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EFFECT OF HEATING TEMPERATURE ON QUALITY OF BIO-BRIQUETTE EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER Handra, Nofriady; Kasim, Anwar; Gunawarman, Gunawarman; Santosa, Santosa
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences Vol 9, No 3: September 2020
Publisher : Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (700.32 KB) | DOI: 10.11591/ijaas.v9.i3.pp192-200

Abstract

Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are one of the palm oil industry wastes, which are quite plentiful and currently unused optimally. Biomass is one of the renewable energy resources which has important roles in the world. The bio-briquettes are manufactured through densification of waste biomass by implementing certain processes. This research aimed to obtain variations in the mold temperature at 150 ºC, 200 ºC, and 250 ºC to the calorific value and toughness of the briquette material. The toughness was tested using ASTM D 440-86 R02 standard. Arduino program was used for setting the heating resistance time of the mold, which was 20 minutes and the thermal controller was used to adjust the temperature variation. The average mold pressure was 58 Psi. The highest heating value was obtained at a mold temperature of 250 ºC with a value of 5256 cal/g, and the lowest was resulted at a temperature of 150 ºC (4117 cal/g). Meanwhile, the briquette toughness test at 200 ºC mold temperature indicated good data results in which the average loss of fiber particles was only 4.17 %, this was because the adhesion between particles by lignin and cellulose in the fiber functions optimally at this temperature so that the resistance of briquettes went through minor damage.
Characteristic of Pangium Edule Reinw as food preservative from different geographical sites Kasim, Anwar; David, Wahyudi
Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 1, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (439.123 KB)

Abstract

The objective of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of Picung (Pangium Edule Reinw) from two geographical sites (P1: Picung from Batusangkar; P2: Picung from Bogor) in preserving Mackerel (Rastrellinger sp) which is bought fresh from fishermen. Analysis conducted on fish include: moisture content, pH, crude protein and anti-microbial properties in traditional fish recipe. The traditional recipe is Pado fish which consists of dried picung pulp, coconut and other spices. Mean were compared using student t-test and the level of significant different was determined at p < 0.05. The t-test uses 2-sample assuming equal variance analysis. The result shows that there is no significant different in moisture content, pH and crude protein between P1 and P2 (p>0.05). Cyanide level of both picung after submerged in water for 1 day is 17.5 mg/kg and 30.1 mg/kg. Further, according to SNI: 01-7152-2006 the level of cyanide acid after applies in traditional recipe is 1 mg/kg. Salmonella sp were detected negative during 72h storage. Cyanide acid was not significantly different between two samples (p>0.05). There is no significant different in effectiveness in preserving the food between (P1) and (P2). Total microbes ranged between 2.2 x104 - 7.0 x104 for 24h storage it is confirmed with SNI 01-2729.1-2006 total maximum microbe is 5.5 x 105 colony/gr. It may be some influence of traditional recipe prolong the preservation time.     Keywords— Pangium Edule Reinw, food preservative, geographical sites. 
PENGARUH WAKTU TEKAN DAN UKURAN PARTIKEL KULIT TUSAM (PINUS MERKUSII JUNGH. ET. DE VR.) TERHADAP KUALITAS PAPAN PARTIKEL Saad, Asfarizal; Kasim, Anwar; Gunawarman, Gunawarman; Santosa, Santosa
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 37, No 3 (2019): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2019.37.3.171-183

Abstract

Papan partikel tanpa perekat sintetis memiliki peluang untuk dikembangkan menggantikan produk serupa dengan perekat sintetis. Pemanfaatan tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) dan kulit tusam sebagai papan partikel merupakan hal yang menarik dan belum banyak diteliti. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh papan partikel yang memenuhi standar SNI 03-2105-2006. Komposisi papan partikel adalah 70% TKKS dan 30% kulit tusam, panjang serat TKKS 0,1-2,0 cm dan kadar air 5-6%. Variasi ukuran partikel kulit tusam adalah lolos saringan 30, 40, dan 50 mesh. Papan partikel dibuat dengan empat variasi waktu kempa panas yaitu 10, 15, 20 dan 25 menit. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa waktu kempa panas 20-25 menit merupakan waktu terbaik untuk pembuatan papan partikel dari tandan kosong kelapa sawit dan kulit tusam. Pada produk papan partikel yang dibuat dengan ukuran partikel kulit tusam 50 mesh diperoleh sifat fisik dan mekanik yang sebagian besar memenuhi SNI 03-2105-2006 untuk papan partikel kerapatan sedang tipe 8, kecuali sifat mekanik MOE belum memenuhi syarat.
Kajian kualitas gambir dan hubungannya dengan karakteristik kulit tersamak Kasim, Anwar; Asben, Alfi; Mutiar, Sri
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik Vol 31, No 1 (2015): Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik
Publisher : Center for Leather, Rubber, and Plastic Ministry of Industry, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (622.211 KB) | DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v31i1.220

