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A Model to investigate Performance of Orthogonal Frequency Code Division Multiplexing Nasaruddin, .; Melinda, .; Fitria Sari, Ellsa
TELKOMNIKA Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control Vol 10, No 3: September 2012
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

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Abstract

OFCDM is an attractive multiple access scheme for high data rate application in Fourth-generation (4G) wireless communication system. Previously, several researches were only investigated the performance of OFCDM based on variable spreading factor. However, there are several system parameters may affected the performance of OFCDM. Therefore, this paper investigates the impact of several parameters on the performance system of OFCDMA over Rayleigh Fading channel as a realistic channel in wireless communications.The simulation system model of OFCDM is introduced. The computer simulation is developed by using MATLAB programming in order to show the impact of several parameters for OFCDMs performance including number of carriers, size of symbol, symbol rate, bit rate, size of guard interval and spreading factor. The simulation results show that the higher number of carriers, larger size of symbol, higher symbol rate, higher bit rate and larger spreading factor are giving the better systems performance in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER). However, the larger guard interval is giving the worst systems performance.So all the parameters should be considered in the implementation of OFCDM for the 4G wireless communication system.
Exertional Heatstroke, Asesmen Cepat Dan Penatalaksanaan Tepat: Laporan Kasus Melinda, .; Yofrido, Filipus Michael; Setiawan, Philia
JURNAL WIDYA MEDIKA Vol 5, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK WIDYA MANDALA SURABAYA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (868.649 KB) | DOI: 10.33508/jwm.v5i1.2001

Abstract

Heatstroke is the most severe heat illness which homeostatic thermoregulatory mechanism is failed, characterized by an elevation of the core body temperature above 40 oC, central nervous system dysfunction, and possible multi-organ failure. Heatstroke is the third leading cause of death among athletes. Exertional heatstroke (EHS) is exercise-induced; usually affects young healthy people during strenuous physical activity and have not acclimatized to environmental heat stress. Frequently encountered complications include encephalopathy, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, acute kidney injury, hypoglycemia, intestinal ishemia or infarction, pancreatic injury, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hypocalcemia, lactic acidosis, and hepatic failure. Immediate cooling is the cornerstone of treatment which evaporative cooling is preferred. Aspiration and seizure are common; airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation have to be adequately maintained. Crystalloid-fluid resuscitation is essential, averaging 1200 mL in first 4 hours. Systemic complications of heatstroke should be well-managed to prevent worse outcome. A case of 32-years-old man with no significant medical history was brought to emergency department after collapsing while running into the 20-kilometres marathon. He was unresponsive (GCS E1V2M1), had serial generalized seizure and hematemesis-melena. On primary survey, the patient was shocked (BP 67/24 mmHg, HR 165 bpm, cold extremity), tachypnea (41/min), hyperthermia (40.5oC rectally), SpO2 95% on simple mask 10 L/min. His laboratory results showed full-blown complications of heatstroke. Immediate rehydration therapy using saline solution and colloid solution intravenously was started, followed with blood or blood component transfusion. Tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation were performed. During the intensive treatment, he became fully conscious and was extubated on hospital day 7. He was hemodynamically stable without any support, but developed multi-organ failure. Unfortunately, on twentieth day, he was cardiac arrest during hemodialysis and died four days later.