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PERIODS OF MOUTH OPENING AND YOLK ABSORPTION RELATED TO THE ACTIVITY OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES IN THE EARLY STADIA FROM THE SECOND GENERATION OF HUMPBACK GROUPER BROODSTOCK Andriyanto, Wawan; Marzuqi, Muhammad
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol. 4 No. 2 (2012): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (374.193 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jitkt.v4i2.7782

Abstract

The experiment was carried out to determine the exposure time of the first mouth opening on humpback grouper larval from F2 broodstock on hatchery until 10 DAH (days after hatching) because this phase is a critical phase of larval adaptation from food endogenous (from yolk sac) to the ability of absorbing nutrients from external (exogenous). The eggs used were collected from natural spawning of second generation of humpback grouper reared in the tank size of 150 litre. The mouth opening was observed at 90 and 45 degrees under computerize integrated microscope and processed by a specific software. The rate of yolk absorption was observed in larvae from the beginning to the end of breeding, while the activities of digestive enzymes (trypsin and chymotripsin) were analyzed by enzyme assay techniques. The results showed that the period of mouth opening of larvae of humpback grouper occurred at 3 DAH with mouth openings of 45° as large as 0.103 mm and of 90° as large as 0.156 mm. In the early stadia, the diameter of yolk was 0.1875 mm, while the oil globule was 0.0537 mm. At 4 days after hatching, the yolk and oil globule had been absorbed, while the enzymes trypsin and chymotripsin were detected in the early stadia. The results also showed that the larvae was started to use foods from outside after the age of 4 DAH. Up to the age of 10 days, the mouth opening increased and the activity of trypsin and chymotripsin were still detected.Keywords: progeny larvae of humpback grouper F2, mouth opening, yolk sac, enzyme
NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY FEED WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PROTEIN AND LIPID ON CORAL ROCK GROUPER (EPINEPHELUS CORALLICOLA) JUVENILE Marzuqi, Muhammad; Anjusary, Dewi Nasbha
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol. 5 No. 2 (2013): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (190.085 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jitkt.v5i2.7560

Abstract

The aims of this study was  to determine the nutrient digestibility coefficient of diet with diertary  levels of protein and lipid on  coral rock grouper (Epinephelus corallicola) juvenile. This study used completely randomized design with factorial arranged in 3 different treatment of dietary protein levels i.e., 36%, 42%, and 48%;and 2 different treatment  of dietary lipid levels  i.e., 9% and 18%; with 3 repetition. The average initial body weight of fishes for this study was 29.19 ± 0.97 g/fish. Fishes were reared in 18 pieces of polycarbonate tank with water volume of 30 liters with stocked density of 7 fishes/tank. The tank equipped with aeration with water flow change of 20 liters/hour. Fish were fed 2 times per day on at satiation  and fish rearing for 150 days. Parameters measured were protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy of digestibility coefficient . The results showed that the interaction of protein and lipid levels that differ in feed ratio significantly affected on protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy digestibility coefficients. In general, feed with a protein content of 36% and 9% lipid  produced good nutrient digestibility coefficient  and  better economic value. Keywords: protein, lipid, feed nutrient digestibility, coral rock  grouper
Pengaruh Kandungan Protein Pakan terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Efisiensi Pakan Benih Ikan Kakap Merah (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Suwirya, Ketut; Pithasari, Ayu Indriani; Marzuqi, Muhammad
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 9, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.64

