Zainul Muttaqin
Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS)

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THE REPRESENTATION OF SASAK SOCIETY IN THE TEXT “GUGUR MAYANG” HD, Dharma Satrya; Muttaqin, Zainul
Jurnal Humaniora Vol 32, No 1 (2020)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Science Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (13.574 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.27461

Abstract

This study examines the representation of Sasak society in the text ?Gugur Mayang?. It aims to semiotically explain the significance and communication of the text in Sasak culture by applying Paul Ricoeur?s interpretation method. Analysis shows that the ?Gugur Mayang? text represents Sasak society while highlighting the sadness, tragedy, and grief of a life that is full of danger and pain. By interpreting the text within sociocultural, spiritual, and literary context, the researchers have been able to obtain a transcendental (rather than empirical) understanding of Sasak society.
NYALE SEA WORM AS ANTIBACTERIAL SUBSTANCES Dyah Jekti, Dwi Soelistya; Purwoko, Agus Abhi; Muttaqin, Zainul
Jurnal ILMU DASAR Vol 9 No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Jember

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Abstract

Nyale is a sea worm that belongs to class of polychaete. It appears on a huge crowd, usually five days after the monsoon in February, at the surface of the sea for breeding. The colors of the female and male worms are green and brown, respectively. The worms are collected in nyale season, freezed-dryer, and extracted with ethyl acetate. Antimicrobial activity properties of the male worm extract are carried out toward benthos bacteria and clinical isolate bacteria using ciprofloxacin as comparing agent. The results show that, after colom chromatography, fraction number 1 and 4 have the best antibacterial activities (broadest spectrum) toward clinical isolate bacteria. All eleven fractions show also antibacterial activities toward nine benthos bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fractions 1 and 4 toward six clinical isolate bacteria is 100 ?g/ml. Meanwhile, fraction 4 exhibits two peaks in its HPLC chromatrogram.
Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Pre-core Mutant by Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Soemohardjo, Soewignjo; Widita, Haris; Muttaqin, Zainul; Gunawan, Stephanus; Wijaya, Mahendra; Wiguna, Putu Aditya; Rhamdiani, Shelly Olivia
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 14, NUMBER 1, April 2013
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (0.036 KB) | DOI: 10.24871/141201319-23

Abstract

Introduction: Mutation in pre-core region is characterized by negative HBeAg and positive anti-HBe despite active replications of the virus. The mutation has diagnostic and prognostic implications. Therefore, detectionof pre-core mutant is important. Standard diagnosis approach for detecting pre-core mutant is through DNA sequencing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-core region. Unfortunately, DNA sequencing is not available in mostcenters. Hence, a simpler diagnostic approach is necessary.Method: An observational-analytic design study was performed. Detection of pre-core mutant was conducted in individuals with positive HBsAg and HBV DNA that had various patterns of HBeAg and anti HBe. HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBe was detected using immunochromatography technique. The HBV DNA was evaluated by using qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. PCR was done by three rounds of amplification with primers derived from wild type pre-core and mutant pre-core. Results: Of 25 sera with HBeAg negative, anti-HBe positive and HBV DNA positive, allele specific (AS) PCR pre-core mutant was detected in 20 (80%) sera. Two sera with HBeAg negative, anti HBe negative and HBV DNA positive were negative for pre-core mutant. Of 8 sera with HBeAg positive, anti HBe negative and HBV DNA positive, pre-core mutant was detected in 2 (25%) sera.Conclusion: Most of individuals with HBV DNA positive, HBeAg negative and anti-HBe positive have harbored pre-core mutant. The finding indicated that all patients with HBsAg positive, HBV DNA positive and HBeAg negative, but anti-HBe positive should be examined for the presence of pre-core mutant. Pre-core mutant is also found in HBeAg positive individual. Keywords: HBV, pre-core mutant, polymerase chain reaction
SEORANG PENDERITA HEPATITIS KRONIK B DAN C DENGAN MUTASI PADA GEN P53 KODON 249 PADA JARINGAN HATI Eka Saputra, I Wayan; Gunawan, Stephanus; Muttaqin, Zainul; Soemoharjo, Soewignjo
journal of internal medicine Vol. 8, No. 2 Mei 2007
Publisher : journal of internal medicine

