The objectives of this research are to identify whether the bioactivecompound of methanol fraction extracts of Sargasum sp can be used as anti hepatotoxic and to determine the dose of such compound in order that it may be used as anti hepatotoxic. The population used in this research was 2-month male white rats with almost similar weight. 39 rats were taken for the samples. Treating CCl4 injection carried out the bioactive compound activity test and the treatment of these compound extracts was observed by examining the liver cell damage microscopically and analyzing the GPT content. Examination was a/so conducted to the control rats (without CCI4 injection and bioactive compound treatment). From the result of the research it can be concluded that methanol fraction extract of Sargasum sp may be used as anti hepatotoxic. It wasfound that the bioactive compound activity appeared at the dose of 500 mglkg of weight with 5 times treatments.
This research with the title Thin Layer Chromatography for Determination of Hesperidins Content in Orange Peel has been done in organic chemistry laboratory. The aim of this research is to select the solvent mix for the best hesperidins standard peak result and to determinate the content (in relative percentage) of some orange peel. Hesperidins isolation from orange peel conduct by soaks the orange peel piece in f 0% Calcium hydroxide solution for a night in room temperature. The mixture than jiltered and neutralized with hydrochloric acid to obtain hesperidins contain filtrate. Hesperidins analyzed by thin layer chromatography. Characterization of hesperidins did by compare the sample chromatogram with standard chromatogram. The yield (in relative percentage) determinate by compare the sample peak area with hesperidins standard peak area. The solvent mix selected before by attempt some solvent mix for eludate hesperidins standard solution. The result of this research shown that hesperidins can analyzed using thin layer chromatography method. with the best solvent was chloroform: methanol mixture (2 : 3). Hesperidins content in extract solution of some strain orange peel is; Baby Egypt 0, f 380%, Baby Pacitan 0,0615%, Mandarin Lokam 0,0018%, Santang 0,0049%, and Sunkist Nevel 0,0360%. The hesperidins content in orange peel of Mandarin Pakistan, Medan super, Nipis, Sunkist, Peras, and Purut was 0,0000. The hesperidins content in these orange peel was too low to be detected
This study aims to determine whether or not biosorben synthesized from sea pandanus leaves, the influence of the type of acid used, the optimum adsorption efficiency of Cr and Pb metal ions from various wastes, as well as the synthesis results of biosorben character. The subjects were biosorben of sea pandanus Pandanus tectorius types of Javas southern coast. The objects are adsorptive properties and the character of the pandanus sea biosorben synthesized before and after activation. Purposive sampling is used as the sampling technique. The independent variables are the type of activator (HCl and H2SO4) and waste water. The dependent variables are the adsorptive nature and character of the sea pandanus biosorben synthesis results. The study was conducted in three phases, namely the manufacture of biosorben sea pandan leaves, characterization and determination of adsorption efficiency (Ep) biosorben synthesized on metal ions of Cr and Pb in batik waste, leachate, and oil. Qualitative and quantitative analysis are done using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer instrument at a wavelength of 357.9 nm for Cr and 217 nm for Pb. Biosorben characterization was conducted on the moisture content, ash content, volatile content, and carbon content compared with SNI 06-3730-1995 and analyzed by FTIR spectra. It is also seen biosorben surface area of synthesized both before and after activation by porosimetry. Biosorben of pandanus sea has to be synthesized. Biosorben synthesized with 5% H2SO4 solution produced optimum Ep for Cr and Pb metal ions from waste leachate obtained are 75.831% and 98.714%. Character biosorben activation results in a solution of 5% HCl and H2SO4 by FTIR have almost similar spectra. Moisture content, ash content, volatile content, and carbon content of biosorben synthesized with 5% HCl and 5% H2SO4 in accordance with SNI 06-3730-1995. Porosimetry characterization of biosorben synthesized before activation is 3.5756 m2 / g, whereas after activation with HCl 5% to 770.7636 m2/g, and after activation with 5% H2SO4 solution become 153.7002 m2/g. Keywords: biosorben, sea pandanus, adsorptivity test, chromium, lead
