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TYROSINASE INHIBITION TYPE OF ISOLATED COMPOUNDS OBTAINED FROM PACHYRHIZUS EROSUS Lukitaningsih, Endang; Bahi, Muhammad; Holzgrabe, Ulrike
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology Vol 2, No 3: December 2013
Publisher : Graduate School of Syiah Kuala University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.13170/aijst.2.3.1063

Abstract

Abstract - In Indonesia, Bengkoang (Phacyrhizus erosus) have been used as one of cosmetics especially as sun screening and skin whitening materials. Six active compounds in Bengkoang with antioxidant and skin whitening activities have been isolated, namely daidzein, daidzin, genistin, (8,9)-furanyl-pterocarpan-3-ol, 4-(2-(furane-2-yl)ethyl)-2-methyl-2,5-dihydro-furane-3-carbaldehyde and 2-butoxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-tetrahydrofurane-3,4-diol. According to literatures, the type of their tyrosinase inhibitory activity has not yet reported. The determination of whitening activity of each compound was evaluated by the evaluation of Lineweaver-Burk plot. The result showed that five compounds had competitive inhibitory activity and 8,9-furanyl-pterocarpan-3-ol showed a non-competitive inhibition. Keywords: Pachyrhizus erosus, tyrosinase, competitive inhibition and non-competitive inhibition
KANDUNGAN VITAMIN C, VITAMIN A DAN ALPHA HYDROXY ACID DALAM BENGKOANG (Pachyrhizus Erosus) Widyatmoko, Ardian; Hastutik, Dwi; Sudarmanto, Ari; Lukitaningsih, Endang
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 21, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (942.567 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tradmedj.10726

Abstract

Bengkoang atau Pachyrhizus erosus telah lama digunakan sebagai bahan kosmetika tradisional sejak puluhan tahun yang lalu. Bahkan sampai sekarang banyak diproduksi sediaan kosmetik terutama untuk perawatan kulit, pemutih serta tabir surya menggunakan bahan dasar bengkoang. Namun demikian, informasi kandungan vitamin A, vitamin C dan alpha hydroxyl acid (AHA) yang ada dalam bengkoang belum dipublikasikan. Senyawa-senyawa tersebut sangat bermanfaat dalam perawatan kulit karena memiliki aktivitas sebagai pemacu regenerasi sel, antioksidan dan peeling sel kulit yang mati. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi ketiga kandungan senyawa tersebut. Dalam penelitian ini, vitamin A dianalisis secara spektrofotometri, vitamin C secara titrasi dan AHA dianalisis menggunakan kromatografi gas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan vitamin A dan vitamin C dalam bengkoang berturut-turut 179,21 ± 8,19 ppm dan 0,31 ± 0,06 %, sedangkan kandungan alpha hydroxyl acid adalah 0,80 ± 0,01 % (dihitung sebagai asam gliko lat).
BIOASSAY ON N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF LEAVES CASSIA ALATA AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS Bahi, Muhammad; Mutia, Radilla; Mustanir, Mustanir; Lukitaningsih, Endang
Jurnal Natural Volume 14, Number 1, March 2014
Publisher : Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Abstract

