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KISARAN INANG COWPEA MILD MOTTLE VIRUS DAN RESPONS VARIETAS KEDELAI Sutrawati, Mimi; Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti; Soekarno, Bonny Purnomo Wahyu; Nurmansyah, Ali; Suastika, Gede
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 13 No 6 (2017)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (616.923 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.13.6.229

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Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) is one of important virus which infects soybean and become an endemic disease since the first time reported in Java and Sumatra. Research was conducted to study the host range of CPMMV and to evaluate response of new type soybean varieties to CPMMV specific isolate.  Host range study of CPMMV CR16 isolate was conducted by sap transmission method to 11 species of indicator plants, whereas evaluation of soybean response involved 10 varieties.  The resistance response of soybean variety was based on incubation period, and of either  the disease incidence or severity. Virus infection on test plants were confirmed by dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) using specific CPMMV antisera. The CPMMV CR16 isolate was able to infect systemically 8 plant species belongs to Leguminoceae, and Solancaeae; while the virus caused local infection on Amaranthaceae. All plant species infected systemically proved to become sources of inoculum for CPMMV when they used in back inoculation to soybean.  Response of soybean varieties to CPMMV CR16 isolate can be categorized into susceptible (Detam 1, Detam 2, Detam 3, Anjasmoro, Wilis), moderated (Detam 4, Malika, Dena 1) and resistant (Argomulyo and Grobogan).
KEANEKARAGAMAN DAN PATOGENISITAS FUSARIUM SPP. ASAL BEBERAPA KULTIVAR PISANG Sari, Widya; Wiyono, Suryo; Nurmansyah, Ali; Munif, Abdul; Poerwanto, Roedhy
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 13 No 6 (2017)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1079.575 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.13.6.216

Abstract

Fusarium wilt disease caused by pathogenic fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense is an important disease in banana plants. This research was aimed to identifiy Fusarium spp. collected from banana plants showing wilt disease based on morphology and molecular characters.  The fungi isolates obtained was further examined for its pathogenicity and distribution in various parts of banana plants.  Based on morphological characters, i.e. growth rate, total conidia, colony color, macroconidium, microconidium, and chlamydospores, F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense can be differentiated from other species of Fusarium, but not the strain. Molecular analysis using specific primers VCG 01213/16 and Foc1/Foc 2 successfully identified 13 and 7 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense TR4 and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense non TR4, respectively.  Analysis using universal primer ITS4/ITS5 identified 7 isolates of F. solani, 1 isolate of F. verticillioides, and 2 isolates non Fusarium.  Infection of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense TR4 and non-TR4 were found mostly in pseudo stems, whereas F. solani and F. verticillioides dominantly colonized banana corm. Pathogenicity test showed that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense TR4 and non-TR4 caused necrosis on corm of cv. Ambon Kuning.  Similar necrosis symptom was also observed on infection of F. solani but with less severity.
Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Musuh Alami Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) pada Pertanaman Cabai Merah di Kecamatan Pakem, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Hendrival, Hendrival; Hidayat, Purnama; Nurmansyah, Ali
Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia Vol 8, No 2 (2011): September
Publisher : Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5994/jei.8.2.96-109

Abstract

Research on natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci was conducted in the chili pepper fields in Sub-district of Pakem, District of Sleman, The Special Province of Yogyakarta during the dry season of May-October 2009. The aims of this research were to study the diversity and abundance of parasitoid and predator species associated with B. tabaci. Samplings of insect species were done using yellow pan trap, sweep net, direct observation of insects colonized young leaves, and collection of nymphs for B. tabaci. Measurement of insect diversity was calculated using Shannon’s index diversity and Evenness index. Nine species of insect predator were identified, i.e. Harmonia octomaculata (Fabricius), Menochilus sexmaculata (Fabricius), Scymnus sp., Micraspis inops Mulsant, Coccinella sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Paederus fuscipes Curtis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), Orius sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Linyphiidae sp.1 (Araneae), and Syrphidae sp.1 (Diptera). Eretmocerus sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was the only parasitoid found in the nymphs B. tabaci collected and has the potential to control B. tabaci in the red pepper fields.
YELLOW MOSAIC DISEASE ON SOYBEAN Sutrawati, Mimi; Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti; Wahyu Soekarno, Bonny Purnomo; Nurmansyah, Ali
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 16 No 1 (2020)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (385.929 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.16.1.30-36

