Fadlil Munawwar Manshur
Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Pertumbuhan Dan Perkembangan Budaya Arab Pada Masa Dinasti Umayyah Manshur, Fadlil Munawwar
Jurnal Humaniora Vol 15, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Science Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (59.313 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.785

Abstract

Dinasti Umayyah adalah sebuah rezim pemerintahan Islam yang berada di bawah kekuasaan keluarga Umayyah yang berlangsung dari tahun 661 sampai dengan tahun 750 Masehi. Pendiri dinasti ini adalah Muawiyah (661-680), putra Abu Sufyan yang pernah menentang Rasulullah saw, tetapi kemudian masuk Islam setelah kota Mekah ditaklukkan oleh pasukan Islam dari Madinah. Pada mulanya, Muawiyah adalah gubernur Syria yang berkedudukan di Damaskus. Ia memberontak kepada Khalifah Ali bin Abi Thalib, hingga Ali wafat dibunuh oleh orang Khawarij. Pengikut Ali kemudian mengangkat Hasan, putra sulung Ali Ibn Abi Thalib, sebagai khalifah baru, tetapi Hasan yang tidak ingin berkonflik dengan Muawiyah, lalu mengikat perjanjian damai dengan pihak Muawiyah yang pada akhirnya Muawiyah menjadi penguasa tunggal masyarakat Muslim waktu itu. Keluarga Hasan hidup mengasingkan diri sebagai orang biasa, tetapi kaum Umayyah terus mem-burunya dan pada akhirnya Hasan wafat karena diracun (Ali, 1978:472). Muawiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan memindahkan ibukota negara dari Madinah ke Damaskus, Syria, tempat ia berkuasa tatkala menjadi gubernur. Ia juga mengganti sistem pemerintahan dari sistem demokrasi ke sistem monarki (Yatim, 1999:42). Kendati Muawiyah memper-oleh kekuasaannya dengan cara arbitrasi yang curang dan melalui perang saudara di Shiffin pada tahun 657 Masehi, tetapi ia memiliki karier dan prestasi politik yang menakjubkan. Keberhasilan Muawiyah mendirikan dinasti Umayyah bukan hanya akibat dari kemenang-an diplomasi di Shiffin dan terbunuhnya Khalifah Ali, tetapi juga karena sejak semula sudah memikiki “basis rasional” yang solid bagi landasan pembangunan politiknya di masa depan, yaitu dukungan kuat dari penduduk Syria dan dari keluarga Umayyah sendiri. Di samping itu, Muawiyah juga seorang administrator ulung yang berhasil menempatkan tokoh-tokoh penting dalam posisi-posisi strategis (Mufrodi, 1997:69-70).
Tradisi Penciptaan dan Penafsiran Kitab Islam Klasik di Pesantren: Tinjauan Sekilas atas Salah Satu Karya Kiai Haji Ahmad Sanusi Manshur, Fadlil Munawwar
Jurnal Humaniora No 1 (1995)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Science Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1161.799 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.1983

Abstract

Di Indonesia terdapat banyak karya keagamaan yang berupa kitab-kitabyang berisi ajaran aqama Islam. Kitab-kitab itu sebagian besar dikaji, diajarkan, dan dijadikan acuan hidup sehari-hari oleh para santri di pesantren. Dalam tradisi pesantren kitab-kitab keagamaan itu disebut kitab Islam k1asik (Dhofier, 1962:50). Tujuan utama pengajaran kitab Islam klasik (selanjutnya disebut KIK) adalah untuk mendidik para santri menjadi calon-calon ulama yang setia pada paham Islam di pesantren. Di antara kitab-kitab yang dicipta di lingkungan pesantren dan diajarkan langsung oleh kiai adalah kitab Raudatul-'Irlani fi Ma'rifatil-Qur'an yang artinya Taman Ilmu untuk Memahami Al Quran. Kitab ini (selanjutnya disebut RI) disusun oleh Kiai Haji Ahmad Sanusi, seorang ulama Sunda yang berprofesi sebaqai pengarang produktif kitab-kitab keagamaan, juga berkedudukan sebagai pengasuh Pesantren Gunung Puyuh Sukabumi.
RESEPSI KASIDAH BURDAH AL-BÛSHÎRY DALAM MASYARAKAT PESANTREN Manshur, Fadlil Munawwar
Jurnal Humaniora Vol 18, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Science Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (75.156 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.868