The study of biological activity from n-hexane extract of leaves? Cassia alata had been done against Candida albicans as bioindicator. Dried leaves of C. alata (850 g) were macerated into n-hexane to obtain a dark green crude extract (31.79 g). The n-hexane crude extract was then subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) and eluted with n-hexane and ethyl acetate to give 4 sub-fractions, namely fraction A (7.7251 g), fraction B (1.9419 g), fraction C (1.3565 g) and fraction D (1.4737 g) respectively. Based on phytochemical analysis, both nhexane crude extract and chromatographic sub-fractions contained steroids as their secondary metabolite constituent. The antifungal activity was tested against C. albicans using the agar-disc diffusion method with three different concentrations (10, 30 and 50%). Fraction D showed medium antifungal activity at 10.6, 11.3 and 12.6 of diameter-inhibition zones (mm) respectively.
Safety Evaluation of Chicken Satay In Yogyakarta Indonesia Based on Benzo[A]Pyrene Content Irnanda, Khairunissa; Meiftasari, Argandita; Nagadi, Standie; Lukitaningsih, Endang
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Chicken  satay  is  one  of  Indonesian  food  which  is  very  popular  and  processed  by direct  flame  over  the  meat.  But,  almost  every  types  of  food  which  are  prepared  by  direct flame  will  produce  chemical  compounds  that  contributes  to  the  incidence  of  cancer. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a group of compound which can cause cancer and is  resulted  from  the  incomplete  combustion  of  fossil  fuels  or  pyrolysis  of  organic  material containing  carbon  and  hydrogen  atoms.  One  PAH  compound  having  mutagenic  and  highly carcinogenic  effect  is  benzo[a]pyrene  which  is  the  highest  content  found  in  foods  that  are burned directly on the flame. This study aims to establish levels of benzo[a]pyrene contained in  chicken  satay  in  Yogyakarta,  Indonesia  and  to  evaluate  how  it  meets  with  the maximumbenzo[a]pyrene  limit  in  the  burned  food  based  on  National  Agency  of  Drug  and Food  Control  which  is  equal  to  5  ppb  (5  mg/kg).  Analysis  were  performed  by  Gas Chromatography  method  using  helium  as  carrier  gas  and  CPCB-Sil8  as  stationary  phase. After  the  sample  was  prepared  and  analysed  by  GC,  it  is  known  that  the  amount  of benzo[a]pyrene in chicken satay found in Yogyakarta are ranging from 2.5 to 393.32 ppb. The result are quite high and far  above the safety limit determined by  National Agency of Drug and Food Control.Therefore, the result of the research needs to be socialized to the public so that people can be more aware about the danger of food they consume.Keywords: chicken  satay,  benzo[a]pyrene  (BaP),  policyclic  aromatic  hidrocarbon  (PAH), carsinogen, Yogyakarta
ANALYSIS OF MACRONUTRIENCONTENT, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND CALCIUM OXALATE ELIMINATION IN AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS (ROXB.) Lukitaningsih, Endang; Rumiyati, Rumiyati; Puspitasari, Ika; Christiana, Meti
Jurnal Natural Volume 12, Number 2, September 2012
Publisher : Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Abstract

Recently, the research to find alternative sources of carbohydrates as a replacement for rice has been developed. Walur is one of the carbohydrate sources that can be explored because it can be grown in any area with out special treatment. However, walur has limitation for direct consumption, because it contains calcium oxalate. The purposes of this study were to determine the chemical character (macronutrient content), calculate glycemic index and get the proper washing techniques to elimin ate calcium oxalate of walur. Macro nutrients content studied in this research include carbohydrates, fats, protein, star chand crude fiber. Analysis of macronutrients has been chemically done, while the glycemic index was measured by in vivo using glucose as a standard. Elimination of calcium oxalate was conducted by washing the fresh walur tubers using a solution of0.01NHCl-NaOH, 5% NaCl, and solution of lemon-lime. The content of oxalate before and after washing was analyzed by permanganometry method. The results showed that walur containing 4.34 ±0.07% of reducingsugar,3.24 ± 0.06 % of not-reducing sugar, 11.27±0.40 % of crude fiber,0.03±1.05 % of starchand0.57±0.01 % of protein. Qualitative analysis of fatty acids showed that hexade canoicacid, octade cadienoicacid, and the acide icosatetranoic were detected in high concentrations. The glycemic index valueof walur was relative lylow, about of 16.9. In addition, washing technique using a solution of lemon-lime was the most excellent technique and can reduce the oxalate content up to61.82%.Fromthis research, it can be concluded that walur can be used as food substitute esrice after washing treatment using lemon-lime solution to remove the calcium oxalate content.
SKRINING AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN, ANTIAGING DAN PENGHAMBATAN TYROSINASE DARI EKSTRAK ETANOLIK DAN ETIL ASETAT DAGING BUAH DAN KULIT BUAH LANGSAT (Lansium domesticum Corr) SECARA IN VITRO Nur, Syamsu; Rumiyati, Rumiyati; Lukitaningsih, Endang
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 22, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (380.941 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tradmedj.24342