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1) mempelajari karakter kristal titanium silikat tipe MFI (TS-1), yang meliputi: sistem kristal, parameter kisi, grup ruang, kristalinitas dan kemurnian,Â (2)Â mengetahui waktu kristalisasi optimum untuk menghasilkan TS-1 yang kaya akan titanium dengan kemurnian dan kristalinitas tinggi danÂ (3)Â mekanisme reaksi yang mungkin terjadi pada pembentukan TS-1 dari bahan awal tetraetil ortosilikat (TEOS) sebagai sumber silika, tetrapropilamonium (TPAOH) sebagai sumber basa kuartener, air sebagai pelarut, dan sumber titanium dari [Ti8O12(H2O)24]Cl8.HCl.7H2O. Sintesis TS-1 dilakukan melalui reaksi bahan awal pada perbandingan mol : SiO2Â : TiO2Â : TPAOH : H2O = 1,00 : 0,05 : 0,36 : 35,00 dengan metode hidrotermal. Temperatur kristalisasi pada 423 K, sedangkan waktu kristalisasi bervariasi yaitu 12, 24, 48 dan 72 jam yang disimbolkan sebagai TS-1(12), TS-1(24), TS-1(48), dan TS-1(72). Sintesis TS-1 yang lain,disimbolkan TS-1(24)-0,15 dilakukan pada perbandingan mol bahan awal : SiO2Â : TiO2Â : TPAOH : H2O = 1,00 : 0,05 : 0,36 : 35,00Â pada temperatur kristalisasi 423 K dan waktu kristalisasi 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua kristal yang dihasilkan merupakan TS-1 yang memiliki struktur tipe MFI dengan kristalinitas dan kemurnian tinggi. Semua kristal TS-1 yang belum terkalsinasi tersebut memiliki sistem kristal ortorombik dengan ruangÂ Pnma. Waktu kristalisasi yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan TS-1 dengan kadar titanium terbanyak dalam kristalnya sebesar 2,970% yaitu 24 jam (TS-1(24)). Proses sintesis menggunakan waktu kristalisasi optimum tersebut (24 jam), dihasilkan TS-1 yang memiliki kadar Ti dalam kristal TS-1 yang belum terkalsinasi sebesar 3,111% (TS-1(24)-0,15). Fenomena lain yang terungkap bahwa volume kisi kristal semakin kecil seiring lamanya waktu kristalisasi, hali ini menunjukkan bahwa kristal semakin kompak dan semakin baik karena adanya defek kristal semakin kecil. Mekasnisme reaksi yang terjadi pada preparasi TS-1, diawali melalui proses hidrolisis [Ti8O12(H2O)24]Cl8.HCl.7H2OÂ dan TEOS oleh air dan anion OH-. dilanjutkan proses olasi membentuk 2 jembatan okso yaitu Si-O-Si dan Ti-O-Si.
The synthesis of biodiesel targeted as SNI 04-7182-2006 standard has been done from kapuk randu seed, following two steps i.e. sokhlet extraction process of kapuk seed oil from kapuk seed using n-heksane as a solvent, and the production of biodiesel from kapuk seed oil by transesterification process using methanol and KOH as catalyst. Transesterificatin process was performed at temperature 50 oC with the variation of stirring duration as followedÂ 50, 75, 100 and 125 minutes. The kapuk randu extraction resulted Â % kapuk randu seed oil, while the transestherification process resulted around 55 - 65%. The biodiesel product characteristics provided the density value of all biodiesel at stirring durations variation are suitable with SNI standard (850 â 890 kg/m3), the viscosity value of all biodiesel areÂ higher than the range SNI value (2,3 â 6,0 cSt). While the flash point values are lesser than SNI standard (10160 - 11000 cal/g).Â Keywords: kapuk randu seed, transestherification, biodiesel
This research was done in Chemistry Laboratory FMIPA UNY. The aim of this research is to know the effect of diatomaeous earth soaking in a such acid on its adsorption power for heavy metal chromium(III) and chromium(VI) ions.The subject of this research is the diatomaeous earth from Sangiran Village, Sragen, Jawa Tengah. The object of this research is the diatomaeous earth properties soaking in such acid. Independent variables of this research are acid type, acid soaker concentration and the type of metal ion adsorbed. Dependent variable is its adsorption power for heavy metal chromium(III) and chromium(VI) ions. Experiment procedure consists of some steps: preparation, the diatomaeous earth treatment on chloride acid, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid, properties of the diatomaeous earth adsorbent for chromium(III) and chromium(VI) investigation. FTIR analyzing on original and treated diatomaeous earth and AAS analyzing to determine chromium(III) and chromium(VI) concentration before and after being diatomaeous earth soaker.The conclusion from this research was the diatomaeous earth soaking on such acids can caused adsorption power differences. Optimum adsorption power for chromium(III) occurred on a half concentrate chloride acid soaking (18.50%), concentrate nitric acid (65%), and concentrate sulphuric acid ((96%). Optimum adsorption power for chromium(VI) occurred on a half concentrate chloride acid soaking (18.50%), half concentrate nitric acid (32.50%), and an eight concentrate sulphuric acid (12%). Both original and treated diatomaeous earth has a similar FTIR spectrum pattern.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soaking nitrate acid of Malelo sand to adsorption efficiency of chromium (Cr). The Malelo sand was prepared by soaking in nitric acid with variation of concentration were 17,5: 35 and 70% for 24 hours at room temperature. The adsorption efficiency of chromium was determined based on concentration of chromium residue after adsorption. which measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The characterization of Malelo sand determined using FTIR and XRD. The result indicated that the mean ofadsorption efficiency of chromium on Malelo sand without preparation and soaking in nitrate acid with variation concentration 17.5: 35 and 70% were 91,36: 92,40: 92,72 and 94,004% respectively.
