I Gusti Ngurah Kade Mahardika
fakultas kedokteran hewan universitas udayana

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VAKSIN POLIVALEN UNTUK MENCEGAH PENYAKIT FLU BURUNG (POLIVALEN VACCINE TO PREVENT BIRD FLU DISEASES) Suartha, I Nyoman; Wirata, I Wayan; Putra, I Gusti Ngurah Narendra; Dewi, Ni Made Ritha Krisna; Anthara, I Made Suma; Wibawan, I Wayan Teguh; Mahardika, I Gusti Ngurah Kade
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 13 No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University and Published in collaboration with the Indonesia Veterinarian Association

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This study was carried out to determine the use of bird flu polyvalent vaccines containing two or threeor more virus isolates representating of circulating viruses in the region. Three seed isolates of avianinfluenza H5N1 virus were used in this experiment. The isolates were Chicken/Denpasar/Unud-01/2004,Chicken/Klungkung/Unud-12/2006, and Chicken/Jembrana/Unud-17/2006. The seeds were inactivatedusing 0.01% formaldehide than mixed (AI3G) alumunium hidroxide adjuvant and then injectedintramuscularly to Isa Brown layer chicken at 3 weeks of age and repeated at the age of 5 weeks. The doseof each seed virus was 27 HA units. Sera were collected at one and two weeks after the second vaccination.The result showed that the arithmetic meant titer (AMT) of sera that tested with homologous isolate washigher than the test using a heterologous isolates, in the standard haemaglutination inhibition (HI) assay.The mixed AI3G vaccine produced a uniform AMT against the constituent isolates, while vaccines withindividual isolate yielded a lower and more variation in AMT. Further experiments using a commercialhomologous H5N1 and heterologous H5N2 commercial vaccines has resulted AMT that 1-4 log lower thanAI3G vaccine. It is concluded that polyvalent vaccine with field seed isolates is recommended to be appliedin the poultry farm in Indonesia.
PENYEBARAN VIRUS VAKSIN ND PADA SEKELOMPOK AYAM PEDAGING YANG TIDAK DIVAKSINASI DAN DIPELIHARA BERSAMA AYAM YANG DIVAKSINASI Kencana, Gusti Ayu Yuniati; Astawa, Nyoman Mantik; Mahardika, I Gusti Ngurah Kade; Gorda, I Wayan
Buletin Veteriner Udayana Vol. 4 No.2 Agustus 2012
Publisher : The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University