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the quality of gambier taken from gambier production center in West Sumatra, the characteristic of tanned leather which was tanned by gambier, and the relationship between gambier quality and tanned leather product. This study was conducted by firstly taking the samples from ten location randomly, secondly analizing some of its characteristics, and later applicating them in leather tanning. The relationship between some gambier parameters with tanned leather was determined by linear regression. The result was finding that the quality was varied among different gambier production centers, comprise of water content, tannin level, cathecin level, ash level and water-insoluble substances. Sixty percent of producton centers had given gambier which was capable to produce leather met the quality requirements. The result also found there were a strong relationship between gambier characteristics and quality of tanned leather, e.g. gambier tannin level and bonded-tannin in tanned leather (r=0.980), gambier catechins level and bonded-tannin in tanned leather (r=0.967) and gambier ash content and bonded-tannin in tanned leather (r=0.852). Highest tannin level would produce good tanned leather.Keywords: gambier, tanning, tanned leather, the correlation.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas gambir yang diambil dari sentra produksi gambir Sumatera Barat, mengetahui karakteristik kulit tersamak yang disamak menggunakan gambir tersebut dan mengetahui hubungan kualitas gambir dengan kulit tersamak yang dihasilkan. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel dari sepuluh lokasi secara acak, dilanjutkan dengan analisis karakteristik gambir serta aplikasinya dalam penyamakan kulit. Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara beberapa parameter gambir dengan parameter kulit tersamak yang dihasilkan digunakan regresi linier. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan karakteristik gambir dari sentra produksi di Sumatera Barat memiliki kualitas yang bervariasi pada kadar air, kadar tanin, katekin, kadar abu dan zat tak larut air. 60% lokasi sentra produksi memberikan gambir yang mampu menghasilkan kualitas kulit tersamak memenuhi standar mutu. Hubungan antara beberapa parameter gambir sebagai bahan penyamak dengan kualitas kulit tersamak menunjukkan hubungan yang sangat erat antara kadar tanin gambir dengan kadar tanin terikat pada kulit tersamak (r=0.980), kadar katekin pada gambir dengan kadar tanin terikat pada kulit tersamak (r=0.967), dan kadar abu pada gambir dengan kadar tanin terikat pada kulit tersamak (r=0.852). Tingginya kadar tanin gambir akan menghasilkan kulit tersamak yang baik.Kata kunci :gambir, penyamakan, kulit tersamak, korelasi
Karakterisasi kulit kambing pada persiapan penyamakan dengan gambir dan sifat kulit tersamak yang dihasilkan Kasim, Anwar; Novia, Deni; Mutiar, Sri; Pinem, Janwaris
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik Vol 29, No 1 (2013): Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik
Publisher : Center for Leather, Rubber, and Plastic Ministry of Industry, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (153.636 KB) | DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v29i1.213

Abstract

ABSTRACTThe purposes of this research were to evaluate characteristic of goat skin beforepreparation for tanning, to observe the effect of concentration of gambier tanning agent and pHof gambier solution during tanning process. This research began with characterizing of skinbefore the tanning process. Gambier concentrations and pH of solutions were varied.Characterization of the goat skin was done on the area of goat skin, chemical composition, andweight change at each steps of tanning preparations. Physical and chemical analysis andobservation of the leather were done according to SNI-06-0463-1989-A. Goat skin in thisresearch was categorized as first quality according to the wide dimension and high water content.The results showed that the characteristics of dried goat skins changed during preparation andtanning process. The optimum concentration of gambier was 9% if the solution had a pH of 4 andthe optimum concentration was 3% if the solution had a pH of 8.Keywords: goat skin, tanning, gambier, concentration, pHABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik kulit kambing padapersiapan penyamakan, melihat pengaruh perbedaan konsentrasi bahan penyamak gambir danpH larutan penyamak gambir selama proses penyamakan. Pelaksanaan penelitian dimulaidengan karakterisasi kulit sebelum proses penyamakan kemudian dilanjutkan penyamakanmenggunakan gambir. Konsentrasi gambir pada penyamakan ada 5 tingkat yaitu A1=3%,A2=6%, A3=9%, A4=12% dan A5=15% adapun pH larutan 2 tingkat yaitu pH 4 dan pH 8. Bahanbaku yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kulit kambing kering awet garam. Karakterisasidilakukan terhadap luas kulit kambing, komposisi kimia, dan perubahan berat kulit pada setiaplangkah persiapan penyamakan. Analisis kimia dan pengamatan sifat kulit dilakukan terhadapkulit tersamak dengan mengacu kepada SNI-06-0463-1989-A. Kulit kambing penelitian adalahtermasuk kualitas I berdasarkan dimensi luas dengan kadar air yang relatif tinggi. Adapenambahan dan penurunan berat kulit selama proses pembuatan pikel dan penyamakan kulit.Rendemen pengolahan adalah 32,91% sampai 43,53%. Konsentrasi optimum zat penyamakgambir adalah 9% jika larutannya mempunyai pH 4 dan konsentrasi optimum 3% jika larutannyamempunyai pH 8. Sifat kulit tersamak jika konsentrasi gambir 9% dan larutan mempunyai pH 4adalah kadar zat kulit mentah 50,14%, kadar tanin terikat 13,47%, derajat penyamakan 26,86%,kekuatan tarik 418,48 kg/cm2 dan kemuluran pada waktu putus 54,80%, sedangkan jikakonsentrasi gambir 3% dan larutan mempunyai pH 8 adalah kadar zat kulit mentah 50,91%, kadartanin terikat 13,17%, derajat penyamakan 27,51%, kekuatan tarik 427,94 kg/cm2 dan kemuluranpada waktu putus 45,87%.Kata kunci: kulit kambing, penyamakan, gambir, konsentrasi, pH
Characteristics of Tanning Leather Using Gambir on pH 4 and 8 Ardinal, Ardinal; Kasim, Anwar; Mutiar, Sri
Biopropal Industri Vol 4, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Pontianak

