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Glycerol Utilization as Substrate for Ethanol Production in Escherichia coli Recombinant under an Aerobic Condition Pranata, Wahyu Suradi; Suryadarma, Prayoga; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali
Journal of Tropical Life Science Vol 8, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Life Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1142.696 KB) | DOI: 10.11594/jtls.08.01.14

Abstract

The utilization of glycerol as a substrate for ethanol production in E. coli recombinant harboring ethanologenic gens (PDC and ADHB) under aerobic conditions was investigated. This research was conducted by using E. coli BW25113 which compared the growth characteristics on glycerol and glucose as carbon source. E. coli can grow well on both substrates and it consumed glycerol faster than glucose. On glucose, E. coli occurred overflow metabolism that indicated by high acetate accumulation. Meanwhile, on substrate of glycerol the acetate accumulation could be reduced. Using glycerol substrate on E. coli increased piruvate accumulation, comparing with glucose. Therefore, the growth characteristic of glycerol was more effective. In E. coli ∆pta/pHfdh/pTadhB-pdc utilized glycerol substrate was able to accumulate pyruvate as intermediate metabolite for produce 2.18 gL-1 ethanol.
HYDROLYSIS OF CARBOHYDRATES IN CASSAVA PULP AND TAPIOCA FLOUR UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION Hermiati, Euis; Azuma, Jun-ichi; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Sunarti, Titi C.; Suparno, Ono; Prasetya, Bambang
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 11, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (450.895 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21387

Abstract

Cassava pulp and tapioca flour are potential sources of glucose. In this work, validity of microwave irradiation for hydrolysis of carbohydrates, especially starch, present in cassava pulp and tapioca flour was estimated as a non-enzymatic saccharification technique. Suspension of cassava pulp or tapioca flour in distilled water (1g/20 mL) was subjected to microwave irradiation at temperatures of 140-240 °C with pre-heating time of 4 min and heating time of 5 min. Solubilization rate of cassava pulp increased with increasing temperature of microwave heating treatment and reached maximum (92.54%) at 220 °C, while that of tapioca flour reached almost 100% at 140 °C. Production of malto-oligomers from starch in cassava pulp and tapioca flour was clearly observed at 220 °C. The highest glucose yields from cassava pulp and tapioca flour in this experiment were 28.59 and 58.76% dry matter, respectively. Variation of pre-heating time at 230 °C did not give significant effects on glucose yield from cassava pulp. However, glucose yield from tapioca flour decreased due to increase of pre-heating time. Microwave irradiation is a promising method of hydrolysis for cassava pulp and tapioca flour due to the fast process.
Potensi Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas) sebagai Larvasida Hayati Pencegah Penyakit Demam Berdarah Dengue Iswantini, Dyah; Riyadhi, Adi; Kesumawati, Upik; Rosman, Rosihan; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Rahminiwati, Min
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 16 No. 1 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (629.563 KB)

Abstract

Recently, Indonesia has big problem caused by dengue haemorraghic fever with A. aegypti as vector. Potential medicine and vaccine for curing this disease have not been found. The effective method to prevent this disease is the use of A. aegypti larvicidal. The chemical larvicidal has disadvantage for evironmental aspect. To solve this problem, the biological larvicidal has a good chance to develop. Indonesia has megadiversity which can be developed as biological larvicidal. Crude aqueous extracts and ethanol extracts of Jatropha curcas (Jarak pagar) seed and oil of Jatropha curcas were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Among all extracts, Jatropha curcas oil possessed a highest activity against the 3th instar larvae of Aedes. LC50 values of Jatropha curcas oil was 1507 ppm for 24 h and 866 ppm for 48 h. It was suggested that the Croton tiglium oil and Jatropha curcas oil possess larvicidal properties that could be developed and used as biological larvicidal. 
Application of Microwave Heating in Biomass Hydrolysis and Pretreatment for Ethanol Production Hermiati, Euis; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Sunarti, Ttiti C; Suparno, Ono; Prasetya, Bambang
ANNALES BOGORIENSES Vol 14, No 1 (2010): Annales Bogorienses
Publisher : Research Center for Biotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (505.18 KB) | DOI: 10.1234/33