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Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui daya sebar vaksin ND aktif galurlentogenik (La Sota) dan respons immune ayam yang tidak divaksin yang dipeliharabersama ayam yang divaksin secara intramuskuler. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancanganacak lengkap pola berjenjang (split time) dengan faktor utama perlakukan vaksinasi (TO:0% divaksin dan 100% tidak divaksin , T1: divaksin 50 % dan 50 tidak divaksin dan T2:divaksin 75% dan 25% tidak divaksin) dengan sembilan kali ulangan. Faktor tambahanadalah waktu pengambilan serum (minggu ke-0, ke-1, ke-2 dan ke-3) sehingga jumlahsampel adalah 3x9x4= 108 sampel serum. Ayam umur 3 hari divaksinasi ND secara tetesmata kemudian dilakukan vaksinasi intramuskuler pada umur 21 hari sesuai perlakuan.Titer antibodi ND pada ayam perlakuan diuji dengan uji hambatanhemaglutinasi/hemagglutination inhibition (HI) satu hari sebelum vaksinasi, serta satuminggu, dua minggu, dan tiga minggu setelah vaksinasi. Data tentang titer antibodi (GMTHI)terhadap ND ditransformasi dengan akar X+1, dianalisis dengan sidik ragam dandilanjutkan dengan uji jarak berganda Duncan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa titerantibodi terhadap ND pada ayam yang tidak divaksin dipengaruhi oleh persentase ayamyang divaksin. Antibodi HI unit terhadap virus ND pada ayam yang tidak divaksinasimulai teramati pada minggu ke-2 dan ke-3 setelah vaksinasi. Titer antibodi ayam yangtidak divaksinasi pada kelompok ayam yang hanya divaksin 75% mempunyai titer antibodiyang nyata lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kelompok ayam yang divaksin 50% dankontrol (P<0,05). Pada kelompok ayam yang divaksin 50%, titer antibody ND pada ayamyang tidak divaksin secara statistik berbeda tidak nyata dibandingkan dengan kelompokyang divaksin 0% (P>0,05). Pada minggu ke tiga, titer antibody ND ayam yang tidakdivaksinasi pada kelompok ayam yang divaksin 75% nyata lebih tinggi dibandingkandengan pada kelompok ayam yang divaksin 50% (P,0,05). Vaksin ND aktif lentogeik LaSota dapat menyebar dari ayam yang divaksin secara intramuskuler kea yam yang tidakdivaksin
KINETIKA IMMUNOGLOBULIN KUNING TELUR ANTIPARVOVIRUS ANJING PADA ANJING (KINETICS OF ANTICANINE PARVOVIRUS YOLK IMMUNOGLOBULIN IN DOGS) Suartini, I Gusti Ayu Agung; Sendow, Indrawati; Agustini, Ni Luh Putu; Suprayogi, Agik; Wibawan, I Wayan Teguh; Mahardika, I Gusti Ngurah Kade
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 17 No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University and Published in collaboration with the Indonesia Veterinarian Association

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Abstract

Kinetic study on Anti CPV IgY has been performed on six dogs aged 5-10 months. The IgY was injectedintravenously at dose of 21.4mg /10kg body weight. IgY levels in the blood were determined by ELISA. Aresearch was conducted to find out the kinetics of Anti CPV IgY in dogs blood. The kinetics of IgY wascalculated by using regression analysis to determine the association on the levels of IgY in serum againsttime at injection. The results showed that kinetic parameters were calculated based on first order kinetics.The constant elimination rate of IgY was at the range between 0.007 to 0.015 / h. IgY concentration in thedogs blood was from 0.746 to 0.992 mg / mL. The half-life of IgY was from 1.65 to 4.01 / d. Volumedistribution of IgY was between 21.47 to 28,55 / mL. Total IgY in the dog bodies (AUC) was from 42,60 to142,00 mg / mL.h. The duration of the IgY in the dog?s body was 3.08 to 8.51 days. Clearance time of IgY was0.15 to 0.50 mL / h. In conclusion the kinetics of anti CPV IgY in dog?s body follow one compartment andfirst order model, which are only distributed in the blood with the half-life at 2.5 days, and IgY has lesspossibility to accumulate in the body compared to the IgG.
PERHATIAN PEMILIK ANJING DALAM MENDUKUNG BALI BEBAS RABIES Suartha, I Nyoman; Anthara, Made Suma; Dewi, Ni Made Rita Krisna; Wirata, I Wayan; Mahardika, I Gusti Ngurah Kade; Dharmayudha, Anak Agung Gde Oka; Sudimartini, Luh Made
Buletin Veteriner Udayana Vol. 6 No.1 Pebruari 2014
Publisher : The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perhatian pemilik anjing dalam mendukung  Bali bebas Rabies. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Desember 2010, di Desa Kukuh Tabanan, Desa Jagapati Badung, dan Desa Seraya Karangasem dengan jumlah responden sebanyak 500 orang. Cara pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah wawancara dengan panduan daftar pertanyaan yang ada pada kuisioner. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Jumlah kepemilikan anjing dari satu ekor sampai 4 ekor. Masyarakat memelihara anjing sebagian besar dengan tujuan untuk menjaga rumah (77,6%). Perhatian masyarakat pemilik anjing terhadap kesehatan dan perawatan kesehatan anjingnya, dilihat dari memandikan anjing, jumlah pemberian pakan, dan memeriksakan anjingnya ke dokter hewan masih rendah. Anggota keluarga yang sering  berinteraksi (memberikan pakan, memandikan) dengan anjing adalah ayah. Responden yang menjawab anjing bisa  dipegang pemilik sebanyak 93,6%. Berdasarkan atas jenis kelamin, masyarakat sebagian besar memelihara anjing jantan (84,8%). Anjing yang dipelihara dengan cara dilepas (64%). Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah perhatian masyarakat dalam memelihara anjing dalam upaya mendukung Bali bebas rabies masih rendah. Disarankan perlu dilakukan kegiatan sosialisasi dan  edukasi tentang pemeliharaan anjing pada masyarakat.
DETEKSI DAN SEKUENSING GEN IRON, IUTA, DAN HLYF PADA AVIAN PATHOGENIC ESCHERICIA COLI Ramaditya, Nyoman Anandiya; Besung, I Nengah Kerta; Mahardika, I Gusti Ngurah Kade
Buletin Veteriner Udayana Vol. 11 No. 2 Agustus 2019
Publisher : The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University