Abstract

The experiment was aimed to know dietary protein requirement and the effect of dietary protein levels on juvenile red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). The experiment was conducted in 18 polycarbonate tanks, with each 30 liter volume. All tanks were equipped with aeration and flow through water system to maintain good water quality. Hatchery produced juvenile red snapper of 9.4 ± 0.1 g average body weight and total length of 7.7 ± 0.4 cm was randomly selected and 10 fish was stocked in each tank. Fish were fed with experimental diets contained different levels of protein, i.e., 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, and 52%.The experiment used completely random design (CRD) in triplicates. Results showed that dietary protein levels influenced growth, feed efficiency, feed intake, body protein content, and protein retention of juvenile red snapper (p<0.05). The highest weight gain (263.7%) was found on fish fed diet with 40% protein. Based on the growth and feed efficiency data, it was concluded that dietary protein requirement for juvenile red snapper was 40%.
PENGARUH TEPUNG AMPAS KECAP SEBAGAI SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG IKAN DALAM PAKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN NILAI KECERNAAN JUVENIL IKAN KERAPU MACAN (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) Marzuqi, Muhammad; Giri, Nyoman A.; Agustina, Eva; Suwirya, Ketut
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 10, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.8892

Abstract

The aim of the study was to know the effect of soy sauce waste as substitution of fish meal in diet on the growth and dietary nutrient digestibility of juvenile tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). The experiment used completely random design (CRD) with six treatments and three triplicates. The initial body weight of juvenile tiger grouper was 4.03 g and total length of 5-7 cm reared in 18 polycarbonate tanks with each 30 liter volume. Each of tanks was equipped with aeration and flow through water system. Six formulated diet with dry pellet form containing different level of soy sauce waste as substitution of fish meal, i.e., 0%, 7%, 14%, 21%, 28% and 28% added 0.15% methionine amino acid were teste. The result showed that the utilization of soy sauce waste as substitution fish meal influenced absolute growth, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein retention (P<0.05), but not significantly different (P>0.05) on survival rate of juvenile tiger grouper. Dietary nutrient digestibility (protein) obtained 98.05- 99.69%. Dietary nutrient digestibility decreased with utilization of soy sauce waste in diet. These experiments concluded that the utilization of soy sauce waste as substitution of fish meal could be used until optimal limit 21%, while the substitution of 28% can’t used for diet formulation for tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus).
HUBUNGAN PERKEMBANGAN MORFOLOGI DENGAN ORGAN PENCERNAAN LARVA KERAPU BEBEK (Cromileptes altivelis) TURUNAN KE-3 (F-3) Andriyanto, Wawan; Marzuqi, Muhammad
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 14, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.9052

Abstract

Pengamatan perkembangan morfologi dan perkembangan saluran pencernaan larva ikan kerapu bebek F3 hasil pembenihan induk generasi F2 telah dilakukan melalui serangkaian pemeliharaan dari umur 1 HSM (hari setelah menetas) sampai dengan 40 HSM. Sampel larva diambil setiap hari dari 1 HSM sampai dengan 10 HSM dan dilanjutkan interval 3 hari sampai umur 40 HSM. Pakan alami diberikan sesuai dengan SOP perbenihan kerapu. Sampel dianalisa secara histologi dan morfologi dengan piranti lunak yang mendukung. Fase yolk sac sampai dengan pre fl exionsecara pertumbuhan tidak signifi kan, namun perkembangan morfologi dan differensiasi saluran pencernaan berkembang sangat pesat. Pada fase ini organ pencernaan larva sudah terbagi dari mulut, esophagus, perut, usus dananus namun belum sempurna. Pada fase akhir pre fl exion (13 HSM) pertumbuhan larva menunjukkan grafi k eksponensial (tumbuh cepat). Notochord terbentuk pada fase fl exion (18-20 HSM), sementara organ pencernaan terutama perut dan usus mulai berkembang. Perkembangan morfologi stadia larva kerapu bebek turunan ke-3 (F3) dari fase yolk sac sampai dengan juvenil memerlukan waktu sekitar 28 sampai dengan 31 HSM. Proporsi duri sirip punggung pada stadia prefl exion sampai dengan postfl exion memiliki panjang yang cenderung lebih tinggi dibanding kerapu yang lain yaitu 76%. Rata rata pertumbuhan panjang larva kerapu dari stadia yolk sac sampai dengan juvenil dicapai sebesar 0.41% dengan total panjang larva pada stadia juvenil adalah sekitar 18.42 ± 3.23 mmTL. Nilai standar deviasi yang tinggi memperlihatkan variasi ukuran pada akhir stadia. Larva kerapu bebek turunan ke-3 mulai memanfaatkan makanan dari luar sekitar umur 4 HSM dan saluran pencernaan mulai berfungsi optimal pada umur 28–31 HSM.
KEBUTUHAN ASAM LEMAK -3 HUFA DALAM PAKAN UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN JUVENIL KERAPU BEBEK (Cromileptes altivelis) Marzuqi, Muhammad; Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Suwirya, Ketut
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 7, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.9066