Abstract

Recently, due to depletion of  fossil derived energy stock in the world, there are growing  interests in utilizing biomass sources of bioethanol. There are basically two types of biomass that are usually used or converted to ethanol, starchy and lignocellulosic biomass. The conversion of starchy and lignocellulosic materials are widely explored,  however,  there  are  still  some  drawbacks,  such  as  high  enzyme  cost  and  intensive  energy  needed. Therefore, lower cost as well as energy and time efficient process technology in biomass conversion to ethanol  is important in enhancing the use of biomass to substitute fossil fuel. Microwave heating offers some advantages to overcome these drawbacks, especially due to its quick heat transfer and its heating selectivity. In conventional heating the  heat  was  transferred  through  conduction  or  convection  process  which  took  longer  time.  Thus,  by using microwave, degradation of starchy and lignocellulosic biomass could be completed in shorter time than by using conventional heating method. The roles of microwave heating in the degradation of biomass, especially starchy and lignocellulosic biomass  and its relation to the hydrolysis and pretreatment of that particular biomass for ethanol production are reviewed and discussed.   Keywords: biomass, pretreatment, ethanol, microwave
PRODUKSI PEKTIN BERMETOKSIL RENDAH DARI KULIT JERUK NIPIS (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) SECARA SPONTAN MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT AMONIUM OKSALAT DAN ASAM Usmiati, Sri; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Noor, Erliza; Richana, Nur; Prangdimurti, Endang
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian Vol 13, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jpasca.v13n3.2016.125-135

Abstract

Pengembangan teknologi ekstraksi pektin bermetoksil rendah terus dieksplorasi karena tanaman sumber yang relatif terbatas. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk memperoleh pektin bermetoksil rendah langsung dari ekstraksi kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle). Penelitian didahului oleh dua tahap penelitian pendahuluan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap yang masing-masing bertujuan memperoleh suhu ekstraksi (tahap pertama) dan lama waktu ekstraksi (tahap kedua) terbaik untuk digunakan sebagai kondisi proses ekstraksi pada penelitian utama. Desain penelitian utama menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah tipe pelarut (P): P1 (amonium oksalat+asam oksalat, asam sitrat) dan P2 (amonium oksalat+asam oksalat, asam klorida), dan faktor kedua pH (K): K1 (pH 1) dan K2 (pH 2), serta sebagai pembanding adalah menggunakan pelarut P0 [asam sitrat, asam klorida; pH 2,0]. Ekstraksi suksesif dua tahap menggunakan suhu 100oC dilakukan selama 45 menit dengan pelarut amonium oksalat+asam oksalat, dilanjutkan 10 menit menggunakan pelarut asam sitrat atau asam klorida. Parameter pengukuran meliputi rendemen, derajat esterifikasi (DE), kadar asam uronat, kadar metoksil, kadar air, kadar abu, serta berat ekivalen. Dari hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa interaksi tipe pelarut dan pH pada perlakuan P2K2 (amonium oksalat+asam oksalat, asam klorida) dapat langsung menghasilkan pektin bermetoksil rendah dari kulit jeruk nipis dengan nilai DE 45,77%, kadar metoksil 1,53% dan kadar abu 4,77%. Pelarut amonium oksalat+asam oksalat (t1) dan asam klorida (t2) (P2) pada kedua tingkat pH menghasilkan rendemen pektin 10,0%, kadar AUA 19,21%, dan nilai BE 1878,82. Kadar air pektin sebesar 7,91% dihasilkan dari tingkat pH 2 (K2) pada kedua tipe pelarut. Untuk memperoleh pektin bermetoksil rendah dari kulit jeruk nipis direkomendasikan menggunakan pelarut P2K2 (amonium oksalat+asam oksalat, asam klorida; pH 2) pada suhu ekstraksi 100oC.English Version AbstractSpontaneously production of low methoxyl pectin from peel of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle using solvent of ammonium oxalate and acidThe development of extraction technology of low methoxyl pectin/LMP continue to be explored caused by limited the plant source. The research objective was to obtain low methoxyl pectin directly from the pectin extraction of lime peel (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle). The study was preceeded by a twostage preliminary researches using a completely randomized design, each of which was to obtain the best temperature (first stage) and duration of extraction (second stage) to be used as a condition of extraction process in the primary research. The primary research used factorial completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was solvent type (P): P1 (ammonium oxalate+oxalic acid), citric acid) and P2 (ammonium oxalate+oxalic acid, hydrochloric acid), and the second factor was pH (K): K1 (pH 1) and K2 (pH 2), as well as control was solvent P0 [citric acid (t1), hydrochloric acid (t2); pH 2.0]. Successive two-stage extraction on 100°C was done for 45 minutes using ammonium oxalate+oxalic acid followed by 10 minutes using citric acid or hydrochloric acid. Measurement parameters included yield, degree of esterification (DE), anhidrouronic acid/AUA levels, methoxyl content, moisture content, ash content, and equivalent weight. From the results of research, the interaction between solvent tipe and acidity level of P2K2 (ammonium oxalate+oxalic acid, hydrochloric acid; pH 2) could directly produce LMP from extraction of lime peel characterized by DE of 45.77%, methoxyl content of 1.53% and ash content of 4.77%. Effect of solvent of ammonium oxalate+oxalic acid, hydrochloric acid (P2) at both pH levels resulted pectin yield of 10.0%, AUA of 19.21%, and equivalent weight of 1878.82. The pectin moisture of 7.91% was produced from acidity of pH 2 (K2) on both type of solvent. To obtain LMP from peel of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle it was recommended to use the extraction solvent of P2K2 (ammonium oxalate+oxalic acid, hydrochloric acid; pH 2) on temperature of 100oC.
Potency of (Poly) Acrylic/Carboxymethyl Starch-Chitosan Biohydrogel for Curcumin Oral Delivery Matrix Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Richana, Nur; Ruriani, Eka; Sunarti, Titi Candra
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 5, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (13.944 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/psr.v5i1.4067