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Penelitian telah dilakukan untuk mendeteksi gen patogenik Avian Pathogenic Eschericia coli (APEC) yaitu gen iroN, iutA, dan hlyF pada bakteri Escherichia coli yang diisolasi dari organ pada ayam yang sakit di Bali, serta untuk mengetahui hubungan filogenetik antara gen penanda patogenik di Bali dengan di negara lain di dunia. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksploratif observasional dengan menggunakan enam isolat bakteri Escherichia dengan kode E2, E3, E7, E8, E9, dan E10 yang diisolasi dari ayam buras pada tahun 2018. Semua gen isolat dideteksi dengan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semua sampel positif memiliki gen iroN, iutA, dan hlyF. Sekuensing pada ketiga gen diperoleh hasil, bahwa gen ironN yang terbaca dengan baik adalah 659 bp, gen hlyF adalah 518 bp, dan gen iutA adalah 250 bp. Hasil analisis sekuens memiliki DNA yang homolog. Berdasarkan hasil analisis filogentik, bakteri E. coli patogen di Bali berada dalam satu klaster dengan bakteri E. coli patogen yang ada di dunia.
SEROPREVALENSI PENYAKIT AVIAN INFLUENZA PADA ITIK DI KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG Damanik, Estry Gusnita; Kencana, Gusti Ayu Yuniati; Mahardika, I Gusti Ngurah Kade
Buletin Veteriner Udayana Vol. 5 No. 2 Agustus 2013
Publisher : The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University

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Itik memiliki peran penting dalam penyebaran virus Avian Influenza subtipe  H5N1 karena merupakan reservoir alami virus dan infeksinya bersifat subklinis. Pendistribusian itik terjadi dari pasar unggas ke peternakan itik atau sebaliknya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan tingkat seroprevalensi virus Avian Influenza di Pasar Unggas Galiran dan peternakan itik di kabupaten  Klungkung pada saat yang bersamaan.  Sampel penelitian adalah serum dari itik yang tidak divaksin yang diambil dari pasar dan peternakan di kabupaten Klungkung.  Pengambilan  sampel dilakukan setiap bulan mulai bulan Maret sampai dengan bulan Agustus 2012.  Sampel serum selanjutnya  diuji dengan uji Hambatan Hemaglutinasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan seroprevalensi AI di Pasar Unggas Galiran dan peternakan itik di Kabupaten Klungkung adalah sebesar 81.4%,  perbedaan yang signifikan terjadi pada Juni dan Agustus tetapi tidak signifikan pada bulan Maret, April, Mei, dan Juli.  Seroprevalensi virus AI di Pasar Unggas Galiran adalah sebesar 76.2% dan di peternakan sebesar 86.7% dan secara statistik berbeda sangat nyata. Monitoring terhadap virus Avian Influenza berkelanjutan perlu dilakukan baik di peternakan maupun  di pasar unggas di Klungkung.
KERAGAMAN SPESIES DAN GENETIK BAKTERI STAPHYLOCOCCUS PADA IKAN TUNA DENGAN ANALISIS SEKUEN 16S RRNA (SPECIES DIVERSITY AND GENETIC OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS BACTERIA IN TUNA FISH BY USING 16S RRNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS) Dewi, Putu Mei Purnama; Besung, I Nengah Kerta; Mahardika, I Gusti Ngurah Kade
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 16 No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University and Published in collaboration with the Indonesia Veterinarian Association

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Abstract

Tuna industry belongs to high economic value fish of marine fisheries commodity. Bacteria found intuna might have impact on consumer health. The purpose of this research was to determine the geneticvariation of Staphylococcus in Kedonganan fish market, Kuta, Badung, Bali by sequence analysis of 16SrRNA. Staphylococcus bacteria was isolated from feces samples of 30 tuna. After identification with Gramstaining, Staphylococcus colonies were transferred to the medium chelex 10% for DNA extraction, 16SrRNA gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and electrophoresis. PCR results weresequenced, and the sequence obtained was edited using MEGA 5 and then BLAST was applied to confirmthe species. Genetic variation was determined by analysis of polymorphic sites with MEGA 5. The identifiedbacteria were Staphylococcus sciuri and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Genetic distance of two isolates S.sciuri are close. The Other species that were identified were Enterococcus faecalis and Macrococcus caseolyticus.Conclusion on this research is Staphylococcus bacteria and two species S.sciuri have many variation.
DIAGNOSIS AND MOLECULAR MARKER ANALYSIS OF BALI’S RABIES VIRUS ISOLATES (DIAGNOSIS DAN ANALISIS PENANDA MOLEKULER VIRUS RABIES ISOLAT BALI) Dibia, I Nyoman; Sumiarto, Bambang; Susetya, Heru; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Mahardika, I Gusti Ngurah Kade; Scott-Orr, Helen
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 15 No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University and Published in collaboration with the Indonesia Veterinarian Association

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Abstract

The direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT) was recommended by both World Health Organization(WHO) and Office International des Epizooties (OIE) as a standard diagnostic technique for rabies. Sincethe outbreak of rabies in Bali, it was ascertain the importance to develop a reverse transcriptase-polymerasechain reaction (RT-PCR) technique with specific primers as an alternative diagnostic method. The aim ofthis study was to develop a RT-PCR technique for rabies diagnosis in animals and find out the molecularmarker of Bali?s rabies virus (BRV) isolates based on the sequence of nucleoprotein (N) gene. Brainsamples were obtained during 2009 from 14 suspected rabid dogs and one cattle, where rabies viruseswere isolated. The dFAT was used to detect the presence of rabies viral antigen. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) ofrabies viruses was extracted with TRIzol reagent. Fragment of N gene was amplified using one-step RTPCRmethod with specifically-designed primer pairs and sequenced using ABI automatic sequencer. Multiplealignment of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed using ClustalW of MEGA 4.0program. This study found that twelve out of fifteen animal brain samples confirmed as rabies by dFAT.Similarly, a single band of 1215 bp PCR product for rabies virus was also detected in twelve out of twelve(100%) dFAT rabies positive samples. It is therefore evident that alternative diagnostic of rabies inanimals can be established using RT-PCR technique. The results showed that the RT-PCR has a very highagreement with dFAT. Polymorphic sites of N gene of twelve BRV isolates were identified at the position186, 501, 801, 840, 1068 and 1153. Bali?s rabies virus isolates have conserved amino acid (isoleucine)alterations at position 308 (open reading frame). Isoleucine distinguished between all Bali?s isolates andthe all of isolates from other area of Indonesia and other part of the world. This finding significantlydifferent as compared to other rabies virus isolates from other part of Indonesia or the world documentedon the GenBank. Accordingly it is proposed that it can be used as molecular marker and believed to be thefirst study of molecular marker of rabies virus in Indonesia.
IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI DARI IKAN TONGKOL (EUTHYNNUS AFFINIS) YANG DIPERDAGANGKAN DI PASAR IKAN KEDONGANAN BALI Dianti Violentina, Gusti Ayu; Ramona, Yan; Mahardika, I Gusti Ngurah Kade
Jurnal Biologi Udayana Vol 19 No 2 (2015): JURNAL BIOLOGI
Publisher : Program Studi Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Udayana

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Ikan tongkol (Euthynnus affinis) merupakan ikan konsumsi yang disukai masyarakat.Pengetahuan tentang bakteri yang ditemukan pada tubuh ikan ini sangat penting untuk tujuan kesehatan masyarakat dan kajian biologi ikan.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi bakteri yang berasosiasi dengan ikan tersebut.Bakteri dari usus ikan diambil secara aseptis dan ditumbuhkan pada Blood Agar dan Nutrient Broth. DNA total dari kultur agar cair diisolasi dengan chelax, gen 16S RNA diamplifikasi dengan PCR menggunakan primer universal dengan produk sekitar 1300 bp. Produk PCR dirunut dengan metode Big-Dye termination. Hasilnya disepadankan dan dianalisis dengan MEGA 6.0. Pada penelitian ini, 14 spesies bakteri yang memiliki > 99% kesamaan dengan data GenBankteridentifikasi, yaitu Photobacterium leiognathi, Uruburuella testudinis, Aeromonas molluscorum, Psychrobacter celer, Psychrobacer faecalis, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Vibrio gallicus, Bacillus megaterium, Vagococcus fessus, Shewanella baltica, Shewanella algae, Rothia nasimurium, Myroides phaeus dan Yersinia ruckeri. Peran bakteribakteri tersebut dalam biologi ikan dan kesehatan masyarakat perlu dikaji lebih lanjut.
VAKSIN GUMBORO MENYEBABKAN IMUNOSUPRESIF PADA RESPONS PRIMER VAKSIN PENYAKIT TETELO AYAM PEDAGING Kencana, Gusti Ayu Yuniati; Adi, Anak Agung Ayu Mirah; Ardana, Ida Bagus Komang; Mahardika, I Gusti Ngurah Kade
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 12 No 4 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University and Published in collaboration with the Indonesia Veterinarian Association

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Abstract

The variety of Gumboro live vaccine strains (hot, intermediate, and mild) are available inIndonesia. The immunosuppresive effect of these vaccines under field conditions is not known.This research was conducted to determine this devastating effect of such vaccine strains on theimmune response of chickens vaccinated againts Newcastle disease (ND). Sixty chickens werekept separately in five groups (i.e. V1, V2, V3, V4, and K). At the age of seven days, group V1, V2,and V3 were given hot, intermediate, and mild strains of Gumboro live vaccine respectively whilethe other two groups recieved no Gumboro vaccine (V4 and K). At the age of 14 days, all groups,except group K which were kept as a negative control, were vaccinated against ND. The level ofantibody produced in response to ND vaccination was measured in sera collected at day 0, 7, 14,and 21 post ND vaccination using a standard micro-haemaglutination inhibition test. Data of theantibody titers were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by Duncan?s multiple range test.The results showed that all Gumboro vaccine strains still retain its immunosuppressive nature onhumoral immune response in chickens that later vaccinated against ND. The geometric meantiter (GMT) of anti-NDV antibody of group V4 (unvaccinated againts Gumboro) was significantlyhigher than that of group V1, V2, and V3, i.e. groups of chickens that had been given varietystrains of Gumboro vaccines, at the first and second week after ND vaccination (p<0.05). Thedifference of this immunosuppressivenes among variety of Gumboro vaccine strains need furtherclarification.