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan bioaktivitas dari daging buah dan kulit buah L.domesticum sebagai bahan aktif kosmetik. Proses penyiapan ekstrak dilakukan dengan metode maserasi dengan pelarut etanol 96 % dan etil asetat, sehingga diperoleh ekstrak etanolik daging buah (BLE), ekstrak etanolik kulit buah (KLE), ektrak etil asetat daging buah (BLEA) dan ekstrak etil asetat kulit buah (KLEA). Selanjutnya ditentukan golongan senyawa dengan kromatografi lapis tipis dan penentuan kandungan fenolik dan flavonoid total dengan metode kolorimetri. Aktivitas antioksidan diukur menggunakan pengujian peredaman radikal 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching (BCB) dan Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Efek penghambatan enzim pendegradasi kulit (antiaging) dilakukan dengan mengukur penghambatan enzim elastase dan kolagenase. Efek penghambatan tyrosinase juga diukur menggunakan mushroom tyrosinase. Berdasarkan profil kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT), menunjukkan bahwa daging buah dan kulit buah Lansat mengandung senyawa golongan fenolik, flavonoid, terpenoid dan steroid. Kandungan flavonoid total terbesar terdapat pada KLE (4,76±0,26 %b/b Ekuivalen Kuersetin atau EK) dan kandungan fenolik total terbesar terdapat pada BLEA (6,4±0,15 %b/b Ekuivalen Asam Galat atau EAG). Hasil aktivitas antioksidan pada masing-masing ekstrak dengan menggunakan DPPH: BLEA>KLE>BLE>KLEA; BCB: KLEA>BLEA>KLE>BLE; dan FRAP: BLEA>KLE> BLE>KLEA. KLE dan KLEA memberikan hasil yang baik dalam menurunkan aktivitas dari enzim elastase dan enzim kolagenase. Selain itu, pengujian anti tyrosinase menunjukkan bahwa BLE memiliki aktivitas anti-tyrosinase terbaik dibanding ekstrak lainnya. Berdasarkan dari hasil tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak buah dan kulit buah langsat memiliki potensi sebagai bahan aktif kosmetik untuk anti aging dan anti tyrosinase.
PHYTOSTEROL CONTENT IN BENGKOANG (Pachyrhizus erosus) Lukitaningsih, Endang
Pharmacon Vol 13, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Pharmacon

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Abstract

Bengkoang has long been used by ancestors as a raw material for cosmetics. In Indonesia, it is usually eaten raw, sometimes with salt, lemon juice and powdered chili. However, scientific evidences that support the use of bengkoang have not been widely published. Phytosterols from the bengkoang root have been isolated and identified based on their NMR spectrum data and mass spectrum. The result of the structure elucidation informed that ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol are major components of phytosterol in bengkoang root. Phytosterol content was about 0.02% of dry weight bengkoang or 2.76 % in petroleum ether extract of bengkoang, with a ratio of ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol (65:35). Therefore, bengkoang can be further exploited as a raw material of phytosterol supplement.
KAJIAN GLISEMIK INDEKS DAN MAKRONUTRIEN DARI UMBI-UMBIAN DALAM UPAYA PENCARIAN SUMBER PANGAN Lukitaningsih, Endang
Pharmacon Vol 13, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Pharmacon

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Abstract

Dewasa ini, di Indonesia eksplorasi untuk mencari bahan pangan alternatif pengganti beras masih terus dilakukan. Kandungan makronutrien dan kajian glisemik indeks dari umbi ganyong (Canna edulis Kerr.), walur (Amorphophallus variabilis), porang (Amorphophallus Oncophyllus Prain), suweg (Amorphophallus campanulatus Bl ) dan uwi (Dioscorea alata L.) telah dilakukan pada penelitian ini dan bertujuan untuk memberikan dasar ilmiah pemilihan pangan alternatif, terutama bagi penderita diabetes mellitus dan obesitas. Pengukuran kandungan makronutrien meliputi kandungan karbohidrat mereduksi dan tidak mereduksi, protein dan serat dilakukan mengacu pada metode AOAC (1990), sedangkan glisemik indeks ditetapkan secara in vivo menggunakan hewan percobaan tikus jantan galur Wistar. Glisemik indeks sampel umbi-umbian seluruhnya lebih rendah dari glisemik indeks beras (72,8). Harga glisemik indeks sangat dipengaruhi oleh kandungan serat, sedangkan pengaruh kandungan karbohidrat terhadap harga glisemik indeks tidak dapat diamati. Walur dan porang memiliki kandungan serat yang besar, yaitu masing-masing 15,09% dan 11,27%, sedangkan harga glisemik indeks masing-masing sekitar 20,6 dan 16,9. Kata kunci: glisemik indeks, makronutrien, karbohidrat, serat, protein 
ANALISIS AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN KANDUNGAN ANTOSIANIN TOTAL EKSTRAK DAN LIPOSOM KELOPAK BUNGA ROSELLA (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) Juniarka, I Gede Agus; Lukitaningsih, Endang; Noegrohati, Sri
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 16, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (706.251 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/mot-TradMedJ16iss3pp%p

