Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas
Jurusan Teknik Kimia FT Universitas Negeri Semarang, Semarang

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SINTESIS BIODISEL DARI MINYAK BIJI KARET DENGAN VARIASI SUHU DAN KONSENTRASI KOH UNTUK TAHAPAN TRANSESTERIFIKASI Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Bachtiar, Achmad
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 1, No 2 (2012): December 2012
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v1i2.2544

Abstract

Bahan bakar yang paling banyak digunakan adalah bahan bakar diesel atau fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Biodiesel berasal dari minyak nabati yang dapat diperbaharui, dapat dihasilkan secara periodik, dan mudah diperoleh. Pada penelitian ini digunakan minyak biji karet untuk sintesis FAME. Proses utama dalam pembuatan FAME adalah transesterifikasi. Penelitian ini mengkaji hasil optimum dari variasi konsentrasi katalis KOH dan suhu reaksi pada reaksi transesterifikasi. Preparasi minyak biji karet dengan menggunakan arang aktif granular diikuti dengan degumming. Reaksi esterifikasi dilaksanakan pada kondisi operasi 500 C selama 1 jam, katalis asam sulfat (98%) sebesar 0,5% volume minyak, dan metanol sebesar 20% volume minyak. Reaksi transesterifikasi dilaksanakan selama 1 jam, serta perbandingan volume minyak dan metanol sebesar 4:1. Analisis kadar metil ester yang terbentuk, jumlah komponen, dan komposisinya yang terdapat pada senyawa hasil dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat GC. Kondisi operasi terbaik pada transesterifikasi minyak biji karet menjadi metil ester adalah pada katalis KOH 1% dan suhu 60 0C. Berdasarkan uji sifat-sifat fisis, metil ester yang dihasilkan belum semua memenuhi mutu sifat fisis biodiesel yang disyaratkan. The most widely used fuel is diesel fuel or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Biodiesel is derived from vegetable oil that can be renewed, can be produced periodically, and easy to obtain. In this research, the rubber seed was used for synthesizing the FAME. The main process in the production of FAME is transesterification. This study examined the optimum result from variations of the concentration of KOH catalyst and the reaction temperature on the transesterification reaction. Preparation of the rubber seed oil using granular activated charcoal was followed by degumming. Esterification reaction was carried out at 50 oC for 1 h with the sulfuric acid catalyst of 0.5% by volume of oil and methanol of 20% by the volume of oil. Transesterification reaction was carried out for 1 hour with the oil and methanol volume ratio of 4:1. The concentration of methyl ester, the number of components, and the composition of the contained compounds in the resulted products were analyzed using a GC. The best operating conditions on the transesterification of rubber seed oil into methyl ester was by using 1% KOH catalyst at temperature of 60 0C. Based on the analysis of the physical properties, the resulted methyl esters need to be improved further to meet the quality requirements of the physical properties of biodiesel.
SINTESIS ADITIF OCTANE BOOSTER DARI MINYAK BIJI KARET DENGAN PROSES PERENGKAHAN KATALITIK Pita Rangga, Wara Dyah; Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Nasikin, M; Trisnani, Dewi
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Vol 8, No 2 (2010): December 2010
Publisher : Unnes Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/sainteknol.v8i2.320

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Proses sintesis aditif octane booster dari minyak biji karet melalui prosesperengkahan katalitik fasa cair yaitu H2SO4. Kondisi reaksi pada reactor batchtekanan atmosfer berpengaduk, waktu reaksi 0,5-2 jam dan suhu reaksi 160-250oC.Selama proses perengkahan katalitik menggunakan kadar katalis 1%. Kondidioptimum pada waktu 1 jam dan suhu 220oC. Karakterisasi aditif octane booster yangdihasilkan adalah densitas 0,734 g/mL, viskositas 0,027 poise, dan angka oktana101,01. Penurunan densitas dan viskositas terjadi setelah proses perengkahankatalistik dan destilasi Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa trigliserida minyak biji karetdirengkahkan menjadi molekul yang lebih kecil yang terdiri dari senyawa denganrantai C lebih pendek. Analisis FTIR sebelum dan sesudah reaksi menunjukkan reaksiperengkahan dengan produk alkena, alkana, asam alkanoat. Pada analisis GC-MSdihasilkan aditif octane booster pada C5-C12 konversi 38,67 dan yield 35,61.Kata kunci: aditif, octane booster, perengkahan katalitik, fasa cair
PEMBUATAN PUPUK ORGANO-MINERAL FERTILIZER (OMF) PADAT DARI LIMBAH INDUSTRI BIOETANOL (VINASSE) Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Oktafiani, Oktafiani; Hartanto, Dhoni; Handayani, Prima Astuti; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 2 (2015): December 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i2.4189

