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MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A RED STRAIN OF THE EGYPTIAN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL 1822) Iswanto, Bambang; Suprapto, Rommy; Marnis, Huria; Imron, Imron
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 11, No 2 (2016): (December, 2016)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (495.823 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.11.2.2016.%p

Abstract

Characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) strain introduced to Indonesia has not been extensively explored yet, especially the red strain. Previous studies suggested that at the same body length, body weight of the red strain was higher and it was more rotund than that of the normal (black) ones. These differences need to be further investigated to find out which parts of the body mainly contributed to shape the differences. The present study was carried out to explore morphological differences of the red strain of Egyptian African catfish compared to the black strain through morphometric and meristic characterizations. Meristic and morphometric characterizations in the present study were carried out following standard method for morphological characterization of Clarias catfish. The fish samples consisted of each 35 red and black table-sized fish samples resulted from inbred and outbred spawnings. Results of the morphometric and meristic analysis in the present study revealed that the red strain of Egyptian African catfish resulted from inbred spawning of red strain brooders was morphologically different from that of either parental fishes or the black strains. At the same body length, head of the red strain was bigger (wider and longer) than other strains, and its body was stumpy (more rotund and shorter than other strains), deviated from those normal characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish. Its meristic characters were also differed from those of other strains, assigned by reduced dorsal and anal fin rays number.
RESPONSE TO SELECTION FOR BODY WEIGHT IN THE THIRD GENERATION OF MASS SELECTION OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) AT RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR FISH BREEDING SUKAMANDI Iswanto, Bambang; Imron, Imron; Marnis, Huria; Suprapto, Rommy
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 11, No 1 (2016): (June 2016)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1787.817 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.11.1.2016.15-21

Abstract

Genetic improvement of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Indonesia for increasing growth performance has been conducted by Research Institute for Fish Breeding at Sukamandi through mass selection. Collection and characterizations of the founder populations, building the synthetic base population, first generation and second generation through mass selection were conducted during 2010-2013. Later, in 2014 it was followed by building the third generation. The present study aimed to find out the genetic gain in the third generation in term of response to selection for body weight. Fifty-two pairs of the selected (fast growing) individuals from the second generation were mated to produce the third generation. As a comparison, five pairs of average-sized individuals were mated to produce the control population, as a second generation representative. Larval rearing, nursery and grow-out phases were respectively held for 25 days in the aquaria, 30 days in the concrete ponds and 60 days in the concrete ponds. At the end of each phase, individual samplings of body weight were undertaken. The results showed that mean body weight of the third generation was higher than that of control population at the end of larval rearing phase (0.21 ± 0.26 g versus 0.20 ± 0.15 g), nursery phase (6.12 ± 2.93 g versus 5.80 ± 3.50 g) and grow-out phase (198.67 ± 82.82 g versus 165.22 ± 71.09 g). Those results revealed that response to selection for body weight of the third generation was positive, i.e. about 20.24% (33.45 g).
DISTRIBUTION AND EXPRESSION OF STRIPED CATFISH (Pangasionodon hypophtalmus) GROWTH HORMONE GENE (PhGH) IN THE ORGAN OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) TRANSGENIC FOUNDER Marnis, Huria; Dewi, Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni; Imron, Imron; Iswanto, Bambang
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 7, No 1 (2012): (June 2012)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (830.545 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.7.1.2012.11-18

Abstract

Faster growing African catfish can be produced by transgenesis. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and expression of growth hormone gene (PhGH) in various organs of the transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) founder (F0). Transgene was detected using the PCR method in various organs, namely pituitary, brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, stomach, muscle, caudal fin, gill and eye. Transgene expression levels were analyzed using the method of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), -actin gene used as internal controls. The results showed that the PhGH was detected and expressed in all organs of the transgenic African catfish founder. The high level of PhGH expression was found in the liver, pituitary, intestine and brain; smaller amounts were detectable in muscle, spleen, kidneys, heart, and stomach, caudal fin, gill and eyes, range from 0.02-0.75 PhGH/-actin mRNA. The expression levels of PhGH had positive correlation with tissue and body size (P<0.05).
ASSOCIATION OF MICROSATELLITE GENETIC DIVERSITY WITH GROWTH RELATED TRAITS IN THE BASE POPULATION OF AFRICAN CATFISH, Clarias gariepinus, BREEDING PROGRAM Imron, Imron; Iswanto, Bambang; Ridzwan, Narita Syawalia; Suprapto, Rommy; Marnis, Huria
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 10, No 1 (2015): (June 2015)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (182.471 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.10.1.2015.1-11

