I Gede Mudana
Doctorate Degree in Tourism Udayana University

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ENTREPRENEURAL FIGURE OF MOUNT AGUNG TREKKING GUIDES Mudana, I Gede; Sutama, I Ketut; Widhari, Cokorda Istri Sri
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Volume 10, Number 3, August 2017
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/cs.2017.v10.i03.p05

Abstract

Mount Agung with an altitude of 3,142 meters from sea level stood at the coordinates of 8020'27 "S 115030'12" E, circled along 105 kilometers (65 miles), and classified as a volcanic type monoconic strato. The highest mountain in Bali Province was located in Selat District, Karangasem Regency. It got a last major eruption in 1963 and since then began to be climbed by climbers/tourists. Because in 1970s and 1980s some climbers/tourists very often got lost and accidents to death, since the 1990s a number of the local community members took initiative to serve the climbers/tourists who want to explore the mountain known as holy and sacred one. This study was conducted in order to understand and describe the pioneering aspects of entrepreneurial figure of the related trekking guides. It was a qualitative study with a qualitative data analysis. The results of this study showed that because Mount Agung was not an ordinary mountain but full of myths and stories that were supernatural, so the entrepreneurial practices of the Selat Village community appeared not only to serve the climbers/trekkers as usual but also to preserve the environment and ensure their safety as there were so many taboos in the climbing/trekking. All these facts can be seen from the depiction of the stories and experiences of the local climbing/trekking guides who had been doing their work for years. As entrepreneurs, they looked for income but, above all, environmental sustainability and the spirituality of the mountain werw not neglected.
GLOBAL-LOCAL ENVIRONMENT CERTIFICATION AT FIVE STAR HOTELS IN TOURISM AREA OF NUSA DUA, BALI Suci Murni, Ni Gst Nym; Anom Kumbara, AAN; Sirtha, I Nyoman; Mudana, I Gede
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Volume 7, Number 2, May 2014
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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Abstract

The research aims to examine the various form of environment certification, ideology behind the practice of green tourism (global award) and Tri Hita Karana (local award), and the implication of environment practice at five star hotel in Nusa Dua tourism area. The data of the reserach was assessed by postmodern critical theory (theory of discourse regarding power/knowledge, hegemony theory, practice theory, and theory of deep/shallow ecology. The method used in this cultural studies is the qualitative one, where the data collection were obtained through direct observation, in-depth interviews, and related documentation. The sample used 6 five star hotels which practise green award, of 14 established five star hotels (some hotel is not in full operation).  The results showed that (1) there are some variation of environment practice in five star hotel, (2) ideology working behind these practices can be seen from global ideology in the form of sustainable development deriving green tourism, and the local ideology, in the form of Tri Hita Karana (THK) used in THK award, (3) implication of global-local invironment practice in tourism area and surrounding.
BALINESE WOMEN IN THE CRUISE SHIPS TOURISM INDUSTRY Darma Oka, I Made; Antara, Made; Mudana, I Gede
E-Journal of Tourism Volume 2 Number 1 (March 2015)
Publisher : Doctoral Program in Tourism Udayana University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24922/eot.v2i1.19440