Abstract

Organo-mineral fertilizer solid was generated from liquid-waste vinasse with the addition of other materials as variations such as filter cake, boiler ash, urea, and NPK through the evaporation of water content in the material. Each solid OMF has a different mixture. OMF A made of evaporated vinasse or sticky vinasse, OMF B made of vinasse and urea, OMF C made from vinasse and filter cake, omf D made of vinasse and boiler ash 2 : 2, OMF E made of vinasse and boiler ash 2 : 4, OMF F made of vinasse, filter cake, and boiler ash, OMF A3 made of vinasse and 3% NPK, OMF made of A6 vinasse and 6% NPK, OMF A9 made of vinasse and 9% NPK. OMF analysis includes NPK and C/N ratio. Solid OMF which meet the SNI (Indonesian National Standard) are OMF A3, OMF A6, OMF A9 based on the quantity of NPK and C/N ratio where NPK is a source of primer macro nutrients on the plant while the C/N ratio equilibrium will determine the equilibrium of the vegetative and generative stage. NPK content and C/N ratio of OMF A3 are 0,63%, 0,45% ,0,38%, and 10,30, respectively.OMF A6 was 0,59%, 0,52% ,0,41%, and 13,66, respectively as well as OMF A9 are 0,68%, 0,52% ,0,45% and 14,16, respectively. OMF that meet SNI applied to the watermelon plants. OMF that gives the best results in plants is OMF A9 compossed from vinasse and NPK 9% because the plants growth faster shown based on plant height and stem diameter, leaf shape, flower and fruit appearance time. 
Application of Tin(II) Chloride Catalyst for High FFA Jatropha Oil Esterification in Continuous Reactive Distillation Column Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Aji, Imam Novrizal; Hadiyanto, Hadiyanto; Budiman, Arief
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 1 Year 2016 (SCOPUS Indexed, April 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (519.088 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.1.417.66-74

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The application of heterogeneous solid acid catalysts in biodiesel production has become popular and gained significant attention over the last few years. It is since these types of catalysts hold the benefits in terms of easy separation from the product, reusability of the catalyst, high selectivity of the reaction. They are also considered sustainable and powerful particularly in organic synthesis. This work studied the use of tin(II) chloride as solid Lewis acid catalyst to promote the esterification reaction of high Free Fatty Acid (FFA) jatropha oil in continuous reactive distillation column. To obtain the optimum condition, the influences of reaction time, molar ratio of the reactant, and catalyst were investigated. It was revealed that the optimum condition was achieved at the molar ratio of methanol to FFA at 1:60, catalyst concentration of 5%, and reaction temperature of 60°C with the reaction conversion of 90%. This result was significantly superior to the identical reaction performed using batch reactor. The esterification of high FFA jatropha oil using reactive distillation in the presence of tin(II) chloride provided higher conversion than that of Amberlyst-15 heterogeneous catalyst and was comparable to that of homogenous sulfuric acid catalyst, which showed 30 and 94.71% conversion, respectively. The esterification reaction of high FFA jatropha oil was subsequently followed by transesterification reaction for the completion of the biodiesel production. Transesterification was carried out at 60 °C, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 1:6, NaOH catalyst of 1%, and reaction time of one hour. The jatropha biodiesel product resulted from this two steps process could satisfy the ASTM and Indonesian biodiesel standard in terms of ester content (97.79 %), density, and viscosity. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th November 2015; Revised: 4th February 2016; Accepted: 4th February 2016How to Cite: Kusumaningtyas, R.D., Aji, I.N., Hadiyanto, H., Budiman, A. (2016). Application of Tin(II) Chloride Catalyst for High FFA Jatropha Oil Esterification in Continuous Reactive Distillation Column. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1): 66-74. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.417.66-74)Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.417.66-74Article Metrics: (click on the button below to see citations in Scopus) 
SINTESIS FATTY ACID METHYL ESTHER DARI MINYAK BIJI MAHONI (SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA, KING) DAN UJI PERFORMANCE-NYA SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR ALTERNATIF PADA MESIN DIESEL Mursiti, Sri; Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Matsjeh, Sabirin; Mustofa, Mustofa
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Vol 12, No 1 (2014): June 2014
Publisher : Unnes Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/sainteknol.v12i1.5425