Abstract

Genetic diversity at molecular level has been assumed to correlate with fitness related traits. However, accumulating evidences showed that the nature of that correlation has been variable. This study was aimed to explore the nature and possible mechanisms underlying that correlation by focusing on growth related traits in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus using microsatellite molecular markers. Fifty individual African catfish of 110 days-old were sampled and subjected to both morphological and molecular analyses. The standard length, total length and body weight as well as allelic scores of six microsatellite loci were measured on each individual. Indices of microsatellite diversity, namely individual multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) and mean microsatellite allelic distance (mean d2) for individual level, and mean observed heterozygosity (Ho) and single-locus heterozygosity (ho) for group level, were correlated to those traits using Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The Hardy Weinberg and linkage disequilibrium were carried out to explore the possible mechanisms underlying correlation. The results showed that at individual level the MLH and mean d2 were weakly correlated with standard length, (r=0.25, p<0.05) and (r=0.24, p<0.05), respectively. At group level, Ho was correlated with both standard and total length (r=0.99, p<0.05) while ho identified two loci, Cga03 and Cga06 significantly contributed to the correlation. Combining all relevant information, present study identified associative overdominance, both local effect and general effect hypotheses might responsible for the observed correlations.
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL, 1822) STRAINS INTRODUCED TO INDONESIA Iswanto, Bambang; Imron, Imron; Suprapto, Rommy; Marnis, Huria
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 10, No 2 (2015): (December 2015)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1969.444 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.10.2.2015.91-99

Abstract

African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) has become a great important species in Indonesian aquaculture. Several strains of the African catfish have been introduced to Indonesia for aquaculture purposes, initiated by Dumbo strain from Taiwan in 1985, followed by Paiton strain from Thailand in 1998, then Egypt strain from Egypt in 2007, Masamo strain from Thailand in 2010 and later Kenya strain from Kenya in 2011. Since its introductions, there were no reports yet on their characterization studies. The present study was conducted to morphologically characterize the strains of African catfish introduced to Indonesia, i.e. Dumbo, Paiton, Egypt, Masamo, and Kenya strains. Morphometric and meristic data obtained were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis. Results of the morphometric characterization in the present study revealed that Dumbo, Paiton, Masamo, and Kenya strains were indistinguishable, while morphometric characteristic of Egypt strain was more or less different from those of the other strains. On the other hand, results of the meristic characterization suggested that meristic characteristics of all strains of the introduced African catfish were not different from each other. Therefore, to keep the genetic purity of those introduced strains, they should be properly maintained in isolated places.
EXPRESSION OF GROWTH HORMONE (PhGH) GENE AND ANALYSIS OF INSULINE-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I (IGF-I) PRODUCTION IN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) TRANSGENIC F-1 Marnis, Huria; Iswanto, Bambang; Suprapto, Rommy; Imron, Imron
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 8, No 2 (2013): (December 2013)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (655.581 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.8.2.2013.113-119

Abstract

We have previously produced F-1 transgenic of African catfish from crosses between founder transgenic female and non transgenic male. The aim of this study was to evaluate distribution and expression PhGH growth hormone gene transgenic African catfish organs and to measure the concentration of IGF-I in plasma. Transgene was detected using the PCR method in various organs, namely pituitary, brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, stomach, muscle, gill, and eye. Transgene expression levels were analyzed using the method of quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Plasma samples were analyzed for Insuline-like Growth Factor (IGF-I) using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The results showed that the PhGH was detected and expressed in all organs of the transgenic African catfish (F-1). Liver exhibited the highest level of PhGH mRNA (23 x 106 copies). The plasma IGF-I levels in transgenic individuals were not significant than non transgenic. The higher level of exogenous PhGH gene expression may not represent the production of IGF-1.
GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF the first and second generations OF FAST-GROWING STRIPED CATFISH (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage,1878) USING MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS Marnis, Huria; Tahapari, Evi; Darmawan, Jadmiko
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 1 (2018): (June, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (68.04 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.13.1.2018.1-6

Abstract

Genetic diversity is an important aspect of a selective breeding program to produce fish broodstock carrying superior traits such as fast-growing, disease resistant, and other traits. We have carried out a breeding program to produce a fast-growing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) since 2010. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic variation of the first (G-1) and second (G-2) generations of fast-growing striped catfish using microsatellite analysis. The G-1 and G-2 populations were selected individually from populations. DNA samples were collected from 40 ind. fish of each population and analyzed using five microsatellite loci (Pg1, Pg2, Pg3, Pg13, and Pg14). The results showed that the number of alleles per loci in the G-1 and G2 populations ranged from 4 to 7 alleles, with an average of five for each generation. The average of observed heterozygosity of the G-1 population (0.420) was lower than the G-2 population (0.495). Inbreeding level showed that the G-1 population was more inbred than the G-2 population. The study also found that both striped catfish populations had relatively low genetic variation. This result suggests that monitoring of genetic variation and better scheme of good spawning were needed on the next selection program to produce the intended fast-growing striped catfish.
MHC-II MARKER POTENTIAL LINKED TO MOTILE AEROMONAD SEPTICAEMIA DISEASE RESISTANCE IN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) Suprapto, Rommy; Alimudddin, Alimuddin; Nuryati, Sri; Imron, Imron; Marnis, Huria; Iswanto, Bambang
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 12, No 1 (2017): (June 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (497.4 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.12.1.2017.21-28

