowed that theacetatedarenga starch contained 6.69% of water, a viscosity of 376 cp and emulsion stability of 74.00%.  The viscosity of the acetated arenga starch produced is stable suggesting that this substance is suitable to be utilized in food processing. Key Word: Acetated arenga starch, Emulsion, Physicochemical and Viscosity. 
KARAKTERISTIK KIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK DAGING BUAH SRIKAYA (Annona squamosa L.) PADA BERBAGAI SUHU PEMANASAN PULP Listiorini, Erna; Kadir, Syahraeni; R., Rostiati
AGROTEKBIS Vol 2, No 6 (2014)
Publisher : AGROTEKBIS

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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik kimia dan organoleptik daging buah  srikaya pada berbagai suhu pemanasan pulp dan untuk mendapatkan suhu pemanasan tertentu yang memberikan karakteristik kimia dan organoleptik terbaik pada pulp srikaya. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan September sampai dengan November 2013, bertempat di Laboratorium Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Tadulako Palu. Menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap untuk analisis kimia dengan 4 taraf perlakuan  suhu pemanasan yaitu, tanpa pemanasan, 50oC, 60oC dan 70oC. Sedangkan untuk uji organoleptik menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok di mana pengelompokkan didasarkan pada masing-masing panelis, jumlah panelis yang dilibatkan sebanyak 15 orang.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan suhu pemanasan hingga 70oC menyebabkan penurunan terhadap mutu kimia antara lain kadar air, kadar serat dan vitamin C namun cenderung meningkatkan kadar gula reduksi. Selanjutnya pada mutu organoleptik, suhu pemanasan hanya berpengaruh terhadap uji warna. Suhu pemanasan 50oC memberikan pengaruh terbaik terhadap karakteristik kimia dan organoleptik buah srikaya.
PROFIL AROMA ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA HASIL DISTILASI FRAKSINASI BERTINGKAT PADA BERBAGAI PERLAKUAN SUHU Profile Liquid Smoke Aroma of Coconut Shell Products at Various Temperatures Using Multistages Distillation Vessel Kadir, Syahraeni; Darmadji, Purnama; Hidayat, Chusnul; ., Supriyadi
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 01 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

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Abstract

Have been carried out in stages distillation liquid smoke at a temperature of  90, 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140 °C,which aims to assess the decrease in the intensity of the aroma of coconut shell liquid smoke through fractionation by distillation storey.The results were obtained a total recovery of 90.52 % with the highest at a temperature range of 100-130 °C distillation ie 88.88 %. Sensory evaluation results showed that the liquid smoke fraction II at a temperature of 120 °C obtained the highest percentage of acceptance by panelists namely 65 %. The main volatile components as a liquid smoke aroma contributors are grouped into four, namely: Group alcohols, acids and esters, carbonyl group, phenol and its derivatives as well as guaiacol and its derivatives. All of the tested liquid smoke fractions containing groups of the compounds with varying intensity.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan distilasi asap cair secara bertingkat pada suhu 90; 100; 110; 120; 130 dan 140 °C, yang bertujuanmengkaji penurunan intensitas aroma asap cair tempurung kelapa melalui distilasi fraksinasi bertingkat. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh total rendemen sebesar 90,52 % dengan hasil tertinggi pada suhu distilasi berkisar 100-130 °C yakni88,88 %. Hasil pengujian sensoris menunjukkan bahwa asap cair fraksi ll yang didistilasi pada suhu 120 °C memperoleh persentase penerimaan tertinggi oleh panelis yakni 65%. Komponen volatil utama sebagai kontributor aroma asap cair dikelompokkan ke dalam empat golongan yaitu: (1) Kelompok alkohol, asam dan ester, (2) Kelompok karbonil, (3) Fenol dan turunannya serta (4) Guaiakol dan turunannya. Seluruh fraksi asap cair yang diujikan mengandung kelompok senyawa tersebut dengan intensitas yang bervariasi.
Kesetimbangan Adsorpsi Fenol dari Asap Cair Tempurung Kelapa Hibrida pada Arang Aktif Kadir, Syahraeni; Darmadji, Purnama; Hidayat, Chusnul; Supriyadi, Supriyadi
Agritech Vol 31, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