Abstract

Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) merupakan bahan bakar alternatif pada mesin diesel yang terbarukan. Penelitian ini mensintesis FAME melalui transesterifikasi minyak biji mahoni dengan metanol menggunakan katalis KOH. Tujuannya (1) mendapatkan kondisi optimal sintesis FAME, (2) mengetahui sifat fisis FAME, dan (3) mengetahui performancenya. Minyak biji mahoni memiliki bilangan asam yang tinggi (29,86 mg KOH/ g minyak) sehingga dilakukan esterifikasi. Esterifikasi dilakukan pada suhu 35°C menggunakan katalis H . Transesterifikasi dilakukan dengan perbandingan minyak: metanol= 4:1. Variasinya suhu (30°C - 60°C) dan konsentrasi KOH (0,5% - 1% berat minyak). Didapatkan kondisi optimum reaksi transesterifikasi pada suhu 60°C, konsentrasi KOH 0,75%, waktu reaksi 60 menit, serta rasio volume minyak:metanol= 4:1, dan didapatkan yield sebesar 83,9742%. FAME diuji sifat fisisnya dengan variasi perbandingan FAME:solar: butanol sebesar 1:0:0, 1:1:1, dan 1:2:2. Pengujian meliputi densitas, korosi lempeng tembaga, color ASTM, viskositas kinematis, flash point, pour point, kandungan air, serta CCR. Hasilnya dibandingkan dengan standar kualitas biodiesel (SNI). Data menunjukkan bahwa semua komposisi campuran FAME:solar belum memenuhi persyaratan standar. Uji performance secara lengkap belum dapat dilaksanakan karena dapat menyebabkan kerusakan mesin, tetapi performance konsumsi FAME pada mesin diesel tidak jauh berbeda dengan konsumsi solar pada mesin diesel, tetapi emisinya lebih rendah.
EFFECT OF ZEOLITE 4A ON WATER CONCENTRATION IN THE SYSTEM OF THE ESTERIFICATION REACTION OF ACETIC ACID WITH 1-BUTANOL Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 6, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (307.547 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21748

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The usual problem encountered on a reversible reaction is that the reaction cannot achieve a complete conversion of reactants since it is limited by the thermodynamic equilibrium. Due to this low conversion, it will face challenges with product purification and recycling of the reactants, which then cause an increase in the operation cost. To obtain higher conversion, it is necessary to shift the equilibrium towards the products by continuously removing the water formed. One popular example of reversible reaction is esterification process. In this research, water removal was conducted through an adsorption process using zeolite 4A. Effect of zeolite 4A on water concentration in the liquid phase esterification of acetic acid and 1-butanol catalyzed by sulfuric acid was investigated. It was performed in an isothermal batch reactor. The molar ratio of 1-butanol - acetic acid was 1.4 times theoretically, the catalyst concentration was 1 % wt and the mixing intensity was 1000 rpm. The influence of the temperature was studied at 40 to 80 °C and the zeolite 4A loading was varied at 1.6 to 5.52 % w/ v. The reaction was compared to the conventional esterification reaction carried out under identical conditions but without addition of zeolite 4A. Concentration of each component in the system was analyzed using on-line Gas Chromatography. Effect of removing the water produced during the reaction by using zeolite 4A was demonstrated. It was revealed that the amount of water removed was proportional to the amount of the zeolite 4A to be employed. On the other hand, the increase of the temperature led to the lower amount of water to be adsorbed. Among all the experiments, the best result was achieved on the addition of 5.52 % b/v zeolite 4A at 40 °C, where water concentration was 3.1356 g mole/L and the conversion was 76.11 % at the equilibrium condition. As comparison, water concentration on the conventional reaction performed at 40 °C was 6.9161 g mole/L and the conversion was 62.5 % at the equilibrium condition. The equation illustrating the effect of zeolite 4A loading on the conversion obtained at the equilibrium condition was: XAe = 0.6248 + 0.0868 C4A0.2848, where XAe was equilibrium conversion of Acetic Acid and C4A was Zeolite 4A loading (g/100 mL liquid).   Keywords: reversible reaction, esterification, zeolite 4A, water removal, adsorption
Review Pemanfaatan Design Expert untuk Optimasi Komposisi Campuran Minyak Nabati sebagai Bahan Baku Sintesis Biodiesel Ramadhani, Reshita Amalia; Riyadi, Dody Herdian Saputra; Triwibowo, Bayu; Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi
Jurnal Teknik Kimia dan Lingkungan Vol 1, No 1 (2017): October 2017
Publisher : Politeknik Negeri Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (768.923 KB)