Abstract

One of the important issues in catfish farming is motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS) disease caused by the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. This study aimed to find the MHC-II marker potential for marker-based selection to generate MAS disease resistance of African catfish. PCR method was applied to identify catfish (body length: 7-8 cm) population that have MHC-II marker. Fish with and without the marker were then challenged by intraperitonially injecting of 0.1 mL/fish with A. hydrophila (105 cfu/mL). The results showed that the survival of fish having MHC-II marker (77.50 ± 4.00%) was higher than that of fish without the marker (53.33 ± 4.77%). Fish carrying MHC-II marker fish has also higher total erythrocytes, total leukocytes, phagocytic activity, and hematocrit levels than that of fish without the marker. The PCR results using specific primer for MHC-II showed a specific DNA band of 426 bp in fish having the marker, while there were no DNA bands in fish without the marker. Results of the PCR analyses showed that the percentage of progenies carrying MHC-II marker was 80%, while progenies from broodstock without the marker was 0%; this indicated that MHC-II marker could be inherited to the offsprings. Thus, the MHC-II marker could be used as a molecular marker of MAS disease resistance catfish.
DETECTION, TRANSMISSION, AND EXPRESSION cDNA GROWTH HORMONE GENE (PhGH) OF STRIPPED CATFISH IN F-1 TRANSGENIC AFRICAN CATFISH Marnis, Huria; Iswanto, Bambang; Suprapto, Rommy; Imron, Imron; Dewi, Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 9, No 2 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (313.658 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.9.2.2014.89-95

Abstract

In previous study, the fast growth transgenic founder of African catfish was produced harboring a growth hormone (GH) gene construct containing a stripped catfish growth hormone (PhGH) cDNA. This study was conducted to investigate transgene (PhGH) transmission and expression in F-1 transgenic African catfish. The transgenic founders (female) were crossed with non-transgenic (male) to produce heterozygous F-1 progeny. PhGH gene was detected in the embryo, larvae, and seed of the transgenic F-1 using PCR method. Expression levels of transgene in embryo and larvae were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. The transgene was detected in embryo, larvae and seed of F-1 transgenic African catfish. Founder could transmit PhGH gene to transgenic F-1 lines in ranged 36% to 48%. Expression level of Phgh gene in embryo was higher than that of the larvae; whereas in the embryo was 1.5 x 105 - 5.2 x 105 copies or 0.49-9.82 fold, while in the larvae was 1.1 x 105 - 2.5 x 105copies or 0.19-5.80 fold. 
THE ABILITY OF FAST-GROWING TRANSGENIC AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) ON PREDATOR AVOIDANCE Marnis, Huria; Iswanto, Bambang; imron, imron; Febrida, selny; Dewi, Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 11, No 1 (2016): (June 2016)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (567.204 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.11.1.2016.9-13

Abstract

Research Institute for Fish Breeding has produced transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) containing stripped catfish growth hormone gene (PccBA-PhGH) with growth 19.86% faster than that of non-transgenic fish. This fish has high potential to be released and utilized for fish farming sector to increase national production. However, there is not yet information about environmental risk of this fish. One of the major fitness traits determining potential environmental risk is predator avoidance. This study aimed to determine the predator avoidance ability of transgenic African catfish in an experimental laboratory condition. In this study, thirty five individuals each of transgenic and non-transgenic with body weight of about 0.1 ± 0.019 g were communally stocked in 60 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm aquarium with limited feeding frequency (ad libitum twice a day). One day after the fish were stocked, the predators were added to each aquarium. The non-transgenic and transgenic with body weight of 1.0 ± 0.024 g were stocked as predators as many as five individual in each aquarium. After approximately two weeks of predation, all remaining fish were collected for transgenic verification by PCR method. Genomic DNA was isolated from fin tissue of individually survivors. The results of this study showed that the transgenic fish had worse predator avoidance and lower cannibal than non-transgenic (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in growth performance between transgenic and non-transgenic African catfish (P>0.05) in limited food. The transgenic fish may have lower fitness than non-transgenic.