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Ledakan penyakit mosaik kuning yang disebabkan oleh Mungbean yellow mosaic India Begomovirus (MYMIV) terjadi pada tanaman kacang panjang (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) di Jawa pada 2008. Namun penyakit ini belum dilaporkan di daerah lainnya di Indonesia. Tanaman kedelai di Cirebon, Jawa Barat, Bantul, DI Yogyakarta, dan Musi Banyuasin Sumatera Selatan menunjukkan gejala sistemik berupa mosaik kuning pada daun dengan tulang daun lebih gelap (vein banding) dan diduga terinfeksi MYMIV. Deteksi dan identifikasi virus dilakukan dengan metode polimerase chain reaction (PCR) dengan menggunakan primer spesifik MYMIV. Hasil amplifikasi menghasilkan pita DNA berukuran 1000 pb. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa tanaman kedelai yang bergejala mosaik kuning dari Cirebon, Bantul, Musi Banyuasin, dan positif terinfeksi MYMIV. Hasil analisis homologi sikuen nukleotida tanaman kedelai yang terinfeksi  MYMIV asal Cirebon mempunyai homologi yang tinggi (98.6-99.2 %) dengan MYMIV dari Tegal, Subang, Klaten, Magelang, Brebes, dan Bogor yang menginfeksi tanaman kacang panjang. Analisis filogenetik menunjukkan bahwa isolat MYMIV Cirebon berada satu kelompok dengan semua sikuen MYMIV di Indonesia dan Oman, namun terpisah dengan kelompok MYMIV dari  Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan dan India. Sikuen isolat MYMIV Cirebon telah didaftarkan ke GenBank dengan nomor aksesi LC481009. Sebelumnya MYMIV dilaporkan pada kedelai di Jawa tahun 2013. Temuan ini merupakan laporan pertama infeksi MYMIV pada kedelai di luar Jawa (Musi Banyuasin, Sumatera Selatan).
Thrips parvispinus Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) pada Tanaman Cabai: Perbedaan Karakter Morfologi pada Tiga Ketinggian Tempat Sartiami, Dewi; Magdalena, Magdalena; Nurmansyah, Ali
Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia Vol 8, No 2 (2011): September
Publisher : Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5994/jei.8.2.85-95

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One of the important pests on chilli plants is Thrips parvispinus Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). The presence of the pest is detected ranging from lowlands to highlands. This study was aimed to find out the morphological diversity of T. parvispinus at three different altitudes which include Cirebon (< 30 m asl), Bogor (300 - 400 m asl), and Cianjur (> 1200 m asl). At each level of altitude, it was collected 60 female adults of the thrips and then they were preserved into microscope preparations using Hoyer medium. The observed morphological characters of T. parvispinus were the length of body, the width of head, the width of thorax, the length of wing, and the color of body. The difference in morphological characters of the thrips in all three levels of altitude were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test. The correlation between altitude and body color was analyzed using chi- square test. Results showed that the body length, thoracic width, and wing length of the highland thrips were longer than those of the mid and lowland thrips. The three morphological characters showed significant differences between the mid and lowlands and the highlands, except for the character of head width. Changes in the color of the head, thorax, and abdomen were correlated to the level of the altitude.
Interaksi tropik antara hama dan parasitoid pada pertanaman sayuran: faktor pembentuk dan implikasinya terhadap keefektifan parasitoid Nugraha, Muhamad Nurhuda; Buchori, Damayanti; Nurmansyah, Ali; Rizali, Akhmad
Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia Vol 11, No 2 (2014): September
Publisher : Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5994/jei.11.2.103