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Abstract

Role of gene P53 as a tumor suppressor gene in generating primary liver cancer is very important primarily in cellgrowth regulation and apoptosis. By using AS-PCR method, the gene mutation can be recognized. It has been reported a chronichepatitis B and C case with experiencing mutation of gene P53 Codone 249 in liver tissue of a 33 years old male with anti HCVpositive, HBsAg positive, on the liver biopsy indicated of chronic hepatitis without cirrhotic features and malignancy signs. OnAS-PCR examination found mutation on gene P53 codone 249. This finding was expected to be an early warning sign foroccurrence of primary liver cancer, so that, early intervention could be performed.
Detection of HBV-DNA and Its Correlation with the HBeAg/Anti-HBe Serological Status in HBsAg-positive Patients Widita, Haris; Soemohardjo, Soewignjo; Muttaqin, Zainul; Wiguna, Putu Aditya; Rhamdiani, Shelly Olivia; Wijaya, Mahendra; Gunawan, Stephanus
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 13, NUMBER 2, August 2012
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

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Abstract

Background: In the past years, HBeAg and anti-HBe status in individuals with positive HBsAg were often correlated to viral replication. This study was aimed to find correlation between the HBV viremia and HBeAg/anti-HBe serological status in HBsAg-positive individuals. Method: An observational-analytic design was performed in this study. The sera of all positive HBsAg patients at Biomedika Hospital Laboratory were collected and examined for HBeAg and anti-HBe using immunochromatography technique between January and April 2012. The sampling method was purposive sampling. Afterwards, the sera were examined for HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Sufficient amount of sera were collected from 44 patients consisting of 33 males and 11 females. The mean age was 15-68 years. Positive HBeAg and negative anti-HBe status was found in 11 (42%) patients. Negative HBeAg and positive anti-HBe was found in 26 (59.1%) patients. Both HBeAg and anti-HBe were negative in 7 (16.3%) patients. HBV-DNA was detected in all 11 (100%) patients with positive HBeAg and negative anti-HBe. HBV-DNA was also detected in 11 (42%) patients with negative HBeAg and positive anti-HBe. However, there was only one patient (14.3%) with both negative HBeAg and anti-HBe status, who had detectable HBV-DNA. Conclusion: Positive HBeAg can be used as an indicator of viremia, but negative HBeAg cannot be used as an indicator of the absence of viremia without further HBV-DNA testing. Patients with negative HBeAg and positive HBV-DNA were suspected for having pre-core mutant. Keywords: HBV-DNA, positive HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe, pre-core mutant
The Detection of H pylori In Gastric Mucosal Biopsy Specimens by PCR Using Primers Derived From Ure C Gene in Patients with Dyspepsia Soemohardjo, Soewignjo; Palgunadi, I Gede; Gunawan, S; Muttaqin, Zainul; Widita, Haris; A, Wenny Astuti
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 8 ISSUE 2 August 2007
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

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Abstract

Background: The detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in gastric biopsy specimens can be done using CLO (Campylobacter Like Organism) test and histopatological examination, but the sensitivity of both Method is influenced by the density of the bacteria in the sample. Beside that, the coccoid form is detected with difficulty by histology and need immunohistochemical stain to confirm. PCR can be used for the detection of both spiral and coccoid form of the bacteria. Objective: To detect the genome of H. pylori by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using primers derived from ureC gene of the bacteria in gastric biopsy specimen from patients with dyspepsia. Methods: Gastric biopsy specimen from 179 patients with dyspepsia in the endoscopic unit Mataram hospital. The biopsy was taken from antrum and corpus and put into sterile saline for the culture of H. pylori and put into 70% ethanol solution for the PCR. The specimen for bacterial culture was carried soon to microbiology laboratory and plated into the appropriate media and grown in microaerophilic condition in CO2 incubator. The PCR was done using primers derived from ureC. Result: The H. pylori genome was detected in 79 of 179 biopsy sample (44.13%). The bacterial culture was positive for H. pylori in 22 (12%). The PCR result was positive in 10/35 of patient with normal endoscopy (28.57%). From 22 patients with duodenal ulcer without gastric ulcer the PCR was positive in 15 (68.18%). In patient with gastric ulcer without duodenal ulcer the PCR was positive in 9 patients (42.08%). From 7 patient with combined gastric and duodenal ulcer the PCR was positive in 5 (71.43%), in 3 patient with gastric cancer the PCR was positive in 1 (33.33%). Conclusion: The study showed that 44.13% of patient with dyspepsia in Mataram hospital was positive for H. pylori by PCR. Keywords: detection of Helicobacter pylori, gastric mucosal biopsy specimen, polymerase chain reaction, ureC gene
The Absence of Urease Enzymatic Activity of Helicobacter pylori Coccoid Form Jekti, Dwi Sulistya Dyah; Soemohardjo, Soewignjo; Muttaqin, Zainul
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 9, ISSUE 2, August 2008
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