Abstract

ω-3 HUFA are essential fatty acids for marine fish. Deficiency of these essential fatty acids is responsible for high mortality, low growth rate, incomplete formation and disfunction of swim bladder. This experiment was conducted to know dietary ω-3 HUFA requirement for growth of humpback  grouper juveniles.  Juveniles (9.8-10.3  g) were reared in 100 l of polycarbonate  tank with density of 12 juveniles/tank for 8 weeks with flow through system. The levels of ω-3 HUFA (EPA +DHA) supplementation in the test diet  were 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0  and 3.0%. The results showed that the levels of ω-3 HUFA affected the growth and feed efficiency of humpback grouper juveniles (P<0.05). The growth of juveniles fed diet with 0.0-3.0% ω-3 HUFA were  significantly different with the growth of juveniles fed diet with 0.0 and 0.5% ω-3 HUFA. The growth of juveniles fed diet with supplementation levels of ω-3 HUFA at 1.0,  1.5,  2.0,  and 3.0% were 182.2, 168.5, 183.4, and 189.4%, respectively. Whereas supplementation of  ω-3 HUFA at 0.0 and 0.5% resulted the growth of  114.9 and 139.6%, respectively. These results indicated that the requirement of ω-3 HUFA for growth of humpback grouper should be around 1.0% in diet.ω
PENGARUH PROPORSI MINYAK CUMI DAN MINYAK KEDELAI SEBAGAI SUMBER LEMAK DALAM PAKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN JUVENIL KEPITING BAKAU (Scylla paramamosain) Marzuqi, Muhammad; Rusdi, Ibnu; Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Suwirya, Ketut
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 8, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.170

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to know lipid sources requirement for growth of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) juvenile. The experiment used ninety of juveniles reared in 30 l of seawater with flow-throught water system and aeration. Initial average body weight and carapace width of juveniles were 0.21 g and 1.05-1.07 cm, respectively. Juveniles were stocked individually using a supernet material in each tank. Five isoprotein and isoenergy formulated diet with dry pellet form containing different proportion of squid oil and soybean oil as lipid sources i.e. 12%:0%, 9%:3%, 6%:6%, 3%:9% and 0%:12%. Feed were given twice a day in the morning and afternoon. The results showed that proportion of dietary squid oil and soybean oil as lipid sources had significant effects on final body weight, weight gain, carapace width, feed efficiency and essential fatty acid of mud crab (P
THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND LIPID ON THE GROWTH OF RED SNAPPER, Lutjanus sebae Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Suwirya, Ketut; Marzuqi, Muhammad; Astuti, Ni Wayan Widya
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2009): (June 2009)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (873.112 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.4.1.2009.33-40