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The condition of agroecosystem may affect the diversity and effectiveness of parasitoid communities as natural enemies of insect pests. Agricultural intensification such as monoculture cultivation as well as application of insecticide could also cause declining to parasitoid diversity and ineffective performance of parasitoids in agricultural field. The objective of this research was to study trophic interaction between pests and parasitoids in different field of vegetable crops and to investigate the factors that determining those interactions as well as its implication on parasitoid effectiveness. Vegetable crop fields were grouped into three different categories i.e. based on the pattern of cultivation, diversity of vegetable crops around the field and age of plant. On each crop field, insects were sampled using 50 m of transect by collecting eggs, larvae and pupae of pests. In total, 15 species of pests and 15 species of parasitoids were recorded from eight species of vegetable crops. Based on the analysis, trophic interaction between pests and parasitoids were affected by cultivation system, condition of crop field (species diversity of crops in its surrounding) and age of vegetable plants. Although it was not significance, the effectiveness of parasitoids according to their parasitism level, tend to higher in trophic interaction that determined from crop field with organic systems and with diverse of crop plants.
DAMPAK PENYAKIT TANAMAN TERHADAP PENDAPATAN PETANI KUBIS-KUBISAN DI DAERAH AGROPOLITAN KABUPATEN CIANJUR, JAWA BARAT Pratama, Teguh; Suastika, Gede; Nurmansyah, Ali
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 12 No 6 (2016)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (265.923 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.12.6.218

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Cruciferous vegetables are very important agricultural commodities for increasing  farmers  income. The main obstacles in their cultivation involved among others high level of pathogen infestation that may cause reduction in farmer?s income. This research was conducted to determine the main pathogens and their impact on farmer income in Agropolitan area of Cianjur Regency, West Java Province. The research was conducted through three activities, i.e. farmer survey, identification of the main pathogens, and measurement of disease intensity. The results showed that there were three main pathogens on assessed cruciferous vegetables, i.e. Alternaria brassiccicola (alternaria leaf spot), Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot), and Xanthomonas campestris (black rot), with disease intensity of 16.7%, 18.7%, and 15.1%, respectively. Clubroot disease was the most affecting disease in decreasing the  production of cruciferous vegetables and the farmer income. Incidence of clubroot disease with an average disease intensity of 16.67% might lead to the decrease of farming income about 24%?28%.
PEMODELAN KEPARAHAN PENYAKIT BLAS PADA TANAMAN PADI DI KABUPATEN SUBANG Zulaika, Zulaika; Soekarno, Bonny Poernomo; Nurmansyah, Ali
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 14 No 2 (2018)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (248.115 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.14.2.47

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Modelling on Rice Blast Disease Severity in Subang DistrictBlast disease (Pyricularia oryzae) is a major diseases of rice in Indonesia. Research related to modelling of  blast disease severity is limited. Therefore, this study aimed to design a statistical model on rice blast disease infestation on the rice paddy and to asses a correlation between the disease severity and infected seed level. The models were constructed based on multiple linier regression analyses. The study was conducted by observing the disease severity, collecting information about cultivation technique and weather conditions. The result of regression analysis showed severity modeling on influencing factors is Y = -67.17 + 5.51X1 ? 10.54X2 + 13.26X3 + 8.51X4 + 2.29X5 + 1.32X6 + 8.47X7 + 0.31X8 + 4.53X9 (p-value <0.0001, R2 = 0.85). Nitrogen application and plant ages had significant effect on disease severity. The addition of N fertilizer increased the severity of blast disease by 8.47%. Increasing the daily life of plants increases the disease severity by 0.31%. The correlation (r) of pathogen infection after harvesting was strongly influenced by infection before planting with correlation value of 0.78. This means that the severity of seed disease after harvesting is influenced by 78% infection of pathogenic seed before planting. The result of regression analysis showed Y = 5.98 + 2.41X (p-value = 0.0076, R2 = 0.61). An increase of 1% pathogens carried by seed before planting will be increasing disease severity by 2.41% after harvesting. The results of this study can be used as a reference in preparing preventive control measure and reduce the risk of pathogen carried by seeds that act as a source of initial inoculum.
KEEFEKTIFAN PERLAKUAN FISIK DAN MINYAK ATSIRI UNTUK MENGELIMINASI BAKTERI CLAVIBACTER MICHIGANENSIS SUBSP. MICHIGANENSIS PADA BENIH TOMAT Wahyuni, Siti Tri; Nurmansyah, Ali; Giyanto, Giyanto
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 13 No 4 (2017)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (277.454 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.13.4.136

