Articles

Looking on Indigo Flycatcher (Eumyas indigo) Hunting Behaviour: Time, Ecology, and Habitat Preference Kurnianto, Agung Sih; Sugiharto, Arief; Kurniawan, Nia
Journal of Tropical Life Science Vol 10, No 1 (2020)
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Life Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.11594/jtls.10.01.07

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Hunting is the main support of life for the insectivores bird of the world. Through an understanding of Indigo Flycatcher behavior character, we compiled new information for the daily behavior of Indigo Flycatcher and Muscicapidae family in general. The study was conducted at 3 periods to interpret the effect of different seasons conditions: the first period (rainy season, 1 – 30 January 2015), the second period (dry season, 1-30 June 2015), the third period (transition season, 1 – 30 November 2015). The research station covers 3 research points (A=edge of the forest, b = garbage dump, c = dense forest. A canonical correspondence (CCA) was used to understand the significance of the interaction between the abiotic factors and season. Based on the observations, the transition of the season became the most preferred moment for Indigo Flycatcher. Indigo flycatcher hunts in a group, both singular and mixed. Point B is the most common location of Indigo Flycatcher hunting activity.
Effect Variations of Fish Food on Growth in Catfish. (Clarias Garipinus) Nugraha, Lingga; Kurniawan, Nia
Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology Vol 1, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology

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Abstract

ABSTRAK This study was carried out faculty Mathematics UB Malang 1 June 2012. This study aims to determine the effect of variations of food to African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) using pests (Gold snails) and poultry waste (feces gemak) on the growth of channel catfish as well as to reduce the cost of purchasing an expensive artificial feed, so need to note the retention and protein efficiency ratio of fish needs every day. The variables were observed in this study was the weight, length, body color. The study was conducted using completely randomized design (CRD) with three treatment that feeding by comparing the artificial fish feed plant, fish feed made ​​with gold snails and artificial feed with poultry manure with each ratio 100:0, 70:30, 70:30 @ weight of each fish and each made ​​repeated 4 times, with other factors such as pH equated, light intensity, water temperature, water quality, oxygen levels. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the treatment given to the growth of the weight and length of the fish, but mixed with dung feeding quail in the ratio of 70: 30 more profitable because the costs were less. Feeding pellets mixed with the ratio of 70:30 keongmas also beneficial although slightly larger than quail dirt. Although the number of calories produced is less than the controls, but not significantly different, and the provision of a varied diet had no effect on the shape and color of the fish where the fish are shown color remains black and shiny, which means normal. So dirt and keongmas quail can be a safe alternative to feed and to reduce maintenance costs.   Keywords: Lele Dumbo, food, growth, color  
Struktur Komunitas Serangga Nokturnal Areal Pertanian Padi Organik pada Musim Penghujan di Kecamatan Lawang, Kabupaten Malang. Aditama, Rudi Candra; Kurniawan, Nia
Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology Vol 1, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology

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Abstract

Pertanian organik merupakan sistem pertanian berkelanjutan dengan menekankan pada kestabilan lingkungan. Indikator kestabilan pertanian organik tersebut dapat diketahui dari keragaman dan kelimpahan serangga salah satunya serangga nokturnal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui diversitas dan struktur komunitas serangga nokturnal pada areal pertanian padi organik di musim penghujan. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif eksploratif dengan pengambilan sampel sebanyak enam kali dengan mengunakan metode Light Trap (LT) pada enam titik serta dilakukan pengukuran faktor abiotik. Data ditabulasi dalam Microsoft Excel. Struktur komunitas didapatkan dari indeks nilai penting (INP) dan indeks diversitas Shannon-Wienner. Serangga nokturnal di areal pertanian organik terdiri dari 10 ordo yang terbagi atas 42 famili dengan lima famili tertinggi berdasarkan indeks nilai penting (INP) yaitu Culicidae (23 %), Delphacidae (19 %), Pyralidae (13 %), Chrysomelidae (12 %), dan Formicidae (12 %). Diversitas serangga nokturnal yang diperoleh berdasarkan indeks diversitas Shannon-Wiener menunjukkan nilai (H=4,146). Komposisi peran ekologis serangga nokturnal yang ditemukan terdiri dari herbivora (122 %), predator (33 %), scavanger (23 %), dan parasitoid (22 %). Faktor abiotik memiliki nilai yang tidak berbeda jauh pada setiap lokasi pengambilan sampel dengan rata-rata suhu 22-24o C, intensitas cahaya 40 lux, kelembaban udara 88 %, dan curah hujan kumulatif 2663 mm/tahun. Kata kunci : Komunitas,  Light Trap (LT),  Pertanian organik, Serangga nokturnal.
Temporal Distribution of Bird Species in the Sarinah Island Porong Sidoarjo Adrinanda, Vendy; Kurniawan, Nia
Biotropika Vol 1, No 6 (2013): Biotropika
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam

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Abstract

Temporal Distribution of Bird Species in the Sarinah Island Porong Sidoarjo Vendy Adrinanda, Nia Kurniawan Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics And Natural Sciences Brawijaya University Birds are members of the vertebrate animals that have feathers and wings. It has given many useful in the human life, as such as many birds species and population in the nature can be used for tourist area. This study aims to determine the temporal distribution and bird species in the Sarinah island. This research use point count combination methode. Observation is done by explored island’s area which will be used as research’s location, and then devide the area with GPS become 4 location point (1,2,3,4). Observation is done 3 times: first, in the morning at 6.00-7.00 o’clock; second, in the afternoon at 12.00-13.00 o’clock; and third, in the evening at 15.30-16.30; during four days that’s two days between 10th-15th Javanese month and two days between 25th-30th Javanese month. Birds species which be found in every location point must be identified and administrated as field data. The identified methode is by taken the birds photoes for every species, count their number and administrate this data into observation data, birds species idetified by literature examination. Spreading map bird species and location that has found to tabulated into microsoft excel and then it is managed in Quantum GIS. Result of the research shows that has been found 44 bird species and divide 24 families. Species that often be found with many individual amount is walet linchi (Collocalia linchii). The bird species often be found in a great number beside 10-15 Javanese month more than beside 25-30 Javanese month, because beside 10-15 javanese month is tides occur and beach to be receding. And according their spreading status, can be devided into 33 species domestic and 11 species migrant. Keywords: birds, temporal distribution, family, species, distribution status.
Pengaruh Hormon Hipofisa dan Ovaprim Terhadap Ovulasi Serta Pengaruh Pakan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Berudu Katak Fejervarya cancrivora Putri, Ardyah Ramadhina Irsanti; Kurniawan, Nia; W.M, Agung Pramana
Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology Vol 1, No 5 (2013)
Publisher : Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (131.385 KB)

Abstract

Katak Fejervarya cancrivora merupakan kelompok dari kelas amfibi yang habitatnya sangat dipengaruhi oleh perubahan kondisi habitat dan aktivitas manusia. Salah satu upaya untuk mempertahankan keanekaragaman hayati yaitu memanfaatkan teknologi reproduksi buatan dengan melakukan induksi pematangan gonad menggunakan hormon hipofisa dan ovaprim. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian hormon hipofisa dan ovaprim terhadap pematangan gonad dan keberhasilan fertilisasi pada katak Fejervarya cancrivora, serta mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan pemberian pakan pada pertumbuhan berudu katak Fejervarya cancrivora. Injeksi dilakukan pada katak betina yang  hampir matang gonad dengan total dosis injeksi 250 µl secara intraperitonial. Setelah dipijahkan dan difertilisasi, telur dipelihara sampai menetas dan diberikan dua perlakuan pakan, yaitu pakan bayam  rebus (P1) serta  pakan bayam rebus dan kuning telur rebus (P2). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada perlakuan injeksi hipofisa dihasilkan telur 632 butir sel telur dan berhasil menetas 65,67%  dan perlakuan injeksi ovaprim sebanyak 108 butir sel telur dan dapat menetas 75,92%. Hasil  perlakuan P1 dan P2 pada kedua jenis injeksi tidak terdapat perbedaan panjang (p>0,05) namun terdapat perbedaan berat (p<0,05) pada perlakuan selama masa metamorfosis. Persentase jumlah berudu yang berhasil bermetamorfosis sempurna pada perlakuan injeksi hipofisa sebanyak 41,12%, sedangkan pada perlakuan injeksi ovaprim sebanyak 31,67%.
Understanding Snake Bite Cases Pattern Related to Volcano-Seismic Activity: An Evidence in Bondowoso, Indonesia Kurniawan, Nia; Kadafi, Ahmad Muammar; Kurnianto, Agung Sih; Ardiansyah, Franky; Maharani, Tri
Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology Vol 5, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (313.864 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.biotropika.2017.005.03.8

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Bondowoso located in a valley of Raung mountain roots in East Java, Indonesia. The eruption of Mt. Raung in 2015 not only cause loss of life, but also underlining the fact of unusual Snake Bite Cases (SBC), as recorded in the dr. Koesnadi Hospital. We conducted a thorough analysis of the SBC in 2015 along with the survey on all the incident location in January to March 2016. This study represented an improvement on the population of venomous snake in the agriculture area, and reached the highest peak before the eruption. The presence of continuous vegetation at the edge of watersheds become green corridor that functioned as the movement track for snakes in order to avoid the volcano effect.
Eksplorasi Jenis-Jenis Amfibi di Kawasan OWA Cangar dan Air Terjun Watu Ondo, Gunung Welirang, TAHURA R.Soerjo Izza, Qothrun; Kurniawan, Nia
Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology Vol 2, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology

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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis amfibi yang dapat ditemukan di kawasan OWA Cangar dan Air Terjun Watu Ondo, TAHURA R.Soerjo, mengetahui karakter habitatnya, serta mengetahui jenis yang berpotensi sebagai bioindikator. Pengambilan data mulai November 2013 hingga Maret 2014 menggunakan metode  Visual Encounter Survey (VES), total usaha 13 jam, 3 pengamat. Lokasi pengambilan data pada ketinggian 1400-1700 mdpl. Faktor abiotik yang diukur meliputi  pH air, suhu (udara & air), dan kelembapan udara. Ditemukan lima jenis amfibi yang seluruhnya tergabung dalam ordo Anura dari lima famili berbeda, yakni katak pohon emas (Philautus aurifasciatus Schlegel, 1837), katak serasah (Leptobrachium hasseltii Tschudi, 1838), bangkong kerdil (Limnonectes microdiscus Boettger, 1892), kongkang jeram (Huia masonii Boulenger, 1884), dan kodok buduk (Duttaphrynus melanostictus Schneider, 1799). Tidak ditemukan satupun spesies dari ordo Caudata maupun Gymnophiona. P. aurifasciatus kerapkali ditemukan pada tumbuhan Psychotria sp., Dypsis lutescens, dan Ficus sp.. L. microdiscus mempunyai habitat daerah hutan dari dataran rendah hingga tinggi. Habitat H. masonii selalu terkait dengan sungai berbatu yang berarus deras dan air jernih. L. hasseltii dapat ditemukan di daerah tinggi di antara serasah hutan. D. melanostictus mempunyai habitat di dekat hunian manusia atau wilayah terganggu. Spesies yang berpotensi besar sebagai bioindikator adalah P. aurifasciatus, H. masonii sebagai indikator perairan jernih, dan D. melanostictus sebagai indikator wilayah terganggu. Kata kunci : Amfibi, Cangar, ketinggian, VES 
TRANSOCEANIC DISPERSE OF THE WHITE-LIPPED ISLAND PIT VIPER (CRYPTELYTROPS INSULARIS; KRAMER,1997) FROM SUNDALAND TO LESSER SUNDA, INDONESIA Priambodo, Bagus; Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Kurniawan, Nia
The Journal of Experimental Life Science Vol 9, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Graduate School, University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1141.019 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jels.2019.009.01.02

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White-lipped island pit viper (Cryptelytrops insularis) is one of the most distributed Viperidae in Indonesia, especially in eastern part of Sundaland and Lesser Sunda. To investigate the evolutionary history and the dispersal pattern of C. insularis, we collected 23 samples from 11 localities. Four simultaneous genes composing two mitochondrial genes (16S rRNA & ND4) and two nuclear genes (7I?FIB & 3ITBP) have been successfully amplified and sequenced. Bayesian inference was performed to reconstruct the phylogeny tree. Furthermore, time divergence and the population demography analyses were estimated. The phylogeny tree of C. insularis exhibits monophyletic group, with four geographically structured lineages. The time divergence estimation indicated that C. insularis evolved at approximately 7 million years ago (mya). Population demography was inferred by Bayesian Skyline Plot analysis, it shows that the population increased constantly from the past to recent time. The evolutionary history of C. insularis can be explained by a pattern of the time divergences estimation that indicating movement from West (Java) to East (Lesser Sunda). We expected that the dispersal factor of C. insularis into many different islands (in Lesser Sunda) is caused by the animal helped and also oceanic rafting which could be the stepping stones to another island. 
The Morphological Characters of The Malayan Pit Viper Calloselasma rhodostoma (Kuhl, 1824): on The Cephalic Scalation and Distribution Status in Indonesia Kadafi, Ahmad Muammar; Hamidy, Amir; Kurniawan, Nia
The Journal of Experimental Life Science Vol 8, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : Graduate School, University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1346.095 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jels.2018.008.03.10

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The examination on variations of morphological characters among 35 specimens of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Kuhl, 1824) from four different populations in Indonesia has been completed in this study. Univariate and multivariate analyzes allowed us to recognize the clustering of four populations through morphological diagnosis. The results of the average body size (Total Length) showed that the largest male is from Kangean Island (579.33 mm), while the largest female is from Java (841.07 mm). Comparison of meristic analysis represented three clusters from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) which is considered to be independent population. Here we also described three types of cephalic scalation variation that called small accessories scales and their distribution in Indonesia.  Keywords: C. rhodostoma, Indonesia, Meristic, Morphometry, Viperidae.
The Predicted Distribution of Javan Munia (Lonchura leucogastroides) in Indonesia based of Behavior Analysis in Kalibaru, Banyuwangi, East Java Kurnianto, Agung Sih; Kurniawan, Nia
Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology Vol 1, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology

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Abstract

Javan Munia is one of the common species of birds that found in west area of Indonesia (Sunda land). This species is endemic to Indonesia (Lombok, Bali, Java, and South Sumatra). The large population, especially during the harvest season makes this bird became a major pest for agriculture. This research aims to determine the adaptive behaviors of Javan Munia that become major reasons of widely spreads and the influence of these factors to the distribution. Observations made in Kalibaru, Banyuwangi, East Java, which is a mostly agricultural area. Any form of behavior in the territorial area (nesting and courtship areas) and range area (where colonize and feed) were observed periodically in the past 12 months. Sunbathing is known as a activity that undertaken by many species of birds, including the Javan Munia. This munia has specific mating and nest construction behaviour. The development of Javan Munia is very quickly, in 40 days, child will become a new adult. Javan Munia is very easy to adapt to the surrounding environment, including the used of oil palm (Elais guineensis) fiber and paper receipts as nest material. There are a possibility of invasive occurrence to the entire island of Sumatra by this species. It is quite possible because of the opening of oil palm plantations and settlements continue, until Aceh. The spread possibilty to east end of distribution (Lombok) can occur up to Nusa Tenggara Island, because of short distances between the islands and similiar vegetation circumstances.