Abstract

Pencampuran berbagai jenis minyak nabati untuk sintesis biodiesel merupakan salah satu upaya pencarian sumber energi alternatif terbarukan. Campuran berbagai macam minyak nabati lebih potensial karena ketersediaannya masih melimpah dan kurang dimanfaatkan. Campuran minyak nabati yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku antara lain: minyak jarak pagar, minyak nyamplung, dan minyak jelantah. Komposisi campuran ditentukan dan dioptimasi menggunakan metode simplex lattice design dengan total campuran tertentu. Data yang akan didapat yaitu data pengaruh masing-masing campuran minyak terhadap penurunan bilangan FFA saat reaksi esterifikasi. Metode simplex lattice design merupakan salah satu metode yang terdapat di dalam software Design Expert 10.0 yang digunakan untuk optimasi formula pada berbagai jumlah komposisi bahan yang berbeda. Sintesis biodiesel dijalankan berdasar design of experiment yang dihasilkan oleh program Design Expert 10.0. Kegunaan metode simplex lattice design diantaranya: penentuan formula, mengoptimalkan variabel formulasi dan mengetahui jumlah run, menjaga konsentrasi total tetap konstan. ANOVA (Analysis of variance) dilakukan untuk menentukan signifikansi analisis respon antar variabel dan dapat mengetahui model yang disarankan. Desirability merupakan nilai fungsi yang menunjukkan kemampuan program untuk memenuhi keinginan berdasarkan kriteria yang ditetapkan pada produk akhir. Nilai desirability yang semakin mendekati nilai 1,0 menunjukkan kemampuan program untuk menghasilkan produk yang dikehendaki semakin sempurna.Mixing different types of vegetable oils for synthesis of biodiesel is one of the efforts for renewable alternative energy. Mixed oil of vegetable oils more potential because it is not difficult to finding raw materials and not useful yet. Vegetable oils mixture as raw materials used include: Jatropha curcas oil, nyamplung oil and waste cooking oil. The mixed and optimized compositions use the simplex lattice design method with a total mixture. The data to be obtained is the influence data of each mixed oil to decrease of FFA during esterification reaction. Simplex lattice design method is one of the methods available in the software Design Expert 10.0. The designs used to optimize the formula on different amounts of different material compositions. The biodiesel synthesis is run based on the experimental design produced by the Expert Design 10.0 program. The use of lattice simplex method design: determination formula, optimizing formulation variable and total number of runs, keeping total concentration constant. ANOVA (Analysis of variance) to determine the significance of response analysis among variables and can know the suggested model. Desirability is a method that shows the programs ability to meet the criteria specified in the final product. The desired value that is critical to the desired product improvement program is so perfect.
REDUCTION OF FFA IN KAPOK RANDU (CEIBA PENTANDRA) SEED OIL VIA ESTERIFICATION REACTION USING SULFURIC ACID CATALYST: EXPERIMENTAL AND KINETICS STUDY Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Akbar, Muhammad Hafizt; Widjanarko, Dwi
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 8, No 2 (2019): December 2019 [Nationally Accredited - Sinta 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v8i2.23886

Abstract

The rapid growth of the population and economy has boosted up the necessity of fuel and  energy source. Until now, the world?s dependency on fossil fuel as the primary energy supply is still high. On the other hand, it has been known that the fossil-based oil and gas reserves are shrunk. Hence, it is urgent to develop alternative energy sources, which are renewable and environmentally friendly, to anticipate the energy insufficiency. Biodiesel is among the prospective renewable energy due to its advantages. Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) is a type of biofuel which is derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. There are various vegetable oils that can be used as raw material for biodiesel production. However, non-edible oils are usually preferred to be selected as a biodiesel feedstock to evade the conflict between food and energy needs. Kapok Randu (Ceiba pentandra) seed oil is a type of non-edible oil which is cheap and can be employed as biodiesel feedstock. However, this oil has high free fatty acid (FFA) content (8.89%). Thus, it cannot directly undergo transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel since the FFA will react with alkaline catalyst to produce soap. The FFA content in Kapok Randu seed oil needs to be decreased until it is lower than 2%. Hence, prior to transesterification reaction, esterification of Kapok Randu seed oil with methanol in the presence of acid catalyst should be conducted to decrease the FFA content. In this work, esterification reaction was performed in the presence of sulfuric acid catalyst. The reactions were conducted at the molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:12 at the temperature of 40, 50, and 60 ? for 120 minutes. The optimum reaction conversion was 95.14%, achieved at the reaction temperature of 60 ?. Kinetics study using homogeneous models was also performed. It was revealed that the reaction was appropriate with the irreversible second order reaction model. The reaction rate constant (k), activation energy (Ea), and  frequency factor (A) were 4.95 L / mole.min, 30,799.21 J/ mole and 338.744 / min, respectively.
Sintesis Nanoenkapsulasi Ekstrak Kulit Durian dengan Metode Spray Drying dan Aplikasinya sebagai Biopestisida: Review Hartini, Nina; Richana, Syarifatur; Triwibowo, Bayu; Qudus, Nur; Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi
Jurnal Teknik Kimia dan Lingkungan Vol 2, No 2 (2018): October 2018
Publisher : Politeknik Negeri Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (397.298 KB)