Abstract

Objective: Biohydrogel has gathered great interest in the pharmaceuticals field. This natural polymers were biodegradable, non-toxic, biocompatible, and its specific ability to response environment change can be considered for the controlled released matric of bioactive compound. In this study, the biohydrogel was synthesized by graft-copolymerization of acrylic acid onto carboxymethyl starch (CMS) and chitosan. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of CMS-chitosan ratio on the biohydrogel characteristic. Methods: The acrylic acid was grafted on to the backbone (3:1) by using cerric ammonium nitrate as the inisiator. A standarded curcumin was applied to test the binding potency of matrix. Results: A higher CMS ratio in the polymer mixture (4:1) revealed the highest swelling power (16.9 w/w) and percentage of curcumin absorption (17.34%). All the samples have the pH-responsive swelling properties, with the swelling trend was observed in the order of distilled water > HCl solution > phospathe buffer solution. FTIR spectra and SEM micrographs has confirmed the graft-copolymerization of PAA/CMSCs biohydrogel by describing the appearance of peak around 1600 cm-1 and the morphology of granula structure, respectively. Conclusion: The graft-copolymerization of acrylic acid onto the two anionic natural polymer by cerric ammonium nitrate as the initiator has resulted a pH-dependent swelling biohydrogel, and it has the ability to deliver curcumin in stomach-targeted system.
DIVERSIFIKASI PRODUK FARMASI DARI MINYAK LAWANG DENGAN PENDEKATAN SINTESIS KIMIA Kapelle, Imanuel Berly; Irawadi, Tun Tedja; Rusli, Meika Syahbana; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF ESSENTIAL OIL Vol 1, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Institut Atsiri Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (399.071 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.ijeo.2016.001.01.03

Abstract

Indonesia merupakan negara yang terkenal dengan jenis–jenis tumbuhan penghasil minyak atsiri namun penggunaannya tidak banyak digunakan untuk diolah menjadi produk jadi seperti obat–obatan. Salah satu minyak atsiri yang sangat potensial dan diproduksi di wilayah Indonesia Timur khususnya Maluku dan Papua adalah minyak lawang. Tujuan yang ingin dicapai adalah membuat produk farmasi analog kurkumin dari minyak lawang dengan jalur sintesis kimia. Terdapat beberapa tahapan proses yang dilakukan, mulai dari proses isolasi safrol dari minyak lawang, proses isomerisasi safrol, proses oksidasi isosafrol dan tahapan proses reaksi kondensasi. Safrol diisolasi dari minyak lawang menggunakan metode kimia (NaOH) dan menghasilkan safrol 17,21%. Proses isomerisasi safrol menghasilkan isosafrol menggunakan sistem bebas pelarut dengan katalis alkali KOH pada suhu 120oC selama 6 jam diperoleh rendemen 77,56%. Piperonal diperoleh dari reaksi oksidasi isosafrol menggunakan oksidator KMnO4 sebanyak 65,63%. Produk analog kurkumin simetris (1,5-bis-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-penta-1,4-dien-3-one) yang diperoleh dari reaksi kondensasi antara piperonal dengan aseton. Rendemen produk menggunakan metode gelombang mikro pada daya 140 watt selama 2 menit adalah 53,3% (t.l=180 oC) dan metode konvensional selama 3 jam adalah 78,43% (t.l=191 oC). Produk analog kurkumin tidak simetris (5-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-1-phenyl-penta-2,4-dien-1-one) disintesis menggunakan dua tahapan reaksi kondensasi. Tahapan kondensasi yang pertama antara piperonal dengan asetaldehid menggunakan katalis basa dan metanol selama 3 jam diperoleh produk intermediate (3-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-propenal) 70,28%. Reaksi kondensasi tahap kedua antara produk intermediate dengan asetofenon menggunakan metode gelombang mikro pada daya 140 watt selama 2 menit diperoleh rendemen 82,82% (t.l = 104 oC) dan metode konvensional selama 3 jam diperoleh 99,55% (t.l = 111 oC).
Adsorpsi Surfaktan Nonionik Alkil Poliglikosida pada Antar muka Fluida-Fluida Adisalamun, Adisalamun; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Suryani, Ani; Sunarti, Titi Candra; Arkeman, Yandra
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 9, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (164.412 KB)