Abstract

As one of the most popular destinations for international tourists, Bali has attracted a sizeable and growing labor force in the tourism sector of the economy. This fact has triggered Balinese labor force to participate in such service industry. As a supplier of tourism labor force Bali has been increasingly successful in promoting the number of workers to be employed on cruise ships. The participation rate of Balinese women in cruise industry over the last four years has dramatically increased. The Balinese women?s participation in cruise ship employment has brought major implications for their life and culture. Generally, the present study aimed to provide an overview of Balinese women employed on board of a cruise ship. More specifically, it examined (1) the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats faced by Balinese women working in cruise industry, (2) factors influencing them to work in the industry, and (3) the implications brought by such employment for their life and society. The present study used quantitative and qualitative data collected through economic, social, and cultural approach. The sample was comprised of 200 respondents selected using accidental sampling method. To answer the research questions, data collection was conducted through observation, interviews, as well as focus group discussion (FGD). The data on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats faced by Balinese women on board of a cruise ship were analyzed using SWOT analysis, whereas the data on the factors influencing them to work in the cruise industry were analyzed using factor analysis. Finally, qualitative analysis was employed to analyze the data on the economic, social, and cultural implications for their life. The analysis showed that: (1) Balinese women were employed on board of a cruise linerpredominantly as support staff. The strengths of Balinese women cruise ship workers included being friendly, always smiling, being honest, being loyal, being responsible, and being highly skilled. Their weaknesses included having low motivation to get a high position, having low English proficiency level, and having insufficient self-confidence. The job opportunities were still high since women were generally reluctant to work in the cruise industry. The threats they faced included the lack of concern on the part of the government, agents providing poor services and unjustly treating applicants. (2) The factors influencing Balinese women to work in the cruise industry were of economic, social, and cultural. (3) The implications brought by the cruise ship employment for Balinese women were divided into three: economic implication, social implication, and cultural implication. Economic implication refers to their ability to help increase their family income. (b) Social implication refers to the fact that through employment in the cruise industry they could elevate their and their family social status. Lastly, (3) cultural implication refers to their contribution to the preservation of their own culture (i.e. Balinese culture).
THE MATTER PERTAINING TO THE POSTMODERN TOURIST PRODUCTS REPRESENTING THE AREA OF THE OLD CITY OF JAKARTA Entas, Derinta; Mudana, I Gede
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Volume 11, Number 1, February 2018
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/cs.2018.v11.i01.p02

Abstract

Cultural representation from the perspective of cultural studies is the concept of production, mediation, and reception. The common people know it as production, distribution, and consumption. The main topic of the present study is the appearance of the past in its current form. The appearance of the past using the cultural capital of the area is raised and packaged with new forms and meanings. The study focuses on the forms of the postmodern tourist products which represent the area of the Old City of Jakarta. The study uses the qualitative method in which the forms of the postmodern tourist products representing the area of the Old City of Jakarta are simply analyzed. The data were collected through observation, interview, documentation, and questionnaire. The data were analyzed interpretatively using the theory of cultural representation.             The result of the study shows that the postmodern tourist products represent the area of the Old City of Jakarta in the forms of the production process, distribution process, and consumption process. They all strengthen the forms of the postmodern tourism products representing the area of the Old City of Jakarta. The products include City Tour, Heritage Trails; Junior Heritage Trails: Fun Learning in History; Sunda Kelapa Cycling Tour; Kampung Arab Cycling Tour; Marine Tourism (Wisata Bahari): Sunda Kelapa Harbour and Onrust Island; Jakarta Heritage Trails: Free Old City Tour; Chinatown Journey Experience Through The Eyes of History; Old City Adventure (Kelana Kota Tua); Going Along the Fortress of Batavia City; Jakarta Urban Legend Tour; Past Time Trip (Plesiran Tempoe Doeloe). The different tourist products have been created by the tourism agents, and are packaged in such a way starting from historical facts to mythological stories that they all have enriched the tourist attractions in the Old City of Jakarta.
SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPLICATION OF BALINESE WOMEN WORKING ON CRUISE SHIP Oka, I Made Darma; Antara, Made; Mudana, I Gede
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol 8 No 4 (2015): Volume 8, Number 4, November 2015
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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Abstract

The Balinese people tend to work on the cruise ship. In the last four years, the number of the Balinese women who work on the cruise ship has increased significantly, namely, by 33,84%. This present study is intended to analyze the socio-cultural implication of the Balinese women who work on the cruise ship as part of the tourism industry. Qualitative data are used in the present study. The data were analyzed qualitatively. The result of the study shows that the Balinese people were proud of being employed on the cruise ship as they had the opportunity to see the other countries which they had never dreamed of visiting. The socio-cultural life of the countries they had visited was unique and was completely different from the Balinese socio-cultural system. The socio-cultural life of the Balinese women who were employed on the cruise ship can be divided into; (a) the social implication; being employed on the cruise ship enabled them to improve the social status of themselves and their families, and (b) the cultural implication; being employed on the cruise ship enabled them to understand and conserve their culture. They acknowledged that their strong cultural tradition could impede them from being employed on the cruise ship. The paternal traditional life which is attached to the Balinese people and benefits the Balinese people sometimes cause the Balinese people to hesitate to be employed on the cruise ship.
PATRIARCHAL IDEOLOGY IN WORKS OF VISUAL ART OF BALINESE CONTEMPORARY WOMEN ARTISTS Hardiman, Hardiman; Putra, I Nyoman Darma; Atmadja, Nengah Bawa; Mudana, I Gede
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Volume 11, Number 3, August 2018
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/cs.2018.v11.i03.p01