Abstract

Qashîdah Burdah is a religious literary work that got an honor reception from the people around the world. Therefore, it is no wonder that Qashîdah Burdah could attract wide interest from the world community in the form of scientific study; Qashîdah Burdah recital in the religious ceremony; consumer’s reception in the recording industry and art performance, comments and translation from the Arabic into various kinds of the world languages: English, French, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, and German. The Nordic languages cover of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, and Finland. The next is Russian, Turk, Persian, Urdu, Swahili, Chinese, Indonesian and other languages in Nusantara, i.e., Sundanese, Javanese, and Acehnese.
Kitab Kasidah Burdah: Tradisi Pembacaan dan Resepsinya Manshur, Fadlil Munawwar
Jurnal Humaniora No 5 (1997)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Science Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2344.095 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.1875

Abstract

Pesantren dan kitab merupakan dua entitas yang saling berhubungan erat.Dalam tradisl pengajaran agama Islam antara pesantren dan kitab tidak dapat dipisahkan, karena alasan pokok munculnya pesantren adalah untuk mentransmsikan Islam tradisional sebaqaimana yang terdapat dalam kitab-kitab klasik yang ditulis berabad-abad yang lalu. Kitab-kitab ini dikenal di Indonesia sebagai kitab kuning (Bruinessen, 1995:17). Di dunia pesantren kitab-kitab itu kuning dikaji, diresepsi, dan dijadikan acuan moral oleh masyarakatpesantren (kiai dan santri) dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Ajaran-ajaran Islam ini ada yang ditulis dalam kitab-kitab kuning yang bercorak sastra, antara lain Kasidah Burdah karangan Muhammad Al-Busin. Di antara pesantren yang mengajarkan kitab Kasidah Burdah (selanjutnya disebut KB) kepada santrinya adalah Pesantren Darussalam Ciamis.
The Connection between Arabic and Western Culture in the Rise of Populism Manshur, Fadlil Munawwar
Jurnal Humaniora Vol 31, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Science Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (672.755 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.44770

Abstract

This article discusses the rise of populism in Arabic and Western cultures as well as the connection between them. This study shows that populism in the Arab and Western world have several common characteristics: resistance against the mainstream, xenophobia, isolation, intolerance, hostility towards strangers, extremism, radicalism, anti-multiculturalism, and anti-globalization. The rise of populism has affected Arabic and Western cultures, as well as their interactions. Because of populism, Western culture’s views of the outside world, strangers, immigrants, and Islam has changed significantly. Western culture, influenced by populism, tend to be intolerant, isolated, xenophobic, and lack trust in multiculturalism. Meanwhile, populism in Arabic culture tends to be more anti-Western, anti-capitalist, and anti-liberalist. With the rise of populism, relations between these two cultural entities have become colored by tension, distrust, suspicion, and xenophobia.
TEORI SASTRA MARXIS DAN APLIKASINYA PADA PENELITIAN KARYA SASTRA ARAB MODERN Manshur, Fadlil Munawwar
Bahasa dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, dan Pengajarannya Vol 40, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Fakultas Sastra Universitas Negeri Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (112.486 KB)

Abstract

Many works of the modern Arabic literary contain the class struggle themes, especially the struggle of the oppressed versus the oppressors. Indeed, the theme of class struggle in the works of Arabic literary is moral and social mirror of Arab society itself. By reviewing the works of Arabic literature from the perspectiveof Marxist literary theory in mind that the works of modern Arabic literature is the representation of violent social class conflict within the Arab society, so the use of this theory can further the work of Arabic literature presents a more meaningful, authentic, and can avoid the marginalization of the Arab literary works of construction of cultural and ideological society.
PANDANGAN DUNIA IBNU CHAZM Al-ANDALUSY TENTANG KONSEP CINTA (AL-CHUBBUN-NAZHARY) ANALISISSTRUKTURALISME GENETIK TERHADAP TEKS “THAUQUL-CHAMĀMAH FIL-ILFAH WAL-ULLĀF” Farhah, Eva; Dardiri, Taufik A; Manshur, Fadlil Munawwar
Kajian Linguistik dan Sastra Vol 25, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/kls.v25i2.4132