Abstract

Red snapper, Lutjanus sebae is favored in mariculture activities because it has a relatively good market and price. Technology for big scale seed production of this species has been developed and is now adequate to supply seed for grow-out activities. However, the availability of artifical diets for L. sebae is still a major constraint for grow-out production. Data on optimum dietary protein and lipid requirements for this fish as a basic information in feed development is not available yet. The objective of the present study was to find out dietary protein and lipid requirements for juvenile of L. sebae. A 70-day feeding experiment was conducted in 24 fiberglass tanks, 200 L volume. Each tank was equipped with a flow-through water system. Twenty five hatchery-produced juveniles of L. sebae (43.1 g BW) were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. The fish were fed with the experimental diets twice everyday at a level of 3% of biomass for the first 4 weeks, and then 2% of biomass afterward. Twelve experimental diets were prepared in form of dry pellet containing casein and fish meal as the main protein sources. Experimental diet had 4 levels of crude protein (32%, 37%, 42%, and 47%) and each protein level consisted of 3 levels of lipid (7%, 12%, and 17%). The experiment employed factorial method with completely random design using 12 combination treatments and 2 replications for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that there was no significant effect of dietary protein and lipid on growth, feed consumption, and feed efficiency of tested fish. Growth and feed efficiency of fish fed on diet containing 42% and 47% crude protein were significantly higher than that of fish fed on diet containing 32% and 37% crude protein. High lipid content in the diet (17%) resulted in poor growth and poor feed efficiency. This data indicates that Lutjanus sebae has limited ability to utilize dietary lipid as an energy source. Result of the present study recommends that dietary protein and lipid requirement for good growth of L. sebae should be 42% and 12%, respectively.
APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF SELECTED FEED INGREDIENTS IN DIETS FOR MUD CRAB (Scylla paramamosain) Suwirya, Ketut; Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Marzuqi, Muhammad; Sagala, Sophia Lasma
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 2, No 1 (2007): (June 2007)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (38.697 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.2.1.2007.1-5

Abstract

Cultured mud crabs (Scylla spp.) are commonly fed with ‘trash’ fish. Insufficient supply, high cost and variable quality of ‘trash’ fish has lead to a need to develop costeffective and environmentally friendly formulated diets. This study was conducted to determine quality of selected feed ingredients as protein sources in mud crab diets based on their nutrient composition and digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD), crude protein, lipid and energy. The digestibility coefficients for ADMD ranged from 82.46% to 89.20%. Animal-based feedstuffs such as shrimp head, tiny shrimp and squid liver meal had higher ADMD values than fish meal. Of the plant-based feedstuffs, soy bean meal had the highest ADMD values (89.20%) and corn gluten had the lowest (82.46%). Corn gluten had the lowest protein digestibility (78.81%) and soy bean meal had the highest (96.05%). The lowest energy digestibility (71.13%) was obtained in corn gluten meal. Soy bean meal had a higher energy digestibility value (98.48%) than fish meal (85.95%). All animal meal sources had similar energy digestibility values (85.86%—92.09%).
Dietary Methionine Requirement for Growth of Juvenile Humpback Grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Suwirya, Ketut; Marzuqi, Muhammad
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 1, No 2 (2006): (December 2006)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (532.203 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.1.2.2006.79-86

Abstract

An experiment to find out amino acid methionine requirement for growth of juvenile humpback grouper has been conducted in 18 polycarbonate 100 L tanks. Each tank was equipped with flow-through water system. Twelve juveniles of humpback grouper (5.6 ± 0.7 g each) were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. Juveniles humpback grouper for the experiment were purchased from back yard hatchery in Gondol. Fish fed test diets twice everyday at satiation level for 49 days. Test diets were prepared as dry pellet with casein and fish meal as the intact protein sources, supplemented with the mixture of crystalline L-amino acids to correspond to the amino acid pattern found in the whole body protein of the juvenile humpback grouper, except methionine. Basal diet (diet-1) containing 0.86% methionine was supplied from casein and fish meal. Graded level (0.3%) of L-methionine was added to the basal diet to get the final methionine level in each test diet of 0.86%, 1.16%, 1.46%, 1.76%, 2.06%, and 2.36 %. The experiment was designed according to completely random design (CRD) with 6 treatments (methionine levels) and three replicates for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that dietary methionine content influenced final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, protein retention, and body protein content of juvenile humpback grouper. Optimum dietary methionine for juvenile humpback grouper was calculated using broken line regression analysis.  Optimum dietary methionine requirement for growth of juvenile humpback grouper was 1.18% (2.41% of dietary protein) and 1.16% (2.37% of dietary protein) based on weight gain data and feed efficiency, respectively.