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Indonesia sebagai negara agraris, sebagian penduduk Indonesia bermata pencaharian di bidang pertanian. Pada umumnya, masyarakat menggunakan pestisida untuk membasmi hama. Karena tingginya penggunaan pestisida maka WHO (2016) menyatakan kasus keracunan pestisida mencapai 193.000 jiwa selama tahun 2012. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut, biopestisida menjadi bahan alternatif pengganti pestisida karena lebih aman dan ramah lingkungan. Salah satu bahan alam yang berpotensi sebagai biopestisida adalah kulit durian. Rata-rata produksi durian setiap tahunnya 780.032,8 ton/tahun. Limbah kulit durian memiliki berat 60-75% dengan kandungan senyawa metabolit sekunder relatif tinggi belum termanfaatkan secara maksimal. Senyawa tersebut dimanfaatkan sebagai antioksidan dan antimikroba dalam proses pembasmi hama. Biopestisida yang dikembangkan dengan metode sokletasi menghasilkan ekstrak berbentuk cair. Namun, hasil tersebut kurang efektif dan mudah teroksidasi sehingga menurunkan keefektifitasan kadar bahan aktif. Mengatasi masalah tersebut maka perlu dikembangkan inovasi dengan proses enkapsulasi. Artikel ini me-review pengembangan metode enkapsulasi. Metode yang dapat digunakan untuk enkapsulasi biopestisida yaitu ekstrusi, spray chilling dan spray drying. Metode spray drying lebih berpotensi mengenkapsulasi biopestisida dari kulit durian karena memiliki efisiensi enkapsulan lebih tinggi dan hampir mendekati 100%. Distribusi ukuran partikel yang dihasilkan tergolong nanoenkapsulan.Indonesia as an agrarian country, most of Indonesias people work in agriculture. In general, people use pesticides to eradicate pests. Due to the high use of pesticides, WHO (2016) stated the case of pesticide poisoning reach 193,000 in 2012. To solve the problem, Biopesticide as an alternative of synthetic pesticides because it’s more safe and environmentally friendly. One of the natural ingredients that potentially as biopesticide is durian peel. The average durian production per year is 780,032.8 tons/year. Durian peels waste weighs 60-75% with a relatively high contains  of secondary metabolite  not yet fully utilized. It’s  used as antioxidants and antimicrobials in pesticides. Biopesticide is developed by socletation method. However, the results are less effective because it’s easily oxidized, so reduce the flavonoid efectiveness. To solve this problem, to be developed innovation with encapsulation process. This article reviews the development of encapsulation methods. Methods that can be used for biopesticide encapsulation are extrusion, spray chilling and spray drying. Spray drying method is more likely to encapsulate biopesticides because it has higher encapsulation efficiency and is close to 100%. The resulting particle size distribution is classified as nanocapsul.
TIN (II) CHLORIDE CATALYZED ESTERIFICATION OF HIGH FFA JATROPHA OIL: EXPERIMENTAL AND KINETICS STUDY Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Handayani, Prima Astuti; Rochmadi, Rochmadi; Purwono, Suryo; Budiman, Arief
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 3, No 2 (2014): July 2014
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (930.602 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81

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Biodiesel is one of the promising energy source alternatives to fossil fuel. To produce biodiesel in a more economical way, the employment of the low-cost feed stocks, such as non-edible oils with high free fatty acid (FFA), is necessary. Accordingly, the esterification reaction of FFA in vegetable oils plays an important role in the biodiesel production. In this work, esterification of FFA contained in Crude Jatropha Oil (CJO) in the presence of tin (II) chloride catalyst in a batch reactor has been carried out. The esterification reaction was conducted using methanol at the temperature of 40-60 °C for 4 hours. The effect of molar ratio of methanol to oil was studied in the range 15:1 to 120:1. The influence of catalyst loading was investigated in the range of 2.5 to 15% w/w oil. The optimum reaction conversion was obtained at 60 °C with the catalyst loading of 10% w/w oil and molar ratio of methanol to oil of 120:1. A pseudo-homogeneous reversible second order kinetic model for describing the esterification of FFA contained in CJO with methanol over tin (II) chloride catalyst was developed based on the experimental data. The kinetic model can fit the data very well.