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Abstract

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative and pleomorphic bacteria that able to change its morphology according to the environment. The objective of the study was to determine the biochemical and some genetic characteristic of coccoid form of H. pylori induced by starvation, aerobiosis and antibiotic. Method: The material of the study is an isolate of spiral form of CagA positive H. pylori grown from gastric biopsy specimen of a patient with chronic gastritis. The CagA positive isolate was subcultured in liquid media containing the sheep sera. The sample was divided into three groups each group consist of 27 tube. Each tube contained 109 CFU of H. pylori bacteria/ml in 4 ml liquid media. So the experiment was performed in 3 replicates. In the first group of sample, coccoid form was induced by a prolonged culture under microaerophilic condition without the addition of fresh media, in the second group by aerobiosis, while in the third group by addition of 0.1 µg amoxycillin/ml cultured in microaerophilic condition. Periodic sampling was done every day to calculate the percentage of coccoid form, to observe the possibility to regrow the spiral form and for serial electron microscopic observation. One tube is picked up in every periodic sampling. In tubes containing antibiotic the periodic sampling was done one hourly. Detection of cagA and ureA gene was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with appropriate primers. Results: The time needed for the development of coccoid form: Length of time from the start of the experiment needed to reach 100% coccoid form was: 49 days in microaerophilic with starvation, 28 days in aerobiosis with starvation, and 13.5 days in antibiotic. result of biochemical test: Urease enzymatic activity was only positive in spiral form. All samples of coccoid form due to all the 3 stressors did not show any urease enzymatic the activity. PCR of ureA gene: All samples of spiral and coccoid form showed positive band of ureA gene and cagA gene. Western blot of protein CagA, urease A and urease B: Western blot analysis showed that in spiral form and all coccoid form band of urease A and urease B is clearly seen,while cagA in Western blot only clearly seen in spiral form but it is absent in cocoid form. Conclusion: Troughout the cycle of coccoid form the urease gene responsible for the production of urease and cagA gene responsible for virulence was in intact condition. However, despite the presence of urease protein in coccoid form the urease enzymatic activity was absent. This fact has several diagnostic and clinical implications. Keywords: urease enzymatic activity, coccoid form, Helicobacter pylori
Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Pre-core Mutant by Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Soemohardjo, Soewignjo; Widita, Haris; Muttaqin, Zainul; Gunawan, Stephanus; Wijaya, Mahendra; Wiguna, Putu Aditya; Rhamdiani, Shelly Olivia
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 14, NUMBER 1, April 2013
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Introduction: Mutation in pre-core region is characterized by negative HBeAg and positive anti-HBe despite active replications of the virus. The mutation has diagnostic and prognostic implications. Therefore, detectionof pre-core mutant is important. Standard diagnosis approach for detecting pre-core mutant is through DNA sequencing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-core region. Unfortunately, DNA sequencing is not available in mostcenters. Hence, a simpler diagnostic approach is necessary.Method: An observational-analytic design study was performed. Detection of pre-core mutant was conducted in individuals with positive HBsAg and HBV DNA that had various patterns of HBeAg and anti HBe. HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBe was detected using immunochromatography technique. The HBV DNA was evaluated by using qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. PCR was done by three rounds of amplification with primers derived from wild type pre-core and mutant pre-core. Results: Of 25 sera with HBeAg negative, anti-HBe positive and HBV DNA positive, allele specific (AS) PCR pre-core mutant was detected in 20 (80%) sera. Two sera with HBeAg negative, anti HBe negative and HBV DNA positive were negative for pre-core mutant. Of 8 sera with HBeAg positive, anti HBe negative and HBV DNA positive, pre-core mutant was detected in 2 (25%) sera.Conclusion: Most of individuals with HBV DNA positive, HBeAg negative and anti-HBe positive have harbored pre-core mutant. The finding indicated that all patients with HBsAg positive, HBV DNA positive and HBeAg negative, but anti-HBe positive should be examined for the presence of pre-core mutant. Pre-core mutant is also found in HBeAg positive individual. Keywords: HBV, pre-core mutant, polymerase chain reaction
REPRESENTASI BANGSAWAN SASAK DALAM TEKS ANGIN ALUS MASYARAKAT SASAK HD, Dharma Satrya; Muttaqin, Zainul
LITERA Vol 17, No 1: LITERA MARET 2018
Publisher : Faculty of Languages and Arts, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21831/ltr.v17i1.15291