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (59.533 KB)

Abstract

Tannery production process in Indonesia is still using chromium sulfate or mimosa in general. Gambier (Uncaria gambier Roxb.) extract could be used as material for tanners because it contains tannin. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of tanned leather using gambier solution at pH 4 and 8. Standard tanning method was used which includes the processing of goat leather with salt, acid and then tanned with gambier extracts. Observation of tanned leather refers to the SNI-06-0463-1989-A and ISO 0234:2009. The results showed that characteristics of tanned leather with solution of gambier at pH 4 and 8 respectively i.e.: degrees of tanning 29.87% and 39.55%, tensile strength 279.94 kg/cm2 and 433.85 kg/cm2, leather conditions was limp, light gray colour and yellow, thickness of 0.12 mm and 0.11 mm, and density 0.74 g/cm3 and 0.74 g/cm3. Tanned leather from different pH conditions generally has the same characteristic and meet standards.
PENGARUH LAMA WAKTU PENGGETARAN ULTRASONIC BATH TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIK DAN MORFOLOGI PATAHAN BIOKOMPOSIT PATI TAPIOKA/SERAT RAMI (BOEHMERIA NIVEA) Asrofi, Mochamad; Abral, Hairul; Kasim, Anwar; Pratoto, Adjar; Gevin, Herwin; Mahardika, Melbi
ROTOR Vol 10 No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Mesin Fakultas Teknik Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19184/rotor.v10i2.5574

Abstract

This study reported about mechanical properties and fracture surface of ramie fiber reinforced tapioca starch based biocomposites. The amount of fibers in matrix was kept constant at 10% from dry weight starch basis. Fabrication of biocomposites was solution casting. The effect of vibration duration from ultrasonic bath was 0, 15, 30, and 45 min. This treatment was applied to biocomposites while gelatinized. Tensile test was carried out to determine the mechanical properties of biocomposites. Fracture surface of biocomposites after tensile test was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result shows that, tensile strength increased when vibration time was added. The maximum tensile strength was obtained at 45 min vibration time with 2,84 MPa. This phenomenon was supported by SEM observation which indicate compact structure. Keywords: Tapioca starch, ramie fiber, biocomposites, mechanical properties, SEM
PERUBAHAN BEBERAPA SIFAT FISIS DAN KIMIA PASTA GAMBIR SELAMA PENYIMPANAN Kasim, Anwar; Sub’han, Yoli; Indeswari, Netty Sri
Jurnal Riset Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2008): March
Publisher : Universitas Andalas

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25077/jrk.v1i2.21

Abstract

ABSTRACT Studying about the change of physical and chemical properties Gambir paste during 28 days was conducted in order to know the change primarily the chemical content and physical properties as storage consequences. Experimental design was used completely randomized design for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 days storage periods. Replication was two and as a control was used paste non treatment. F-test and T-Dunnet test were applicated for statistical analysis. The result indicated that treatment can not change physical properties but change the chemical properties gambir paste. The initial water contents of gambir paste was 72.26% and after 28 days storage 71.68%. Color of gambir paste was still yellow during storage. The initial non water soluble substance was 6.96% and after 28 days storage 4.69%. The initial non alcohol soluble substance was 14.83% and after 28 days storage 13.15%. The initial chatechin contents was 72.22% and after 28 days storage 65.38%. The initial tannin contents 38.68% and after 28 days storage 35.12%. Total ash content of gambir paste was 2.72%.   Keywords : gambir, paste, storage, change, properties
PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI KOMPOSIT BIOPLASTIK BERBASIS FILLER CELLULOSE MICRO FIBERS RAMI syafri, Edi; Kasim, Anwar; Abral, Hairul; Asben, Alfi; Sudirman, Sudirman
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Vol 19, No 2: JANUARI 2018
Publisher : Center for Science & Technology of Advanced Materials - National Nuclear Energy Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/jsmi.2018.19.2.4146

