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OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CANARIUM NUT (CANARIUM INDICUM AND CANARIUM VULGARE) OIL DURING STORAGE AT 30 AND 40 0 C Djarkasi, Suhartati; Raharjo, Sri; Noor, Zuheid; Sudarmadji, Slamet
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 19 No. 2 (2008): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

The aims of this research were to study the effect of temperature and storage on the oxidative stability of crude and refined canarium nut oil extracted from the seeds of Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare. The experiment was designed to include storage of two type of canarium nut oil at two different temperatures for up to 35 days. The oils (crude and refined) used had the similar condition. Parameter used for oxidative deterioration indicators were two peroxide value, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), and free fatty acid value. The result showed that refining oil can decrease component natural antioxidant of canarium oil cause more sensitive to the oxidation. Increased storage temperature can raise oxidation of crude and refined oils from both species Canarium. The peroxide values of crude and refined oils both Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored at 30 °C were 2.17, 4.35, 3.36 and 3.77 meq O2/kg oil, respectively. When they were stored at 4?C the similar results were 6.21, 19.09, 8.12 and 17.23 meq O2/kg oil. Furthermore, TBARS value of crude and refined oils both for Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored 30?C were 4.55, 7.78, 5.70 and 6.58 µmol MDA/kg oil. When they were stored at 40 °C the similar results were 9.99, 55.46, 12.46 and 43.62 µmol MDA/kg oil.Key words: Canarium nut oil, peroxide value, TBARS
OPTIMASI TEKNIK PEMBUATAN TABLET EFFERVESCENT SARI BUAH DENGAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD [OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESSING TECHNIQUE OF THE FRUIT JUICE EFFERVESCENT TABLET WITH RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD] Ansar, Ansar; Rahardjo, Budi; Noor, Zuheid; Rochmadi, Rochmadi
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 20 No. 1 (2009): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

This research was aimed to study optimization of processing technique of fruit juice effervescent tablet with Response Surface Method (RSM). The research design used was central composite designs with three dependent variables including X1 (compression force), X2 (the citric acid concentration), and X3 (the sodium bicarbonate concentration), where independent variables was hardness and solubility of the tablet. The results of the research showed that the optimum tablets hardness was 40.53 N that reached at treatment compression force of 2339.8 N; the citric acid concentration of 352.82 mg/gr; and the sodium bicarbonate concentration of 561.62 mg/gr. Whereas the solubilitation of 41.99 second was resulted at treatment compression force of 1417.6 N; 334.24 mg/unit weight citric acid; and 593.90 mg/gr sodium bicarbonate. To get tablet characteristic with high hardness but solubilize quickly, was made at 1500 N compression force; the citric acid concentration 350  mg/gr; and the sodium bicarbonate concentration 500 mg/gr.
THE ROLE OF SURFACTANT MICELLES ON THE PARTITIONING OF ANTIOXIDANT AND THE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF OIL-IN-WATER EMULSION Sibuea, Posman; Raharjo, Sri; Santoso, Umar; Noor, Zuheid
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 19 No. 1 (2008): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

Lipid oxidation system in which the fat is dispersed as emulsion droplets is still not well understood, although a large number of food exist partially or entirely in the form of emulsions. Therefore, this study was intended to examine how surfactant micelles influence the partitioning of antioxidant and hydroperoxides and how it alter the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsion. To determine the ability of surfactant micelles upon the partitioning of antioxidant in oil-in-water emulsion, this type of emulsion, containing quercetin at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm, were prepared with polyoxyethylene 100 stearyl ether (Brij 700) or polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) with acetate or phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 or 7.0). Structurally Birj 700 has 5 times longer polyoxyethylene groups than Tween 20. After preparation of the emulsion, surfactant micelles (0-2%) were incorporated into the continuous phase to give a final lipid concentration of 5%. Lipid oxidation rates, as determined by the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, decreased with increasing quercetin concentrations. At pH 3, the peroxide value was higher than that at pH 7. Brij 70 decreased production of lipid hydroperoxides from palm oil-in-water-emulsions compared to the emulsions stabilized by Tween 20. the result showed that solubilization of quercetin into the aqueous into the aqueous phase by Brij or Tween micelles did not alter the oxidative stability of palm oil-in-water emulsion, suggesting that surfactant micelle influenced the oxidation rate by mechanism other than antioxidant solubilization. Key word : Quercetin, surfactant micelles, and oxidative stability
Oksidasi Protein Daging Merah dan Putih pada Ikan Tongkol Putih (Thunus Sp) oleh Sistim Katalis Logam CUSO./Ho. N. Apituley, Daniel A.; Noor, Zuheid; Darmadji, Purnama; Suparmo, Suparmo
Agritech Vol 25, No 4 (2005)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