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Formulasi bentuk liposom merupakan salah satu cara yang diaplikasikan untuk mengatasi keterbatasan stabilitas antosianin dalam ekstrak kelopak bunga rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) yang mudah rusak oleh faktor lingkungan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis perbandingan aktivitas antioksidan dan kandungan total antosianin ekstrak dan bentuk liposom kelopak bunga rosella. Pembuatan ekstrak dilakukan dengan maserasi bertingkat dengan metanol:asam format (97:3) sebagai cairan penyari yang paling baik dari segi rendemen (26,40% b/b) dan aktivitas antioksidan (uji hambatan DPPH) yang dihasilkan (19,991% + 0,001) bila dibandingkan terhadap hasil maserasi menggunakan kombinasi pelarut etanol, metanol, dan akuades. Liposom dibuat dari ekstrak metanol kelopak bunga rosella dengan metode fase terbalik. Hasil uji stabilitas dengan penyimpanan selama 30 hari pada suhu rendah (0-50C) dalam wadah jenuh nitrogen menujukkan penurunan 11,25% aktivitas antioksidan (uji DPPH) bentuk ekstrak, sedangkan bentuk liposom hanya mengalami penurunan sebesar 0,93%. Demikian pula pada stabilitas kandungan antosianin total, dimana ekstrak kelopak bunga rosella mengalami penurunan sebesar 39,12% sedangkan bentuk liposom hanya mengalami penuruanan 0,72%. Lebih lanjut, hasil uji iritasi menunjukkan bentuk liposom memiliki iritasi yang lebih rendah dibandingkan bentuk ekstrak kelopak bunga rosella. Oleh karena itu, disimpulkan bahwa antosianin terenkapsulasi liposom lebih stabil, efektif, dan aman bila dibandingkan dengan bentuk ekstrak metanol kelopak bunga rosella.
SKRINING IN SILICO SENYAWA AKTIF BENGKOANG (Pachyrrhizus erosus) SEBAGAI ANTITIROSINASE PADA Aspergillus oryzae (STUDI KOMPUTASIONAL DENGAN HOMOLOGY MODELING DAN MOLECULAR DOCKING) Lukitaningsih, Endang; Wisnusaputra, Aditya; Sudarmanto, B. S. Ari
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 20, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1087.937 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/mot-TradMedJ20iss1pp%p

Abstract

Bengkoang has been widely used in the cosmetics industry as a whitening agent. Based on research by Lukitaningsih (2009), bengkoang contains 6 active compounds that  acts as a inhibitors of the Aspergillus oryzae (TyrAo) tyrosinase enzyme. However, the interaction between the active compounds in bengkoang and the enzyme tyrosinase has not been known yet. Interaction between bengkoangs active compounds and TyrAo enzyme can be identified by computational studies (in silico). The interaction is conducted using homology modeling and molecular docking. Homology modeling performed to design a three-dimensional (3D) model of Aspergillus oryzae tyrosinase enzyme (TyrAo) using a template form of known 3D structure of TyrAb enzyme (PDBID: 2Y9X). TyrAo model used as target macromolecules in molecular docking method. Molecular docking method is a method to describe ligand (active compounds) position on the active receptor (TyrAo model). Based on the docking results, it is known that residues interacting on the active site of tyrosinase enzyme were Thr275 and His294 residues. The Thr275 made a hydrogen bonding, while the His294 residue made a hydrophobic interaction on the aromatic ring. Experiments in silico and in vitro have been done; the results exhibited a good correlation of them with R2 value of -0.8366. This correlation indicates that the activity of the active compounds in Bengkoang was similar with the results of them in silico and in vitro studies.