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CHARACTERISTICS AND MECHANISM OF GELATINATION OF DANGKE CURD BY PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE Malaka, R.; Baco, S.; Prahesti, K. I.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan Vol 4, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar

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Abstract

Dangke is a dairy product which is known as traditional cheese of Enrekang District, South Sulawesi. It is made by heated clotting of buffalo, cow, goat or sheep milk with addition of papaya sap (Carica papaya) or pineapple juice. Dangke has been well known by South Sulawesi community but information is very limited regarding to its characteristics with standardized quality. The objective of this study was to produce dangke with standardized quality (physical properties, chemical properties and microstructure) so that, at the end, this product can become a certified product having specific characteristics, which is in turn can be introduced nationally or internationally as a genuine product of South Sulawesi. It is expected that this Indonesian cheese will be increasingly popular as Cheddar (England); Gouda and Edan (Netherland); Emmental and Gruyere (Swiss); Limburger, Cammembert and Brie (France); Gorgonzola, Mozzarella, and Romano (Italy); Brunost (Norway); Damiati (Egypt) and so on. Dangke was prepared using 18 L of raw whole milk and heated at 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100oC for 1 minute and coagulated by addition of papaya sap 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5%, and added 1% of salt. Curd was poured to Dangke cheese template and pressed until compact. The cheese was packaged riped at approximately 5oC. Dangke was evaluated towards physical properties (hardness, pH, elasticity), chemical properties (percentages of fat, protein, and lactic acid) and microstructure. Hardness and elasticity determined by rheometer, pH values measured by using a Hanna-pH-meter. Microstructure was viewed by a fasecontrast and light microscope in 1000 x of magnification. Level of fat and protein were analyzed by proximate analysis. Percentage of lactic acid was evaluated by titratable acidity. Result of this study showed that higher heating temperature decreased protein and fat contents, as well as lactose but increased pH and lactic acid. The best structure and the highest protein content of dangke was obtained by heating temperature of 75oC with 0.5% papaya sap.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RAW MILK AND THE RELATION BETWEEN SANITATION AND HYGIENE OF MILK AND LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES CONTAMINATION ON THE FARM PEOPLE IN SINJAI DISTRICT OF SOUTH SULAWESI Yuliati, F.; Malaka, R.; Prahesti, K. I.; Murpiningrum, E.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan Vol 4, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar

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Abstract

Listeria monocytogenes is pathogenic bacteria causing disease outbreaks of food origin (food borne bacterial disease) that causes listeriosis in susceptible individuals. Listeria monocytogenes often easily contaminate milk and other livestock products. The aim of the research was to know the physical properties of raw milk and the relation between sanitation and hygiene of milk and Listeria monocytogenes contamination on the dairy farm in Sinjai District South of Sulawesi. In this research, eight samples of fresh milk were taken from local dairy farm. A direct observation was performed on the hygiene and the cage sanitation during milk processing. Then, the physical quality of the milk (specivic gravity, alcohol test, organoleptic examination, acidity). Listeria monocytogenes was detected by culturing on Listeria Selective Agar (LSA) media. The results of study showed that raw milk was contaminated with Listeria sp. In general, the physical quality of raw milk was satisfactory, however the result of alcohol test of milk showed that it was not so good. The presence of bacteria L. monocytogenes in the milk did not cause physical changes either in color, smell, consistency, acidity, or specific gravity. The contamination was closely related to the condition of hygiene and cage sanitation during the milk processing.
SURVEY ON THE POTENCY OF COW MILK DANGKE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO BUFFALO MILK DANGKE IN ENREKANG, SOUTH SULAWESI Hatta, W.; Sudarwanto, M. B.; Sudirman, I.; Malaka, R.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan Vol 3, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar

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Abstract

The scarcity of buffalo milk caused farmers in Enrekang district switch to use cow's milk as a raw material for the manufacture of dangke. This study aims to explore the potential of dangke milk cows from various aspects in the field.  Information on population and daily milk production of dairy cows and buffalo, as well as questionnaire data of dangke consumers of Enrekang were obtained in Enrekang district, while data of dangke consumer of not Enrekang were collected with organoleptic tests and questionnaires. Determination of respondents Enrekang with simple random sampling while respondents are not Enrekang with purposive sampling.  Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, independent two-sample t test and chi squared test. The potential benefits of cow milk dangke compared to cow buffalo dangke is that with the same quality (moisture, fat, protein, ash, and pH value) cow?s milk dangke has higher raw material availability, cheaper price, easier attainability, widely accepted by Enrekang consumer population, preferred by the non-Enrekang consumer population, and also possess colour and flavor that is preferred by consumers.
PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EGG WHITE FLOUR PRODUCT OF FERMENTATION OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVICEAE AND SUCROSE ADDITION Nahariah, .; Abustam, E.; Malaka, R.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar

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Abstract

A research was conducted to investigate the influence of fermentation dose of Saccharomyces cereviceae and sucrose addition on maintaining the physical properties of egg white flour. One hundred and thirty five fresh hen eggs were used in the research which were randomly arranged in a factorial experiment of 3 x 3 according to completely randomized design with 3 replications for each treatment combination.  The first factor was the level of Saccharomyces cereviceae, i.e. 0%, 0,2% and 0,4% w/w, the second factor was the level of sucrose addition, i.e. 0%, 2 % and 4% w/w. The parameters measured were physical properties (rendemen, water content, pH, reduction sugar and color score). Data analysis indicated that increased level of Saccharomyces cereviceae decreased water content, pH, rendemen, reduction sugar, and color score. Sucrose addition improved yield, sugar reduction, color score, but decreased pH of white egg fluor. Physical chracteristics of egg white flour was similar to those of fresh egg white at all of combination of level Saccharomyces cereviceae and sucrose, but low of reduction sugar content and the best color score was obtained at treatment combination of both high level of Saccharomyces cereviceae and low level of sucrose addition.
THE EFFECT OF ADDING FISH OIL SUNFLOWER SEED OIL IN THE PRODUCE OF YOGURT FROM SKIM MILK ON CHOLESTEROL LEVEL OF MICE (MUS MUSCULUS) Purnama, A.; Malaka, R.; Ako, A.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan Vol 1, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar

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Abstract

This study aims to look at the effect of adding fish oil and sunflower seed oil in the produce of yogurt from skim milk as unsaturated fatty acids that can lower blood cholesterol levels are tested on mice (Mus musculus). Materials research is skim milk, lamuru fish oil, sunflower seed oil, starter plain yogurt Lb.delbrueckii subps. bulgaricus, penoptalin 1%, NaOH 0.1 N and experimental animals. Experimental animals used were 27 mice (Mus musculus) which 2-3 month old male and weighing 25-30 gr. This study used a complete randomized design (CRD) factorial 3 x 3 x 3 with the first factor is the percentage of fish oil (0%, 1%, 2%), and the second is the percentage of sunflower seed oil (0%, 1%, 2%). The results showed that the addition of fish oil and sunflower seed oil does not affect percentage of yogurt lactic acid, but very real effect on cholesterol of mice. Reduction of cholesterol levels of mice that is best mice given yogurt with the addition of 2% and 2% fish oil sunflower seed oil.
SURVEY ON CHARACTERISTICS OF PROCESSING AND QUALITY OF DANGKE MILK COWS IN ENREKANG DISTRICT, SOUTH SULAWESI Hatta, W.; Sudarwanto, M. B.; Sudirman, I.; Malaka, R.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan Vol 3, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar

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Abstract

The development of the processing industry of dangke milk cows in Enrekang district had an important role in support of the improvement of national milk consumption and absorption of milk cows of local farmers. The purpose of research is to describe of the characteristics of the processing of dangke milk cows consisting of methods of manufacture and storage, as well as the quality of dangke in Enrekang district. This research is a descriptive survey. The respondents are 60 people manufacturers dangke milk cows which selected by simple random sampling. Data on the characteristics of dangke processing collected through observation and interviews with open-ended questionnaire, whereas quality of dangke (moisture, fat, protein, ash, and pH) were measured by AOAC method (1995). Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Conclusion of this study is that the method of manufacture of dangke milk cows includes heating of the milk, the addition of papaya latex solution, filtering and printing of the curd, and packaging products are varied quantitatively cause the quality of dangke is diverse. Dangke storage method allows a reduction of the quality of the physical and microbiological dangke milk cows.
MECHANISM OF GELATINIZATION IN MILK PRODUCT AFTER ADDITION OF THE PASSION FRUIT JUICE BY ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROSRUCTURAL PROPERTIES Malaka, R.; Hajrawati, .
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan Vol 2, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar

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Abstract

The addition of certain fruit juices to milk products as a way to create new flavor has been known to also cause an interaction between the fruit juice and the components of the milk product. The mechanism of gelatinization in milk products as a result of adding the passion (Passiflora edulis Sims) fruit juice and by processing methods like heating and acidity will influence the final milk product. In this study, the mechanism of gelatinization is established through the observation of the products?s microstructure. This study was arranged factorially according to Completely Randomised Design. The first factor was passion fruit juice concentration (7.5 and 10%) and the second factor was ripening time (0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks). The variables observed were physical properties, which was done by the measurement of pH and lactic acid concentration. The changes in physical properties were monitored by observation of product microstructure by light microscopic with histopathological technique. The best cheese product was achieved with a passion fruit juice concentration of 10%. The product observed had a more compact microstructure at a ripening time of 3 weeks with pH of  4,29 and lactic acid percentage of 1.27
CHARACTERISTICS OF EDIBLE FILM MADE FROM DANGKE WHEY AND AGAR USING DIFFERENT PERCENTAGE OF GLICEROL Fatma, .; Malaka, R.; Taufik, M.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan Vol 4, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar

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Abstract

Composites of whey dangke and agar can form edible film. The downside of this edible film are fragile, brittle and inflexible. Addition of glycerol, which is one of plasticizers, may improve characteristics of edible film to be more elastic, flexible and not easy to become fragile. The proper use of glycerol will affect the characteristics of the edible film. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the percentage of glycerol to the edible film characteristics, including yield, thickness, tensile strength, elongation, and color. This study was carried out according to completely randomized design consisted of three levels of glycerol concentrations, i.e. 25%, 35%, and 45% as treatments. Each treatment was repeated 5 times. The results study indicated that the thickness of edible film ranged from 0.024 mm to 0.035 mm, the yield varied from 7.26% to 7.87%, the tensile strength was between 13.60 and to 4.20 N, elongation was from 33.33 to 80%, and the color of L was 88.86 to 88.81, the value for ?a? was between (-1.48) and (-0.94), and ?b? was from 4.19 to 5.56. An increase in the percentage of glycerol decreased tensile strength but increased elongation. The addition of 45% glycerol caused ?a? color change value (reduced green color). The addition of 35% glycerol caused changes in color values ?b? (reduced yellow color), but the increase in the percentage of glycerol did not change the thickness and brightness values (L) of edible film. It was concluded that the higher the percentage of glycerol added in manufacturing edible film made from a composite whey dangke and agar decreased the tensile strength, increased the elongation and changed the color values of ?a? and ?b?, but did not change the thickness and rendemen of edible film.
Effect of Lactobacillus sp. probiotics on intestinal histology, Escherichia coli in excreta and broiler performance Hidayat, M.N.; Malaka, R.; Agustina, L.; Pakiding, W.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 43, No 4 (2018): December
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (196.397 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.43.4.445-452

Abstract

The study was conducted to determine the effect of Lactobacillus sp. in intestinal histology, total amount of Escherichia coli in broiler chicken excreta and broiler performance. Research has been conducted using a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replications utilize 15 chickens. Lactobacillus sp. 5.8 x 107 CFU/mL was mixed in drinking water and also feed commercial concentrates together ad libitum. The results showed that treatment had significant effect (P <0.05) on weight gain, ration conversion, and final weight. There was no difference (P>0.05) ration consumption on doses of Lactobacillus sp. treatment 0 mL/days, 1 ml/days, 3 ml/days, and 5 ml/days. In general, the probiotic treatments of 1, 3, and 5 mL/days of lactobacillus sp. were better at villus height, villus surface area, weight gain, final weight, and feed conversion compared to control. Treatment a dose of 3 mL / d (1.7 x 108 CFU) is the best dose in providing optimal response to histology of the small intestine, and broiler performance. Treatment 5 mL/days has the lowest amount of Escherichia coli in manure of broiler. In conclusion, Lactobacillus sp. can be used as one candidate probiotic for broiler.
Carcass Percentage of Laying Ducks (Anas platyrhyncos) Supplemented by L-Arginine in Ration and Treated by L-Arginine In-Ovo Injection Syahruddin, Syahruddin; Agustina, L.; Pakiding, W.; Malaka, R.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 42, No 1 (2019): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2019.42.1.25

Abstract

This study aimed to measure the effect of L-Arginine supplementation in the ration of laying duck and in-ovo injection of L-Arginine during egg incubation on breast muscle dimensions and carcass percentage of local duck. A total of 500 fertile eggs were obtained from laying ducks fed ration without supplementation of L-Arginine containing 1.04% digestible Arginine and 500 other fertile eggs were obtained from laying ducks fed ration supplemented with 0.25% L-Arginine containing 1.29% digestible Arginine. The eggs were subjected to 4 treatments with 5 replications. The treatments were: 1) eggs collected from laying ducks fed ration supplemented with 0% L-Arginine and in ovo injected with 0% L-Arginine during egg incubation as a control (P0); 2) eggs collected from laying ducks fed ration supplemented with 0% L-Arginine and in ovo injected with 1.5% L-Arginine during egg incubation (P1); 3) eggs collected from laying ducks fed ration supplemented with 0.25% L-Arginine and in ovo injected with 0% L-Arginine during egg incubation (P2); and 4) eggs collected from laying ducks fed ration supplemented with 0.25% L-Arginine and in ovo injected with 1.5% L-Arginine during egg incubation (P3). In-ovo injection of L-Arginine was performed on day 8th of incubation by injection of 1.5% L-Arginine into albumen using automatic syringe with a depth of 10 mm. The 180 day-olds hatched unsexed ducks were divided and moved into the pens according to the treatment groups. At the aged of 8 weeks, a male duck and a female duck from each experimental unit were measured for live weight and carcass weight, then the right Pectoralis major muscle sample was taken for histological analysis of myofibril. The results showed that supplementation of L-Arg in the ration of laying ducks and in-ovo injection of L-Arginine during egg incubation could increase muscle mass (number, diameter, and surface area) of the myofibril, live weight, and carcass percentage of offspring ducks compared to control offspring ducks. In conclusion, L-Arginine supplementation in the ration of laying ducks and in-ovo injections of L-Arginine into the eggs during incubation could increase breast muscle dimensions and carcass percentage of offspring local ducks.