properties of foodstuff including fish muscles, hence protein oxidation will provide significant effect the integrity of the foodstuff (fish muscles). The aims of this study were to examine the effect of metal–catalyzed oxidation concentration CuSO4 / H202 on the formation of carbOnyl protein, loss of protein solubility and protein denaturation in red and white meat of White Tuna (Thunus sp). The result indicated that the formation of carbonyl protein offish protein was influenced by types of meat and metal-catalyzed oxidation concentration CuSO4/H202. 1,02. The higher the concentration Cu504/ H20 ? the higher increased the carbonyl protein product in both white and red meat. Formation of carbonyl protein was also increased with the storage time. However, the increase of carbonyl protein of red meat is higher compare with the white meat. Counter post the existence of hidroxyl radical produced from metal-catalyzed oxidation apparently leads to the modification of secondary and tertiary structure of the protein, in turn affect to the protein solubility and protein denaturation. The percentage of loss of protein solubility in red and white meat were 28.74 – 45.31 % and 23.13 – 34.50 % respectively. While the percentage of the protein denaturation of red and white meat were 38.88 % and 32.00 % respectively.
Hypoglycemic Effect Determination of Soybean, Soybean Protein Fraction and Tempe in Diabetic Rats Wulan, Siti Narsito; Astuti, Mary; Marsono, Y.; Noor, Zuheid
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 3, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Hypoglicemic effect of soybean, soybean protein fraction and tempe was determined in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  Blood glucose and urinary glucose level were measured to determine this effect.Soybean protein fraction had the highest hypoglicemic property.  It lowered blood glucose level from 37.35 to 5.48 mg/dl/day/g carbohydrate consumed (85%).  Tempe showed lower hypoglycemic effect than soybean  protein fraction.  Blood glucose level decreased 51%, from 31.57 to 15.59 mg/dl/day/g carbohydrate consumed.  Soybean had the lowest hypoglycemic effect.  It lowered blood glucose level from 47.47 to 27.70 mg/dl/day/g carbohydrate consumed (42%).  Urinary glucose level had the same pattern as blood glucose level.Keywords :  Hypoglicemic effect, blood glucose level, soybean, tempe
SIFAT HIPOGLISEMIK PAKAN TINGGI PROTEIN KEDELAI PADA MODEL DIABEIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [HYPOGLICEMIC PROPERTY OF A HIGH-PROTEIN SOYBEAN BASED FEED IN MODEL ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC] Retnaningsih, C.; Noor, Zuheid; Marsono, Y.
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 12 No. 2 (2001): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

Hypoglicemic properties of soybean protein were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Twenty eight mature male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (250-300g) were used and divided into four groups of seven rats. They were: 1) Placebo Standars (PS); 2) Alloxan Injection Standard (AS); 3) Alloxan injection soybean protein 250% (APK 250) dan 4) Alloxen injection soybean protein 100% (APK 100). One group was injected with aquabidest (Placebo) and three group were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intramuscular injection).Placebo-Standard (PS) and Alloxan injection Standar (AS) groups were fed standard diet whereas APK 250 100 were fed soybean protein deit for 42 days. Concentration of serum glucose was determined before incention (0day) and 1, 2, 143, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after injection.The result showed that alloxan injection increased the level of serum glucose. Bioassay experiment demonstrated that diet on high conceration of soybean protein (250%) decreased the level of serum glucose from 351,44 mg/dl to 230,62 mg/dl (34,37%) while soy protein 100% descreased the level of serum glucose.
INDEKS GLISEMIK KACANG-KACANGAN [GLYCEMIC INDEX OF SELECTED LEGUMES] Marsono, Y.; Wiyono, P.; Noor, Zuheid
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 13 No. 3 (2002): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

             Nutritional management for diabetic patients based on selection of low available carbohydrate foods has been criticized because the same availability of carbohydrate in different foods may result in different degree of glycemic response. This management is now being corrected by additional aid in selecting foods with the glycemic index (GI) of foods. GI is a measure of the glycemic response to the carbohydrate component within a food relative to the response to an equal carbohydrate portion of reference food (glucose or white bread). In Indonesia, data of the glycemic index of foods is still very limited. The objectives of the research are to provide GI of selected legumes, including red bean (Vigna umbellata), Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus), cow pea (Vigna sinensis ENDL), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan MILLSPAUGH), edible podded peas (Pisum sativum LINN) and soy bean (Glycine max MERR). Eleventh health and normal volunteers (not diabetic) were provided. The volunteers took an overnight fasting, blood were drawn in the morning and analyzed for serum glucose. Then they were given the test legumes containing total carbohydrates equivalent to 25-g glucose to be consumed. Blood samples were drawn for glucose measurement every 30 minutes until 120 min after meal. Serum glucose was determined enzymatically and the glucose responses were drawn graphically. The GI of the beans studied was lowest for red bean (26) and highest for mung bean (76), Edible podded pea and soy bean had similar value of GI i.e. 30 and 31; whereas pigeon and cow pea had a higher value i.e. 35 and 51, respectively.  
SIFAT HIPOGLIKEMIK DAN HIPOKOLESTEROLEMIK PROTEIN KEDELAI PADA TIKUS MODEL TOLERANSI GLUKOSA TERGANGGU (TGT) INDUKSI ALLOKSAN 1) [HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC ACTIVITIES OF SOY PROTEIN ON IMPARED GLUCOSE INTOLERANT RATS INDUCED BY ALLOXAN] Lasimo, Masun; Noor, Zuheid; Marsono, Y.
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol. 13 No. 2 (2002): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