Abstract

Human problems are faced faced by Indonesian contemporary visual artists. However, the most typical are the problems faced by contemporary women visual artists, including those faced by Balinese contemporary women visual artists. Other than social problems, their personal problems also arise as women visual artists amidst patriarchal cultural construction. Balinese contemporary women visual artists, like Indonesian contemporary visual artists, are facing social problems and their personal problems as women. But, Balinese contemporary women visual artists also face very strong patriarchal (purusa) cultural ideology. This study aimed at revealing and describing the form of the subject matter of woman?s body as an expression of opposition in the works of visual art of the Balinese contemporary women visual artists; revealing and describing ideologies that operate behind the sexual representation of the Balinese contemporary women visual artists  and revealing and describing the contestation of meaning in the ideological sexual representation of Balinese contemporary women visual artists. This study using interpretive qualitative method produced, first, works of Balinese contemporary women artists which have traditional visual elements comprising contour, repetition, rythm, dialect. The works of Balinese contemporary women visual artists also have modern visual elements comprising spatial awareness,distortion, stylization, material character, unity, and personal identity. In addition, the works of Balinese contemporary women artists also have post-modern visual elements of trans-aesthetics, dialogism, and disorder. Secondly, the ideologies that operate behind the works of Balinese contemporary visual artists can be classified into three ideologies based on the forms and contents of the works of art. The ideologies are patriarchal ideology that is related to the theme of superiority,phallus symbol, and weak group; feminism ideology that is related to the theme of subordination, equality, and subjectivity construction, and aesthetical ideology concerning with style, which is related to the classification of styles based on time, place, form, technique, and subjject matter. Third, meanings which can be developed from Balinese contemporary women visual artists are the meaning of domestic body and the meaning of open body in the sexual representation of Balinese contemporary women artists. The meaning of domestic body is found in the works of Cok Mas Asiti, Ni Nyoman Sani, and Sutrisni. Sani while the meaning of open body in the works of IGK Murniasih and Nia Kurniati Andika.  
CARTOON VISUALIZATION AS SOCIAL REPRESENTATION IN BOG-BOG BALI CARTOON MAGAZINE 2011/2012 EDITION Swandi, I Wayan; Wirawan, AA Bagus; Artayasa, I Nyoman; Mudana, I Gede
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Volume 9, Number 4, November 2016
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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Abstract

Bog-Bog cartoon was a mass media production which was rich in strong artistic and Balinese cultural values. Social changes cannot be avoided since Bali became a global tourist destination. On one hand, Bali cannot be avoided from being attracted by the global strength; on the other hand, attempts are perpetually made to maintain its cultural identity. The descriptive method was used in the present study, which was intended to explain how the Bog-Bog cartoon was visualized and what meanings were hidden in it.
A DEFENSE OF LOCAL PEOPLE WORKING AS SOUVENIR VENDORS AND ITS RELATION WITH THE FEMALE IDENTITY IN KINTAMANI TOURISM AREA, BALI Widiastini, Ni Made Ary; Ardika, I Wayan; Mudana, I Gede
Jurnal Humaniora Vol 30, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Science Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (427.679 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.32196