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan representasi bangsawan Sasak dalam teks Angin Alus masyarakat Sasak-Lombok. Pembahasan teks ini menggunakan perspektif semiotik Peirce dengan metode analisis Recouer. Pembahasan terdiri atas analisis struktur teks dan dunia yang digelar teks dan analisis hubungan pertama dan kedua dengan dunia penafsir. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa teks Angin Alus menunjukkan representasi kabar kesedihan orang Sasak dan bangsawan karena kehidupan membawanya ke suatu ruang yang memberikan penderitaan, baik dalam konteks historis Sasak maupun dalam konteks kekinian dengan konteks sosial yang berbeda. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa masyarakat Sasak juga mengalami percampuran dengan pihak luar yang mempengaruhi caranya memandang kehidupan. Generari muda Sasak-Lombok harus memahami posisi sebagai buaq ate, kembang mate, generasi yang selalu berserah diri dan sebagai lomboq, dengan selalu mengembalikannya kepada yang satu (Sa Sak), yakni Tuhan. Perbedaan antara diri dan yang lain melebur menjadi Sasak-Lombok sekarang.Kata kunci: representasi, masyarakat Sasak, kabar kesedihan, bangsawan  THE REPRESENTATION OF SASAK ARISTOCRATS IN SASAK COMMUNITY?S TEXT ANGIN ALUSAbstractThis study aims to describe the representation of Sasak aristocrats in Sasak-Lombok community?s text Angin Alus. The discussion of the text used Peirce?s semiotic perspective and Recouer?s analysis method. It consisted of the analysis of the text structure and the world represented by the text and the analysis of the first and second relationships with the world of interpreters. The research finding reveals that the text Angin Alus shows the representation of the news of sadness of Sasak people and aristocrats because life brings them to a space that gives suffering, both in the historical context of Sasak and in the contemporary context with different social contexts. This indicates that Sasak community also experience mixing with outsiders that affect the way they view life. Sasak-Lombok young generation have to understand the positions as buaq ate and kembang mate, as a generation that always show submission and as lomboq by always returning it to the one (Sa Sak), namely God. The differences between the self and others merge into the present Sasak-Lombok.Keywords: representation, Sasak community, Angin Alus, news of sadness, aristocrats
The Detection of H pylori In Gastric Mucosal Biopsy Specimens by PCR Using Primers Derived From Ure C Gene in Patients with Dyspepsia Soemohardjo, Soewignjo; Palgunadi, I Gede; Gunawan, S; Muttaqin, Zainul; Widita, Haris; A, Wenny Astuti
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 8 ISSUE 2 August 2007
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (0.036 KB) | DOI: 10.24871/82200740-43

Abstract

Background: The detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in gastric biopsy specimens can be done using CLO (Campylobacter Like Organism) test and histopatological examination, but the sensitivity of both Method is influenced by the density of the bacteria in the sample. Beside that, the coccoid form is detected with difficulty by histology and need immunohistochemical stain to confirm. PCR can be used for the detection of both spiral and coccoid form of the bacteria. Objective: To detect the genome of H. pylori by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using primers derived from ureC gene of the bacteria in gastric biopsy specimen from patients with dyspepsia. Methods: Gastric biopsy specimen from 179 patients with dyspepsia in the endoscopic unit Mataram hospital. The biopsy was taken from antrum and corpus and put into sterile saline for the culture of H. pylori and put into 70% ethanol solution for the PCR. The specimen for bacterial culture was carried soon to microbiology laboratory and plated into the appropriate media and grown in microaerophilic condition in CO2 incubator. The PCR was done using primers derived from ureC. Result: The H. pylori genome was detected in 79 of 179 biopsy sample (44.13%). The bacterial culture was positive for H. pylori in 22 (12%). The PCR result was positive in 10/35 of patient with normal endoscopy (28.57%). From 22 patients with duodenal ulcer without gastric ulcer the PCR was positive in 15 (68.18%). In patient with gastric ulcer without duodenal ulcer the PCR was positive in 9 patients (42.08%). From 7 patient with combined gastric and duodenal ulcer the PCR was positive in 5 (71.43%), in 3 patient with gastric cancer the PCR was positive in 1 (33.33%). Conclusion: The study showed that 44.13% of patient with dyspepsia in Mataram hospital was positive for H. pylori by PCR. Keywords: detection of Helicobacter pylori, gastric mucosal biopsy specimen, polymerase chain reaction, ureC gene