The adsorption of liquid smoke phenol of hybrid coconut shell on activated carbon was evaluated at various tempera- ture (30-70 °C) and phenol concentration to determine the adsorption capacity and adsorption interaction. The data were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The results showed that the activated carbon ad- sorption capacity increased with an increase in liquid smoke concentration from 0.025 to 1.0 % but it declined due to an increase in the adsorption temperature from 30 to 70 °C. The affinity of phenol onto activated carbon was higher in the high liquid smoke concentration comparing with low concentration. Adsorption capacity decreased when the phe-nol equilibrium concentration (C ) was 342.78 mg/L, in which it decreased from 32.67 mg/g to 13.02 mg /g. Phenoladsorption onto activated carbon was best fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model than Langmuir isotherm model. Thephenol adsorption capacity of activated carbon at equilibrium concentration (K ) has decreased from 12.05 mg/g to 9.66 mg/g when the adsorption temperature increased from 30 to 50 °C. The adsorption capacity increased from 13.46 mg/g to 17.02 mg/g at an increase in the temperature from 60 to 70 °C. The value 1/n was above zero, which means that the adsorption interaction was cooperative with the activation energy of 403.43 KJ/mol. In summary, the adsorption was chemisorption.ABSTRAKAdsorpsi fenol dari asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida pada arang aktif dievaluasi pada berbagai suhu (30-70 °C) dan konsentrasi fenol untuk menentukan kapasitas adsorpsi dan mekanisme adsorpsi. Data yang diperoleh dievalusi meng- gunakan model Langmuir dan Freundlich. Data hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kapasitas adsorpsi arang aktif terhadap fenol dari asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida meningkat sejalan dengan peningkatan konsentrasi asap cair dari 0,025 ke 1,0 %, namun kapasitas adsorpsi menurun akibat peningkatan suhu adsorpsi dari 30 ke 70 °C.  Hal ini menunjukkan afinitas arang aktif terhadap fenol lebih tinggi pada asap cair konsentrasi tinggi dibanding dengan asapcair konsentrasi rendah. Penurunan kapasitas adsorpsi terbesar terjadi pada konsentrasi fenol setimbang (Ce) 342,78 mg/L yaitu menurun dari 32,67 mg/g menjadi 13,02 mg/g. Mekanisme adsorpsi fenol pada arang aktif lebih sesuaidengan model isotherm Freundlich dibanding model isotherm Langmuir. Kapasitas adsorpsi arang aktif terhadap fenolpada konsentrasi setimbang (KF) mengalami penurunan dari 12,05 mg/g menjadi 9,66 mg/g pada kenaikan suhu ad- sorpsi dari 30 ke 50 °C, selanjutnya kapasitas tersebut meningkat dari 13,46 mg/g menjadi 17,02 mg/g pada kenaikansuhu dari 60 ke 70 °C. Adapun nilai 1/n berada di atas nol yang berarti bahwa adsorpsi bersifat kooperatif dengan energi aktivasi sebesar 403,43 KJ/mol yang merupakan reaksi khemisorpsi.
PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BEVERAGE SUGAR APPLE POWDERED ON LEVEL CONCENTRATION DIFFERENT OF CMC Kadir, Syahraeni; Rahim, Abdul; Rahmatu, Rostiati Dg; Sukisman, Sukisman
AGROLAND: The Agricultural Sciences Journal Vol 2, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Tadulako University