Abstract

Pada penelitian ini telah diproduksi dan dikarakterisasi komposit bioplastik dari partikel selulosa serat rami (Cellulose Micro Fibers/CMF) untuk memperkuat komposit bioplastik bermatriks pati tapioka. CMF rami diproduksi menggunakan metode milling (CMFM) dan ultrasonikasi (CMFU) dengan ukuran masing-masing adalah 3,51 µm dan 0,388 µm. Pembuatan dan karakterisasi komposit bioplastik dilakukan dengan metode casting menggunakan gliserol sebagai plastisizer, dan penambahan filler CMF rami. Sifat fisik, kekuatan tarik, struktur dan termal komposit bioplastik dikarakterisasi menggunakan SEM, UTM, XRD, dan DSC. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa ukuran dan konsentrasi CMF secara signifikan mempengaruhi fisik bioplastik komposit. Dari hasil SEM menunjukkan bahwa filler CMF berinteraksi dengan matriks pati tapioka, dimana bioplastik dengan CMF rami berukuran kecil memperlihatkan struktur kompak dan permukaan yang lebih homogen. Nilai optimum kekuatan tarik terjadi pada penambahan 8% (w/w) CMF rami dari hasil ultrasonikasi dan milling masing-masing meningkat menjadi 3,31MPa dan 2,71MPa dari 1,64 MPa. Sebaliknya pada sifat termal sedikit berpengaruh dengan penambahan CMF rami. Analisis Difraksi Sinar-X menunjukkan kristalinitas komposit bioplastik meningkat dengan penambahan CMF rami dari 8,65 % menjadi 20,21 % untuk CMFM dan 15,12% untuk CMFU.
PENGGUNAAN ANALISIS REGRESI LINEAR BERGANDA UNTUK MENDAPATKAN MODEL PREDIKSI RESPON ASAM LEMAK BEBAS DAN DOBI HASIL REBUSAN TANDAN BUAH SEGAR SAWIT Imam, Pandu; Santosa, Santosa; Berd, Isril; Kasim, Anwar
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia Vol 9, No 2 (2017): Vol.(9) No.2, October 2017
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1123.22 KB) | DOI: 10.17969/jtipi.v9i2.8034

Abstract

Target of this research are : ( 1) Knowing physical result of steaming of Fresh Fruit Bunch; ( 2) Knowing the chemical of result of steaming of Fresh Fruit Bunch; ( 3) Finding model of prediction respon result of sterilization of Fresh Fruit Bunch ( 4 ) Determining time depth of steaming most precise to condition of raw material ( FFB ) to be sterilization. This research done at PT.Bio Nusantara Teknologi Bengkulu, by using horizontal type sterilizer. Research method the used  experiment which is  direct to be done at factory.  Multiple regression analysis to analyse data obtained, to the investigation of influence of free variable to variable of respon representing indicator efficacy of sterilization operation. Result of research indicate that treatment of variation : heavy classification of bunches,  fruit maturity and time depth steaming to have an effect on to respon result of sterilization perceived. Model of Prediction of met steaming respon as follows : Y1(Evaporation %) = 5,18 - 0,042 X1- 0,012 X2+0,082 X3 ; Y2 ( Fruit lose, g)=1629,96+8,14X1 - 3,22 X2 - 10,22 X3 ; Y3(Throughput apart mesokarp, g / men ) = - 0,748 - 0,297 X1 + 0,111 X2 + 0,336 X3 ; Y4 (percent heavy of mesokarp = 60,12 - 0,044 X1 + 0,018 X2 - 0,103 X3 ; Y5 ( Amount of kernel break = - 1,515 - 0,06 X1+ 0,035 X2 + 0,115 X3 ; Y6 ( FFA )= - 0,655 + 0,011 X1 + 0,029 X2 + 0,032 X3 and  Y7 ( DOBI) = 5,205 - 0,001 X1 + 0,01 X2 - 0,024 X3. Time depth steaming correct to braise small FFB, unrippe = 95 minute with score assess 7; Small FFB, mature = 95 minute with score assess 6; Small FFB over  mature = 90 minute with score assess 6. Time depth steaming correct for big FFB, unrippe = 100 minute with wight assess 6; Big FFB mature = 80 minute with score assess 5 and for big FFB, over mature = 95 minute with score assess 6.