Previous studies indicated that soy protein had hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activity in induced diabetic rats. However when combined with different sources of carbohydrate,  the effects were not known yet. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the hypogylcemic  and hypocholesterolemic properties of soy protein combined with cornstarch or wheat flour, on four groups of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) alloxan induced male Wistar rats models. During the first two weeks, rats were given high fat and cholesterol diet to induce hypercholesterolemic. On the third week, rats were injected with alloxan 60 mg/kg body weight to induce hyperglycemia, and in the following three weeks each group was given one of the following, casein+cornstach (CC), soy protein+cornstarch (SC), casein+wheat flour (CW), or soy protein +wheat flour (SW). The glucose and lipid concentrations of blood of individual rat were measured before and, 1st , 7th, 14th, and 21th day after the injection of alloxan.The results showed that the soy protein diets have hypoglycemic and hypocholestrolemic activity as compared to casein diets. The different source of carbohydrate diet affected hypocholesterolemic property of soy protein, but did not affect hypoglycemic property. It seems that the SC diet decreases glucose concentration more than the SW diet (17,45% and 7,04% from baseline, respectively). The SC diet had more ability to decrease total and LDL cholesterol (9,52% and 21, 89% from baseline, respectively), while the SW diet had more ability to decrease triglycerides (24,64% from baseline).
Karakteristik Trypsin Inhibitor dan Penjajagan Sebagai Komponen Makanan Fungsional Penderita Diabetes (IIDM) Kanetro, Bayu; Noor, Zuheid; Sutardi, Sutardi; Indrati, Retno
Agritech Vol 25, No 4 (2005)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1887.848 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9447

Abstract

Trypsin inhibitors (TI) are substances which, when added to a mixture of a trypsin and a subtrate, bind to the enzyme and render it to decrease in the rate of substrate cleavage. These inhibitors are nonglycosylated, water-soluble (albumin) that account for about 0,2-2 % of the total soluble protein of the legume seeds. Two major families of trypsin inhibitors have been described in legumes: the Bowmen-Brix-type (BBI) and the Kunitz-type inhibitors (KTI). They are distinct families of proteins, as evidenced by their molecular weights, compositions, and amino acid sequences. Because of their unique pharmacological properties, these inhibitors hold considerable promise in clinical applications in their field of medicine. At least one inhibitor in soybeans, the BM, has been shown to have clear anticarcinogenic activity in both in vitro and in vivo carcinogenic Trypsin inhbitors (TI) are substances which, when added to a mixture of a trypsin and a substrate, bind to the enzyme and render it to decrease in the rate of substrate cleavage. These inhibitors are nonglycosylated, water-soluble (albumin) that account for about 0,2 –2 % of the total soluble protein of the legume seeds. Two major families of trypsin inhibitors have been described in legumes: the Bowmen-Birk-type (BBI) and the Kunitz-type inhibitors (K7I). They are distinct families of proteins, as evidenced by their molecular weights, compositions, and amino acid sequences. Because of their unique pharmacological assay systems. increasing need and awareness for functional food has motivated food scientists and industries to search functional food components and ingredients for certain target group, including functional food for diabetes. Soy TI may enhance the production of more trypsin and probably insulin as well. The dietary 77evokes pancreatic enzyme secretion by forming inactive trypsinT1 complex. As the level of trypsin goes below a threshold level, the pancreas is induced to produce more enzymes. The mediating agent between the enzymes and the pancreas is cholecystokinin (CCK), which is released from the jejunul endocrine cells when the level of trypsin in the intestine becomes depleted. CCK is intestinal hormone which stimulate insulin secretion. Ti regenerated 13-cells which indicate the beneficial effect of TI on the insulin production of the pancreas. These novel findings provide evidence to support the potential utility of TI in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (11DM/ Insulin-Independent Diabetic Mellitus). However, TI are also known as anti nutrient substances and to cause pancreatic hypertrophy.
Potensi Protein Kecambah Kedelai dalam Menstimulasi Sekresi Insulin pada Pankreas Tikus Normal dan Diabetes Kanetro, Bayu; Noor, Zuheid; Sutardi, Sutardi; Indrati, Retno
Agritech Vol 28, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6261.511 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9862