Chromium-containing silicalite-1, designed CrS-1, was synthesized by the hydrothermal method and characterized by XRD and FTIR techniques. The objectives of the research are to study the synthesis of CrS-1 and investigate the effect of crystallization temperatures and times toward its character. All samples of CrS-1 crystallized in orthorhombic structure and Pnma space group. The phase observed in the XRD patterns of CrS-1 synthesized from 150 to 190 oC for 11 days showed only MFI-type phase. The CrS-1 prepared under static condition for 1 day at 150 oC indicated ï¡-SiO2 phase, on the contrary, the samples conditioned for 2 to 8 days at 150 oC are only MFI phase. Â Keywords: Crystallization, synthesis, chromium silicate CrS-1, incorporation.
The aim of this research is to determine the optimum time of reaction and concentration of hydroxide ion on chalcone, 4-methoxychalcone and 3,4-dimethoxychalcone synthesis. Chalcone and its derivatives were synthesized by dissolving KOH in ethanol followed by dropwise addition of acetophenone and benzaldehyde. Then, the mixture was stirred for several hours. Three benzaldehydes has been used, i.e : benzaldehyde, p-anysaldehyde and veratraldehyde. The time of reaction was varied for, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 hours. Furthermore, on the optimum reaction time for each benzaldehyde the hydroxyl ion concentration was varied from 5,7,9,11 and 13%(w/v). The results of this research suggested that the optimum time of chalchone synthesis was 12 hours, while, 4-methoxychalcone and 3,4-dimethoxychalcone were 30 hours. The optimum concentration of hydroxide ion of chalcone synthesis was 13% and for 4-methoxychalcone and 3,4-dimethoxychalcone were 11%. Keywords: Chalcone synthesis, time of reaction, hydroxide ion concentration.
This research aims to prepare an adsorbent from Kelud volcanic ash for better adsorption efficiency of Zn(II) and Cr(VI) than Kieselgel60GEMerck. Adsorbent synthesis has been carried out by dissolving 6 grams of volcanic ash, activated at 700 oC for 4 hours and washed with HCl 0.1 M into 200 mL of sodium hydroxide 3 M with stirring and heating at 100 Â°C for 1 hour. Then, sodium silicate filtrate was neutralized using hydrochloric acid. The mixture was allowed to stand for 24 hours then filtered and washed with aqua DM, then dried and crushed. The procedure was repeated for nitric acid with a contact time of 24 hours. The products were then characterized using FTIR subsequently determined acidity, moisture content, and tested for its adsorption of the Zn(II) and Cr(VI) ions, by using AAS. The results showed that the type of acid that produced highest rendemen is AK-HCl-3M i.e. 25.50%, acidity of the synthesized adsorbent silica gel all have similarities with Kiesel gel 60G E Merck ie 6.302mmol/g and the water content of the silica gel adsorbent synthesized similar to Kiesel gel 60G EÂ Merck i.e adsorbent AK- HCl-3 M. The character of the functional groups of silica gel synthesized all have similarities with Kiesel gel 60G EMerck as a comparison. Qualitative analysis by FTIR indicates that it has formed a bond of Si-O-Si and Si-OH. The optimum adsorption efficiency of the metal ion Zn(II) obtained from AK-HNO3-3 M adsorbent is equal to 63.24% for electroplating waste and the optimum adsorption efficiency of the Cr(VI) metal ion obtained from the adsorbent AK- HNO3-3M is equal to 64.01% for tannery waste.Â Keywords: Kelud, Volcanic Ash, Adsorbent