Abstract

Souvenir vending is one of the jobs done by poor people in tourist areas such as Batur Tengah Village or better known as Penelokan, Kintamani, Bangli Regency, Bali to make their family survive. However, the souvenir vendors? existence is not only considered by tourism businesses as unacceptable, but it is also regarded as a major factor that hampers the development of tourism in Kintamani. In fact, the Bali Local Regulation No. 2 of 2012 on Cultural Tourism explicitly emphasizes that the development of Bali?s tourism is aimed to encourage an equal distribution of business opportunities and to obtain maximum benefits for the welfare of the community. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the reasons why the informal sector (souvenir vending) is used as the basis of the family economy, what is the practice of souvenir vending which has become the basis of the family economy, and also what is the struggle for vendor space in the Kintamani tourism area and its relation with the female identity. In this study, several techniques were used such as observations, interviews, and literature study to collect data. Research results show that the people in the Batur Tengah village choose to work as souvenir vendors because of their limited economic capital, education, skills, and time due to other life burdens, especially for those who are already married. In the Kintamani tourism area, souvenir vendors have to interact with various parties which certainly involves a capital struggle because each party has a different interest. As a famous international tourism area which has become a global Geopark, this area is highly contested for its economic, social, cultural, political, and environmental values. Researchers found a new paradigm that shows souvenir vending to be one form of entrepreneurship in a tourism field which is responded to by the people as a multi-purpose industry. The utilization of the informal sector is considered a family economic base by women in the village of Batur Tengah. Married woman are obligated to provide for their families hence they struggle as souvenir vendors in the middle of the tourism competition which has become more strict and less accommodative due to the new government policy. In practice, the community is very obedient to the elite community leaders who are considered as patrons, both by the men and women vendors. Other options to support their families are now very few and becoming less as the tourism areas are becoming more popular.
PITAMAHA: MIMICRY IN ARTS AND DESIGN DURING THE COLONIAL ERA Supir, I Ketut; Atmadja, Nengah Bawa; Mudana, I Gede
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol 9 No 1 (2016): Volume 9, Number 1, February 2016
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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Abstract

During the pre-colonial era the Balinese arts and design were dominated by the themes of puppetry which contained the Hindu religious teachings. When the Dutch colonial government controlled Bali, the Balinese arts and design changed. This present study is intended to explore the existence of the Pitamaha association and the attitude of the Pitamaha painters towards the domination of the modern arts and design taught by Spies and Bonnet. The qualitative method and the postcolonial theory combined with various other critical supporting theories were used in the present study. The result of the study shows that Pitamaha is the first modern association of arts in Bali. However, Pitamaha still integrated the pattern of the Balinese traditional association. In this association, the royal elites were involved as the mediators between Spies and Bonnet and the Balinese painters. Spies and Bonnet taught the modern arts which were different from and even contrasted with the Balinese arts and design. However, the Pitamaha painters welcome it. This could not be separated from the practice of teaching through hegemony and domination which contrasted with what had been desired by the Balinese painters who intended to maintain the Balinese arts and design. In such an ambivalent condition, they mimed the modern arts and design. The mimicry made was not intended to mime the modern arts and design; instead, the mimicry made was intended to interpret with reference to the norms of the Balinese arts and design.
COUNTER-HEGEMONY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BAWOMATALUO TOURIST DESTINATION, NIAS SELATAN, SUMATERA UTARA Waruwu, Dermawan; Mudana, I Gede
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Volume 11, Number 2, May 2018
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/cs.2018.v11.i02.p01

Abstract

Bawomataluo which is located in South Nias, North Sumatra, has unique cultural and natural tourism. The area is referred to as ?Bukit Matahari? (Hill of the Sun) as it is the area where tourists can enjoy the sunrise and sunset. However, the hegemonic practice performed by the government through its policies and the counter-hegemonic practice performed by the local people as the owner of the tourist destination have caused the area to be less developed. The problem of the study is how the counter-hegemonic practice is performed to develop the Bawomataluo tourist destination. This study is intended to understand and describe the form of the counter-hegemonic practice so it can widen the concepts of the related studies. The study used the qualitative method with the perspective of cultural studies. The theory of hegemony, the theory of power/knowledge, and the theory of social practice were used to analyze the data. The result of the study showed that the counter-hegemonic practice performed by the Bawomataluo people included the counter-hegemony towards the government?s policy, the counter-hegemony towards change and functional change of cultural heritage, and the counter-hegemony towards the tourism-related activities. They are all the accumulation of the local people?s disappointment with the government?s policy (hegemonic practice) which has been performed so far. As a result, the development of the tourist destination and infrastructure has not achieved the target yet. This present study offers a strategic political policy so the development of the tourist destination in Bawomataluo in particular and in Indonesia in general can be avoided from the hegemonic practice and counter-hegemonic practice. To this end, the tourist destination should be sustainably developed in order to improve the local people?s economy and increase the government?s income. The development should be the community-based one as well.