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Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is the causal agent of bacterial canker disease of tomato. The bacteria is seed borne and may cause yield loss up to 70%. Seed treatment is an alternative method for controlling bacterial canker. The objective of the research was to study the effectiveness of physical and essential oil treatment for elimination of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis from tomato seed. Research was conducted in 4 separate experiments, i.e. (1) screening essential oils to control C. michiganensis subsp. Michiganensis; (2) to determine the treatment window of physical and essential oil treatment; (3) to determine the physical and essential oil treatment on tomato seed infested by C. michiganensis subsp. Michiganensis; and (4) to determine the effectiveness of treatment combination of physical and essential oil. The results showed that betel oil at concentration of 8% had the greatest inhibitory level (approximately 27.33 mm). Hot water treatment (53 °C) for 25 minutes reduced 90.94% of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis population; whereas dry heat treatment (60 °C, 24 hours) and betel oil treatment at 0.25% concentration reduced C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis population (85.13 and 99.82% respectively). The combination of betel oil (0.5%), hot water (55 °C), and dry heat treatments (60 °C) was the most effective control method, because it reduced 99.99% of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis population and maintained the germination level of seed up to 100%.  This combination might be recommended for seed treatment to eliminate C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.
SIMULASI SEBARAN PENYAKIT BLAS PADA TANAMAN PADI MENGGUNAKAN MODEL SPATIAL MULTI CRITERIA EVALUATION: STUDI KASUS KABUPATEN KARAWANG DAN PURWAKARTA Ashar, Busyairi Latiful; Nurmansyah, Ali; Widodo, Widodo
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 15 No 2 (2019)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (741.219 KB) | DOI: 10.14692/jfi.15.2.59-68

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Dispersal Simulation of Rice Blast Disease Using Spatial Multi Criteria Evalution Model: Case Study In District of Karawang and PurwakartaRice blast is caused by Pyricularia oryzae. The potential epidemic of this disease can be spatially simulated using the MCA (Multi Criteria Analysis) method based on geographical characteristics, cultivation practices, and eviromental condition. A software that can be used for MCA is SMCE (Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation). This study was aimed to predict the spatial dispersal of blast disease using SMCE model, and identify the factors that supports the epidemic. The study was conducted in February - August 2018 in Karawang and Purwakarta District. The research methods include observing the severity of blast disease, cultivation practices and environmental conditions, and analyzing SMCE. The SMCE analysis uses rice crop maps from the Sistem Monitoring Pertanaman Padi (Simotandi), which consists of grouping factors, standardizing factors, and weighting factors. The SMCE results are a simulation map of blast disease dispersal which is then compiled with predictions of its severity. Accuracy of prediction results was evaluated by MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) based on observational data on actual disease severity. The prediction results for Karawang and Purwakarta showed means of accuration 78.16% and 73.95% respectively. In general, factors that have a strong influence on the development of blast disease include altitude, distance from source of the epidemic, history of disease in the fields, number of spores (inoculum) trapped, irrigation quality, application of herbicides, soil nutrient (N, P, K) contents and the level of soil acidity.