Abstract

BSTRACT In 404 Hijri / 1014 C, Andalusia of Cordoba su ered chaotic situations not only in politics but also in other segments of life, especially in sex. Free sex ourished and remained arguable. Based on the situation above, Prince Ubaidillah bin Abdurrachman bin al- Mughirah bin Amirul-Mu’minin An-Nashir, the grandson of Khalifah An-Nashir, asked Ibnu Chazm Al-Andalusia to write a love story with its complexity in a book. This research elaborates the genetic process of the text “Thauqul- Chamāmah l-Ilfah wal-Ullāf” that is considered a great work by either Arabians or non-Arabians. This work is also considered to be the rst work elaborating love and its complexity as its theme. Furthermore, this research disscusses the view of Ibnu Chazm Al-Andalusy about the concept of love (al-chubbun-nazhary) written in the text. The research adopts genetic structuralism theory with its emphasis on literary text (intrinsic analysis), socio cultural background (historic social reality observation), and the writer. The method is dialectic method, mutual relations between structures of a literary work (the intrinsic features of “Thauqul- Chamāmah l-Ilfah wal-Ullāf”), historic materialism (socio cultural background of Andalusia at the time the work was written), and the writer of “Thauqul- Chamāmah l-Ilfah wal-Ullāf”. Therefore, the “Thauqul-Chamāmah l-Ilfah wal- Ullāf” analysis techniques can be done in three ways: (1) revealing one of the text “Thauqul-Chamāmah l-Ilfah wal-Ullāf” structures by its love concept theme to build up the text and understand the whole structures, (2) revealing socio cultural backgroung of Andalusian people at the time Ibnu Chazm lived and was raised, and (3) revealing the writer’s social groups and their visions by their hipogram and transformation works. This Ibnu Chazm’s vision eventually becomes the embrio of the text “Thauqul-Chamāmah l-Ilfah wal-Ullāf”. The result of the analysis concluded by revealing the issue described in the second and third ways can be used to understand the concept of love in the text “Thauqul-Chamāmah l-Ilfah wal-Ullāf”. Eventually this research reveals that Ibnu Chazm’s direct observation to the people of Andalusia where he lived and was raised initiated the genetic process of the text. He formulated what he gained from his observation to be his vision. This vision became the base of “Thauqul-Chamāmah Fil-Ilfah wal-Ullāf”. The conclusion of the research is that according to Ibnu Chazm, most people relate loves to syahwat, free sex, porns, and things like that. However, hesees talking about love as expressing one’s tender feeling from the bottom of his heart to nd the truth of love but not to do disgrace and not to do something forbidden by the syariah because love exists in one’s heart and soul. Meanwhile, Allah SWT holds his heart. Love is about heart and heart belongs to Allah SWT. Therefore, according to Ibnu Chazm, the concept of love must be based on syariah. In another word, the theory of love, the cause of love, expressing love, mantaining love, meeting and “leaving” the one we love must be based on Al Quran and Hadits. Key Words : Andalusia, Political chaos, Free sex, Genetic structuralism, Dialectic method, Direct observation, Historic reality, Vision, The concept of love based on syariah.  
TASAWUF DAN SASTRA TASAWUF DALAM KEHIDUPAN PESANTREN Manshur, Fadlil Munawwar
Jurnal Humaniora Vol 11, No 1 (1999)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Science Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1754.127 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.631