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The intermediate products of sugar apple do not have an entrepreneurial  aspects  though they have a longer shelf life than the fresh fruit form unless it processed into the final products of beverages or foods. Therefore it need to continue the processing of sugar apple intermediate products. Some products of them which have a clear prospect entrepreneur among others as both of beverages and functional foods. The Short-term goal of this research is to process the intermediate product into a beverage sugar apple powdered  among others. Subsequently the long-term goal of this research is to find ways of processing the intermediate products into final ones that have nutritional value and adequate antioxidants. The results showed that the use of CMC 0.5% gives a better physicochemical and functional characteristics on powdered product of sugar apple. Making the beverage product by filtering the pulp giving better quality of both physicochemical and functional characteristics than without filtering the fleshy part.   Key Words : CMC, functional characteristics beverage powdered, intermediate product, physicochemical, sugar apple.
Fraksinasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Volatil pada Asap Cair Tempurung Kelapa Hibrida Kadir, Syahraeni; Darmadji, Purnama; Hidayat, Chusnul; Supriyadi, Supriyadi
Agritech Vol 30, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

Hybrid coconut shell is a potential raw material for liquid smoke because it contains lignin and cellulose as in local coconut shell. The liquid smoke has been found to contain compound functioning as smoky product improvement. The objective of this research was to identify components of volatile compound existing in the liquid smoke of hybrid coco- nut shell resulted from fractionation at various redistillation temperatures.Crude liquid smoke fractionation in this research was conducted by redistillation levels (level I, II, III) and pre-con- densation (IV) with three temperatures: <100oC, 100-110oC, and >110oC. Redistillate was analyzed for its chemical component including total phenol, carbonyl, and acid. Liquid smoke components of volatile compound were identified using GC-MS. Results of the research indicated that liquid smoke fraction resulted from redistillation at 100-110oC had highest concentration of 85.70%, contains about 1.36-1.47% of total phenol, 5.25-6.38% of carbonyl and 14.91-15.35% of total acid. Aroma range of liquid smoke from redistillation had strong (+1) aroma to very strong aroma (+4), particularly on pre-condensation fraction. Fraction in level II in each redistillation temperature had aroma rep- resentative for testing organic component with GC-MS. Results of volatile compound analysis with GC-MS revealed that crude liquid smoke contains 42 of organic compounds. However, its fractionation results contain 25 of organic compounds with redistillation temperature <100oC, 21 of organic compounds at 100-110oC and 16 of organic com- pounds at >110oC. Some compounds that play role in liquid smoke aroma are phenolic compound, guaiacol deriva- tives, syringol derivatives, isoeugenol, vanilin, furan, furfural, acetic acid, acetophenon and cyclotene.ABSTRAKTempurung kelapa hibrida merupakan salah satu bahan baku potensial untuk asap cair karena mengandung lignin dan selulosa sebagaimana halnya pada tempurung kelapa lokal. Beberapa hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di dalam asap cair terkandung berbagai senyawa kimia yang berperan memperbaiki mutu produk asapan. Penelitian ini bertu- juan mengidentifikasi komponen senyawa volatil di dalam asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida hasil fraksinasi pada berbagai suhu redistilasi. Fraksinasi asap cair kasar di dalam penelitian ini dilakukan dengan redistilasi bertingkat (I, II dan III) serta prekondensasi (IV), dengan tiga variasi suhu : < 100 °C; 100-110 °C dan >110 °C. Redistilat yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis komponen kimiawinya yang meliputi total fenol, karbonil, asam dan pH. Komponen senyawa volatil asap cair diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan GC-MS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa redisti- lasi asap cair pada suhu 100-110 °C mempunyai total rendemen tertinggi yakni 85,70%, yang mengandung sekitar1,36-1,47%  fenol, 5,25-6,38% karbonil dan 14,91-15,35% total asam. Kisaran aroma asap hasil fraksinasi dengan redistilasi bertingkat mempunyai kisaran aroma kuat (+1) sampai dengan sangat kuat/menyengat (+4), terutama pada fraksi pre kondensasi. Hasil pengujian dengan GC-MS menunjukkan bahwa asap cair kasar mengandung 42 senyawa organik. Akan tetapi, hasil fraksinasinya menunjukkan bahwa pada suhu redistilasi <100 °C terdapat 25 senyawa organik; 21 senyawa organik pada suhu redistilasi 100-110 °C dan 16 senyawa organik pada suhu redistilasi >110°C. Beberapa senyawa yang berperan di dalam aroma asap cair adalah senyawa fenol, derivat guaiakol, derivat syringol, isoeugenol, vanilin, furan, furfural, asam asetat, asetofenon dan sikloten.
KAPASITAS ANTIOKSIDAN SUPLEMEN PADA BERBAGAI BERAT EKSTRAK BUBUK POD HUSK KAKAO Partayasa, I nyoman; Kadir, Syahraeni; Rahim, Abdul
AGROTEKBIS Vol 5, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : AGROTEKBIS

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The purpose of this study was to determine the best ratio of powdered cocoa pod husk for bio-capsule production and to determine damage of polyphenol powder and antioxidant after encapsulation ofcocoa pod husk. In this study, absolute ethanol solvent as a polar solvent was used to extract polyphenol compounds.  A Completely Randommized design with treatments of four different wieghts of cacao pod husk were used i.e. 20g, 25g, 30g and 35 g.  The highest capacity of antioxidant and supplement was shown by the 20 g cocoa pod husk treatment containing 11803.56 mg ascorbat, 83.15 g total phenol ase gallat.  This results indicate that the total phenol of the cacao pod husk decrease by 77.40% along with lowering antioxidant capacity by 18.66%.  Decreased level of the total phenol and antioxidant capacity is due to damage occuring during concenrating and drying proceses of the supplement materials. Keywords: Cocoa pod husk, Exraction and Supplements.
KARAKTERISASI TEPUNG EMPAT VARIETAS PISANG DI LEMBAH PALU Kadir, Syahraeni
AgriSains Vol 6, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : FAPETKAN UNTAD

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A laboratory work was carried out to characteristize the flour of banana of 4 different cultivars (i.e. Tsnduk, Kepok, Cavendish, Emas) cultivated in palu valley region. It was found that the banana of cv Tanduk and Kepok were more suitable for flour production since the had higher content of flour (18,91% ? 21.4%) than those of cv Cavendish and Emas. The fuit of Cavendish and Emas seemed to be more suitable to be processed as table fruit. Key words : Flour, banana, characteristize, cultivars.
MUTU FISIK, KIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK BUAH TOMAT (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) HASIL PELAPISAN BERBAGAI JENIS PATI SELAMA PENYIMPANAN Abdi, Yudha Alimba; Rostiati, Rostiati; Kadir, Syahraeni
AGROTEKBIS Vol 5, No 5 (2017)
Publisher : AGROTEKBIS

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This study aims to determine the quality of the physical, chemical and organoleptic tomatoes coating results of various types of starch during storage. The research location is in Laboratories of Agroindustry, Faculty of Agriculture, University Tadulako, Palu, and it conducted from March to April 2016. The research method used was a completely randomized design (CRD), which consists of 6 treatment types of starch ie starch taro, sugar palm starch, sago starch, tapioca starch, rice starch and without starch coating (control), the whole treatment was repeated three times, thus btained 18 experimental units. The results of the research showed that consumers in particular organoleptic (panelists) are relatively more like tomatoes without coating various types of starch. As for the physical and chemical quality of tomatoes is comparatively better until the third week of storage, except on sugar and vitamin C when compared with tomato fruit coating results of various types of starch. Therefore naturally tomatoes coated layer of wax on the surface of the fruit causes the starch solution to "edible coating" is difficult to stick to the surface of the fruit. Emulsifer which required the administration is able to bridge the two compounds wax on the surface of the tomato fruit and starch as a coating compound. Key words: Organoleptic, physical, chemical, Tomatoes.