Abstract

The objective of this investigation was to examine the potential of seed and germinated SP that were extracted at two condition precipitation, Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (KTI) and Bowman Birk Inhibitor (BBI) to stimulate insulin secretion of the pancreas of induced diabetic and normal rats by in vitro bioassay. Mature male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats of the in vitro bioassay were divided into two groups. They were diabetic rats that was induced by aloksan injection and normal rats (without aloksan injection). Rat was anaesthetized with ether, and the pancreas was taken out, injected by HBS solution, hydrolyzed by collagenase and then washed several times with RPMI 1640 LITE solution and Kreb Ringer bicarbonate buffer before incubation. The islets of the pancreas were incubated in Kreb buffer under seven conditions of media treatment as follows: glucose medium that was used as a reference standard (R), total protein of seed (SPT), total protein of germinated soybean (GPT), TI protein of seed (SPTI), TI protein of germinated soybean (GPTI), KTI, and BBI. After two hours of incubation, the mixture was sonicated, and centrifuged The supernatant was stored at –20 oC for determination of insulin. The insulin analysis was conducted by ELISA method. The results show that aloksan injection increased the level of blood sugar and induced diabetic rats. The media treatment altered the soluble protein profile and the insulin secretion of the islets. The germinated SP has the ability to stimulate  insulin secretion of the pancreas of  diabetic as well as normal rats. The insulin secretion of the islets in the medium of crude TI of germinated soybean (GPTI) was highest. The potential order of the insulin secretion of normal rats islets were GPTI, KTI, BBI, GPT, SPTI, SPT, and R media. While the potential order of the insulin secretion of diabetic rat islets were GPTI, GPT, SPTI, BBI, KTI, SPT, and R media. The potential of germinated SP to stimulate insulin secretion was better than ungerminated SP.ABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mempelajari potensi protein biji dan kecambah kedelai (protein total dan TI), Kunitz Trypsin Inhbitor (KTI), dan Bowman Birk Inhibitor (BBI)  dalam menstimulasi sekresi insulin pada pankreas tikus normal dan diabetes melalui pengujian biologis secara in vitro. Tikus Sprague Dawley (SD) jantan yang diguna- kan dalam pengujian biologis secara in vitro dibagi menjadi dua kelompok, yaitu tikus diabetes yang disiapkan dengan cara menginduksi melalui injeksi aloksan, dan tikus normal (tanpa diinjeksi aloksan). Selanjutnya tikus dieksekusi dengan bius ether dan dilakukan pencucian beberapa kali dengan larutan RPMI 1640 LITE. Pencucian terakhir meng- gunakan buffer Kreb Ringer Bicarbonat sebelum pancreas islet yang diperoleh diinkubasi. Pancreas islet diinkubasi dalam Kreb buffer yang dicampur dengan 7 perlakuan media inkubasi yang berbeda, yaitu medium glukosa sebagai control (R), protein total biji kedelai (SPT), protein total kecambah kedelai (GPT), protein TI biji kedelai (SPTI), pro- tein TI kecambah kedelai (GPTI), KTI dan BBI. Inkubasi dilakukan selama 2 jam, kemudian disonikasi, dan sentrifu- gasi. Supernatan yang diperoleh disimpan pada suhu -20 oC untuk disiapkan dalam  analisis insulin mengggunakan metode ELISA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa injeksi aloksan pada tikus dapat menginduksi terjadinya diabetes karena dapat meningkatkan gula darah tikus. Perlakuan media inkubasi berpengaruh terhadap kadar protein terlarut media dan kemampuannya menstimulasi islet untuk mensekresikan insulin. Protein kecambah kedelai memiliki kemam- puan menstimulasi sekresi insulin baik pada pancreas tikus normal maupun diabetes. Sekresi insulin dari islet dalam medium GPTI paling tinggi dibandingkan perlauan yang lain. Urutan potensi sekresi insulin dari pancreas tikus nor- mal, yaitu berturut-turut dari yang tertinggi GPTI, KTI, BBI, GPT, SPTI, SPT, dan R. Sedangkan pada pancreas tikus diabetes, yaitu dari yang tertinggi GPTI, GPT, SPTI, BBI, KTI, SPT, and R media. Secara umum disimpulkan bahwa potensi protein kecambah kedelai dalam menstimulasi sekresi insulin lebih baik dibandingkan protein biji kedelai.