Abstract

Ajaran Islam yang paling dekat dengan sastra adalah tasawuf. Tasawuf menuntun, mengarahkan, dan membimbing umat manusia dalam semesta kehidupan yang mengutamakan kedekatan dan kemesraan makhluk dengan AI-Khaliq . Hubungan makhluk-Al-Khaliq itu diungkapkan oleh manusia melalui sarana bahasa dan perilaku kemakhlukannya . Melalui sarana bahasa, manusia dapat mengekspresikan ketakutan, kecemburuan, dan kemesraannya kepada AI-Khaliq dengan untaian kalimat yang indah dan mempesona . Melalui sarana perilaku, manusia dapat menunjukkan ketundukan dan kerendahannya di hadapan AI-Khaliq . Sarana-sarana hubungan manusia dengan Tuhan itulah yang dapat diekspresikan dengan entitas sastra . Istilah sastra tasawuf pada hakikatnya adalah sastra Islam karena tasawuf merupakan bagian kecil dari ajaran Islam, atau disebut juga sastra kitab karena dalam tradisi keilmuan Islam banyak ajaran Islam yang ditulis dalam kitab-kitab . Bisa juga sastra tasawuf disebut sastra pesantren karena santri-santri di pesantren banyak yang mengamalkan ajaran tasawuf melalui tarekat- tarekat . Jadi, tasawuf clan sastra tasawuf merupakan dua entitas yang berbeda, yang dalam kehidupan pesantren dua entias itu dipelajari dan diresepsi oleh para santri.
TEORI DIALOGISME BAKHTIN DAN KONSEP-KONSEP METODOLOGISNYA Manshur, Fadlil Munawwar
SASDAYA: Gadjah Mada Journal of Humanities Vol 1, No 2 (2017): MEI
Publisher : Unit Penelitian dan Publikasi Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/sasdayajournal.27785

Abstract

This paper discusses the theory advanced by Bakhtin about dialogism and methodological concepts. This theory to formulate the concept of human existence on the other, which is based on the idea that humans judge him from the viewpoint of others. Humans understand the moments of consciousness and take it into account through the eyes of others. According to this theory, the essence of human life is a dialogue. The Method of heteroglossia talks about signs in the universe of individuals because of the word "heteros" means "other" or different, while "glossia" means the tongue or language. In this method mentioned that people are saying needs to be heard, and the author also has the same rights that words need to be heard. A word is born from dialogue to address the problems of life. On the other hand, Bakhtin sees carnival method has spawned a new literary genre, the polyphonic novel. The polyphonic novel is a novel that is characterized by a plurality of voice or consciousness, and the voices or the overall awareness dialogical. Polyphonic essentially a "new theory of authorial viewpoint". Polyphonic appear in fiction when the position of the author freely allowed to interact with the characters. The characters in the novel are freely polyphonic appear to argue with each other and even with the author.
Tangga-Tangga Pendakian Menuju Ridha Allah dalam Manâzilus-Sâ`irîn ila al-Haqqil-Mubîn Karya Abû Ismâ’îl Al-Harawy: Telaah Sufistik Manshur, Fadlil Munawwar
JPPI | Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Islam Vol 6 No 1 (2018): Januari-Juni 2018
Publisher : Graduate Program, Darussalam Institut for Islamic Studies

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Abstract

Manâzilus-Sâ`irîn ilâ al-Haqqil-Mubîn is a literary work of tasawuf which contains 100 steps of climbing to the pleasure of Allah which must be passed by man to seek His pleasure. The 100 maqâmât is divided into ten levels, each level there are ten maqam, and each maqam has their own meanings and functions. For the purposes of this study, only 20 ladders were studied due to space and time constraints. The problem in this research is how the researchers interpret and analyze the 20 steps of climbing based on the perspective of Sufism. The theory used in this research is the Islamic literary theory Taufiq Al-Hakim model that says that Islamic literature comes from Allah, dimension of worship, and mission of Islamic da'wah. Islamic literature comes from God because God is the source of all sources. The method of analysis used in this research is tasawuf method and moral method. The tasawuf method is directed at how the reader expresses the elements of the formal object contained in material objects to hone and educate the human soul and heart in worshiping God and in associating with fellow human beings. The moral method is oriented on how literature regulates human experience and assesses the extent to which experience affects its activities, namely the literary activity that produces Islamic literary works containing contents of Sufism that are suitable for the guidance of human life. The superiority of this book is also seen in the unique writing techniques because the author is able to integrate the verses of the Qur'an with his imagination so that this book of tasawuf looks strong from the way of processing the substance and from the side of the moral message. Thus, the teachings of Sufism in this book become more practical and easier to understand by the reader