Abstract

Nonionic surfactants have been used extensively in various industrial applications such as cleaning, personal care, crop protection, paint and coating, textile finishing, emulsion stabilization, food and leather processing. In this study, we have studied the adsorption of three nonionic surfactants of alkyl polyglycoside, namely commercial APG from Cognis and APG produced from glucose as well as APG synthesized from sago starch, at fluid–fluid interfaces. The variation of surface and interfacial tension with the concentration of surfactant in the bulk was studied, and the data were fitted using a surface equation of state derived from the Langmuir isotherm. The agreement between ?(c) data and Langmuir isotherm model was very good.Keywords: adsorption, air/water interface, interfacial tension, surface tension
REKAYASA PROSES SINTESIS PIPERONAL DARI KULIT LAWANG (Cinnamomum culilawan Blume) SEBAGAI PREKURSOR OBAT KANKER Delvis Kapelle, Imanuel Berly; Irawadi, Tun Tedja; Rusli, Meika Syahbana; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Mas'ud, Zainal Alim
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 34, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2902.466 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2016.34.3.217-229

Abstract

Piperonal as a precursor of cancer drug (Curcumin analogues) can be synthesized from extract of lawang’s bark (Cinnamomum culilawan Blume) with multiple stages, among others: isolation of  essential oils, isolation safrole, safrole isomerization, and synthesis of piperonal. Essential oils were isolated from the bark of lawang (the water content of 46.2%) using a water distillation system with 1/3 volume of high boiler for five hours. Isolation of safrole from lawang bark oils was performed using NaOH solution and purified using reduced pressure distillation system at a temperature of 90-123°C / 1 mmHg. The safrole isomerization was undergone using alkali catalyst (KOH) without solvent at a temperature of 120°C for 8 hours. Oxidation of isosafrol was performed using KMnO4 in acidic conditions using a KTF tween 80 at a temperature below 30°C, and purified using silica gel. Results of isolation yield 0.94% with 14 components were determined through GC-MS, including 67.35% eugenol, safrole 13.96%, 12.61% methyl eugenol, 4-terpineol sineol 1.79% and 1.55%. The isolated safrole yield of 17.21% with purity testing and identification using FTIR, 1H- NMR and GCMS confirmed the product was safrole. The isomerization obtained yield of 77.56% with GC analysis indicated compounds of  cis-isosafrole and trans-isosafrole. The results of  oxidation obtained yield of  65.63% with a purity of 100% by GCMS and the 1H-NMR indicated the product is piperonal.
Ability of Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 isolated from noni juice in lowering Cholesterol in vivo Sumarno, Lanjar; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; M. Fauzi, Anas; Syamsu, Khaswar; Siswi Indrasti, Nastiti; Prasetya, Bambang
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (919.313 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.2.1.17-21

Abstract

Recently public’s attention to the importance of healthy food increases rapidly. Probiotic based food exploiting lactic acid bacteria is among the healthy food. Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 isolate from Morinda citrifolia fruit was assessed for its probiotic in-vivo by using Wistar  Rat. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 in lowering serum LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) of Wistar Rat. Twenty Rats were grouped into 4, each group consisted of 5 Rats. First Group was a negative control  given standard normal diet of 20 gr/day plus aquadest. Second Grup was a positive control given cholesterol normal diet 20 gr /day plus Propil Tio Urasil (PTU) 60 mg/kg body weight/day. Third Group was supplemented with normal diet 20 gr /day plus Propil Tio Urasil (PTU) 60 mg  kg body weight /day and  1012 CFU Lactobacillus plantarum JR64. Fourth Group was the same as third Group unless the probiotic using commercial probiotic Lactobacillus bulgariccus at 1012 CFU. Blood samples were withdrawn for measurement of total cholesterol, triglyceride, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol every week and measured by using spectrophotometer with 546 nanometers wavelength. The results show that probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 isolated from noni juice significantly (p < 0,01) reduce Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Triglyceride in vivo  and tend to reduce High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol.