MADE PHARMAWATI
Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Udayana, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Bali, Indonesia

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PENGARUH MUTAGEN KIMIA SODIUM AZIDA TERHADAP MORFOLOGI TANAMAN CABAI BESAR (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) Yunita Sari, Ni Kadek; Pharmawati, Made; Junitha, I Ketut
Metamorfosa: Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 1 No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Prodi Magister Ilmu Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

The aim of this research was to examine the effects of sodium azide at concentration of 1 mM, 2 mM, 3 mM, 4 mM and 5 mM on the morphological characters of Capsicum annuum L. The method used for the observation of morphological characters was direct observation by measuring plant height, leaf length and width as well as counting the number of leaves. The results showed that effect of sodium azide at 3 mM caused an increase in plant height, while concentration of 1 mM, 2 mM, 4 mM dan 5 mM caused a decrease in plant height. Similar trends were found for number of leaf. Leaf length and width tended to increase in sodium azide treatments.
INDUKSI MUTASI TANAMAN CABAI MERAH (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) DENGAN ETHYL METHANESULFONATE PADA BERBAGAI TINGKAT WAKTU PERENDAMAN WIARTANA, I MADE AGUS; PHARMAWATI, MADE; SUADA, I KETUT
Agrotrop: Journal on Agriculture Science Vol 4 No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

Induction of Mutation of Red Chili (Capsicum Annuum L.) Using Ethyl Methanesulfonate at Several Soaking Periods.One way to increase genetic variation is through induced mutation usingchemical mutagen. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) is a chemical compound that can cause mutationsand commonly used in plant. In this study seeds of red chili were treated using EMS 1% through seedsoaking. Seeds of red chili were soaked with EMS 1% in phosphate buffer pH 7 for 6, 9, 12 and 15hours at room temperature. As control, seeds were soaked in phosphate buffer pH 7. This study aimsto evaluate, physiological and reproductive characters of plants after treated with EMS. Experimentwas conducted in an open field with 5 replicates for each treatment. Results showed that concentrationof chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll increased in plants derived from seed treated with EMS 1% for9 hours compared to control and other soaking periods. Soaking seeds with EMS 1% for 12 hoursincreased viability of pollen compared to control and other treatments. The first time of floweringoccurred earlier at 6 and 9 hours soaking period.
PEMBERIAN KOLKHISIN DENGAN LAMA PERENDAMAN BERBEDA PADA INDUKSI POLIPLOIDI TANAMAN PACAR AIR (IMPATIENS BALSAMINA L.) Wiendra, Ni Made Sastriyani; Pharmawati, Made; Astiti, Ni Putu Adriani
Jurnal Biologi Udayana Vol 15 No 1 (2011): Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Program Studi Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

The purpose of this research was to induce polyploidy on Impatiens balsamina L. Seedlings of I. balsamina was immersed in 0,01% colchicines solution for 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours. Chromosome of I. balsamina was visualized using squash method stained with aceto-orcein. Morphological observations were conducted on plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and width, number of branches flowering time and size of flower. The result revealed that 0,01% solution of colchicine was able to induce polyploidy on I. balsamina. Obsevation on morphological characteristic showed that colchicine treatment increased plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and number of branches. Colchicine treatment induced earlier flowering time, but flower size was unaffected. Twelve chromosomes (2n = 2x = 12) were observed in the diploid seedlings while 25 chromosomes were observed in the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 24 seedlings.
CA2+ INTRASELULER TERLIBAT DALAM MEKANISME PEMBUKAAN STOMATA AKIBAT PENGARUH AUXIN PHARMAWATI, MADE; DEFIANI, MADE RIA; ARPIWI, Ni LUH
Jurnal Biologi Udayana Vol 12 No 1 (2008): JURNAL BIOLOGI
Publisher : Program Studi Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

Research was done to elucidate the role of Ca2+ intracellular in stomatal movement induced by auxin. Two types of auxin (IAA and NAA) increased stomatal opening and the increase was concentration dependent. The addition of EGTA, Ruthenium red and Procaine as the modulator of Ca2+ concentration , inhibited stomatal opening induced by auxin. EGTA and procaine significantly inhibited somatal opening at 100 uM and 1 mM. Ruthenium red worked at lower concentrations which were 10 uM, 50 uM and 100 uM on LAA-induced stomatal opening, while on NAA-induced stomatal opening, Ruthenium red had an effect at 10 uM, 50 uM, 100 uM dan 1 mM. It is suggested that Ca2+ involves in stomatal opening induced by LAA and NAA as signaling agent.
KEANEKARAGAMAN ANGGREK EPIFIT DI KAWASAN TAMAN WISATA ALAM DANAU BUYAN-TAMBLINGAN Pradnya Paramitha, I Gusti Ayu Agung; Ardhana, I Gede Putu; Pharmawati, Made
Metamorfosa: Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 1 No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Prodi Magister Ilmu Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

Orchids are often found growing naturally in the tropical rain forest. Destruction of tropical rain forests can reduce the germplasms of natural orchids. One of the tropical rain forest areas which is often visited by tourists in Bali is Buyan-Tamblingan Nature Tourism Park. Research conducted from December 2011 until April 2012. The results showed that in the Buyan-Tamblingan Nature Tourism Park there are 30 species of epiphyte orchids. The epiphyte orchids which have the highest individual number is Appendicula elegans Rchb. f with total individual number was 198 individuals/ha. The Shannon-Wienner diversity index value of epiphyte orchid in Buyan-Tamblingan Nature Tourism Park is 1,1561.
RESPON MORFOLOGIS DAN EKSPRESI GEN AQUAPORIN PADA PADI IR 64 YANG MENGALAMI CEKAMAN KEKERINGAN PADA FASE REPRODUKTIF (MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND AQUAPORIN GENE EXPRESSION IN RICE IR64 UNDER DROUGHT STRESS AT THE REPRODUCTIVE STAGE) Pharmawati, Made; Wirasiti, Ni Nyoman; Wrasiati, Luh Putu
JURNAL BIOS LOGOS Vol 7, No 2 (2017): JURNAL BIOSLOGOS
Publisher : Universitas Sam Ratulangi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.35799/jbl.7.2.2017.18579

Abstract

Abstrak Cekaman kekeringan merupakan faktor pembatas penting bagi pertumbuhan dan produktivitas tanaman termasuk padi.      Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis respon padi IR64 terhadap cekaman kekeringan dengan pemberian polietilen glikol (PEG) pada fase reproduktif.  Penelitian juga bertujuan menganalisis ekspresi gen aquaporin akibat cekaman kekeringan.  Bibit padi ditanam dalam pot dan perlakuan PEG dengan konsentrasi 108g/L (-0.25MPa) dan 178g/L (-0.52 MPa) diberikan saat munculnya panikula. Perlakuan diberikan selama 2 minggu, kemudian tanaman disiram kembali.  Ekspresi gen diamati pada akhir perlakuan dengan semi kuantitatif real time PCR.  Ekstraksi RNA menggunakan RNeasy plant mini kit, sedangkan sintesis cDNA menggunakan Transcriptor First Strand cDNA Kit.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah malai dan berat total malai berkurang akibat cekaman kekeringan.  Persentase gabah kosong mencapai 84,6% pada perlakuan PEG-0,52 MPa, sedangkan pada perlakuan PEG -0,25 MPa persentase gabah kosong sebesar 67,8%.  Pada kontrol persentase gabah kosong adalah 10,3%.  Ekspresi gen OsPIP2;7 sedikit menurun pada perlakuan PEG -0,52 MPa.Kata kunci: ekspresi gen, IR64, kekeringan, padi, PEG  Abstract Drought stress is one of the limiting factors of plant growth and productivity including rice.  The aim of this study was to analyze responses of IR64 rice to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced-drought stress at the reproductive stage.  This study also aimed to analyze the expression of aquaporin under drought stress.  Rice seedlings were grown in pot system and PEG treatment at concentration of -0.25MPa (108g/L) and -0.52 MPa (178g/L) were given when the panicles arose.  Treatments were conducted for 2 weeks, after that the plants were rewatered.  Gene expression was evaluated at the end of PEG treatment using semi quantitative real time PCR. RNA was extracted using RNeasy plant mini kit, while cDNA synthesis was done using Transcriptor First Strand cDNA Kit.  The results showed that the number and weight of rice ear were less in plant treated with PEG than in control.  The percentage of empty rice grain reached 84.6% at PEG -0.52 MPa, while at PEG -0.25 MPa the percentage of empty grain was 67.8%.  In control plant, the percentage of empty grain was 10.3%.  Drought stress did not alter the expression of OsPIP2;7.  Keywords: drought, gene expression, IR64, PEG, rice
INDUKSI MUTASI KROMOSOM DENGAN KOLKISIN PADA BAWANG PUTIH (ALLIUM SATIVUM L.) KULTIVAR ‘KESUNA BALI’ (INDUCED CHROMOSOME MUTATION USING COLCHICINE IN GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM LINN.) CULTIVAR ‘KESUNA BALI’) Pharmawati, Made; Wistiani, Ni Luh Ayu Jami
JURNAL BIOS LOGOS Vol 5, No 1 (2015): JURNAL BIOSLOGOS
Publisher : Universitas Sam Ratulangi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.35799/jbl.5.1.2015.9317

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Abstrak Tanaman bawang putih (Allium sativum L.) adalah tanaman holtikultura yang memiliki banyak manfaat terutama umbinya yang umumnya digunakan sebgai bumbu dan obat. Salah satu kultivar bawang putih yang ditanam di Bali adalah ?Kesuna Bali? yang hanya memiliki satu siung.  Salah satu cara untuk memperbaiki karakter tanaman adalah dengan cara induksi mutasi kromosom dengan kolkisin. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pengaruh perlakuan kolkisin terhadap indeks stomata dan jumlah kromosom dari tanaman ?Kesuna Bali?. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan enam ulangan. Perlakuan kolkisin yang digunakan adalah 5%, 10% dan 20%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan kolkisin menurunkan indeks stomata dan meningkatkan jumlah kromosom. Kromosom triploid (2n=3x=24) dihasilkan pada perlakuan kolkisin 20%. Kata kunci : Allium sativum L., ?Kesuna Bali?, kolkisin, mutasi, sitologi Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a horticultural crop that has many benefits, especially as spice and traditional medicine.  One of garlic cultivars planted in Bali is ?Kesuna Bali? which only has one clove. To improve characters of ?Kesuna Bali?, modification of ?Kesuna Bali? properties can be done by means of induced mutation using colchicine.  This research aims to analyse the effect of colchicine on stomata index and the number of chromosomes of 'Kesuna Bali'. This research used randomized block design with six replicates. In this experiment the concentration of colchicine used were 5%, 10% and 20%. The results of this study showed that colchicine treatment of 20% resulted in the lowest stomata index and there was an increase in chromosome number. Colchicine at concentration of 20% resulted in triploid chromosome set (2n = 3x = 24). Keywords: Allium sativum L., ?Kesuna Bali?, cholchicine, mutation, cytology
AKSI ETHYL METHANE SULPHONATE TERHADAP MUNCULNYA BIBIT DAN PERTUMBUHAN CABAI RAWIT(CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L.) (ETHYL METHANE SULPHONATE ACTION ON SEED EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF (CAPSICUM FRUTECENS L.)) Rustini, Ni Kadek Dewi; Pharmawati, Made
JURNAL BIOS LOGOS Vol 4, No 1 (2014): JURNAL BIOSLOGOS
Publisher : Universitas Sam Ratulangi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.35799/jbl.4.1.2014.4836

Abstract

Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan mengamati pengaruh lama perendaman biji dengan 1% EMS terhadap persentase munculnya bibit dan karakter pertumbuhan tanaman cabai rawit pada umur 4 minggu setelah tanam (MST). Benih cabai rawit direndam dalam air selama 6 jam, selanjutnya direndam 1% EMS dalam buffer fosfat pH 7, selama 6 jam, 9 jam dan 12 jam. Tiap biji disemai dalam bumbungan kertas. Munculnya bibit diamati setiap hari. Setelah berumur 3 minggu, bibit dipindahkan ke bedengan. Hasil menunjukkan perlakuan 1% EMS memperlambat munculnya bibit. Pada 10 hari setelah semai (HSS) munculnya bibit pada perlakuan dapat mencapai 100%. Perlakuan 1% EMS berpengaruh nyata terhadap tinggi tanaman dan jumlah daun, sedangkan panjang, dan lebar daun dengan perendaman 6 jam tidak berbeda dengan kontrol, namun berbeda dengan perendaman 9 jam dan 12 jam. Kata kunci : EMS, bibit, pertumbuhan, Capsicum frustescens L.   Abstract This research aimed to evaluate the influence of different exposure durations of 1% EMS on seedling emergence and growth characters of C, fustescent at 4 week after planting (WAT). Seeds were soaked in water for 6 hours, then soaked in 1% EMS in phosphate buffer pH 7, for 6 hours, 9 hours and 12 hours. Each seed was then sowed in a single paper tube. Seedling emergence was observed every day. At 3 weeks after sowing, seedlings were transferred to field. Results showed that soaking seeds in 1% EMS inhibited seedling emergence. At 10 days after sowing, the percentages of seedling emergence at control and treated seed were 100%. Treatments of 1% EMS have a significant effect on plant height, and the number of leaf, while length, and width of leaf with 6 hour exposure were not different with control, but differ from exposure of 9 hours and 12 hours. Keywords: EMS, seed emergence, growth, Capsicum frutescens L.
PENGARUH ETHYL METHANE SULPHONATE (EMS) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN VARIASI TANAMAN MARIGOLD (TAGETES SP.) PRATIWI, NI MADE DIAN; PHARMAWATI, MADE; ASTARINI, IDA AYU
Agrotrop: Journal on Agriculture Science Vol 3 No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

The Effect of Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) on Growth and Variations of Marigold (Tagetes sp.) The aims of this research are to determine the variation of marigold (Tagetes sp) derived from seed treated with EMS and to recommend the EMS concentrations that are able to induce varietion. Seeds of marigold cv Narai Orange were soaked in water for 6 hours, followed by soaking in EMS at concentration of 0%, 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9% for 4 hours. This study employed Randomized Complete Blok Design with 10 replicates and each replicate consisted of 10 plants. Six plants were randomly chosen for measurements. The total number of samples observed were 240 plants. Observations were made on the percentage of the growth, plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, diameter and weight of flowers. Data obtained from the observations were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), followed by DMRT (Duncan?s Multiple Range Test) if there is a significant difference between treatments. The EMS treatment reduced all characters observed. The EMS concentration of 0.6% showed plant that had yellow flowers. The 0.9% EMS treatment resulted in one plant with chimera, 6 dwarf plants, 2 plants with thin stems, and 1 short plant with many branches. Untreated plants did not show any variation.
MONITORING PROVIRAL DNA OF JEMBRANA DISEASE VIRUS IN BALI CATTLE USING PCR Krisnayanti, Ni Putu Eka; Pharmawati, Made; Narayani, Inna; Agustini, Ni Luh Putu
Metamorfosa: Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 7 No 1 (2020)
Publisher : Prodi Magister Ilmu Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Udayana

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (677.77 KB) | DOI: 10.24843/metamorfosa.2020.v07.i01.p03

Abstract

Perkembangan bioteknologi dalam bidang molekuler memungkinkan untuk mendeteksi keberadaan suatu penyakit lebih awal, lebih cepat dan akurat. Salah satu teknik dalam bioteknologi yang sudah sangat berkembang serta sering dimanfaatkan dalam penelitian biologi dan medis adalah metode PCR. Teknik molekuler ini memungkinan untuk identifikasi secara akurat pada tingkat DNA terhadap keberadaan suatu penyakit tertentu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan monitoring adanya DNA provirus virus penyakit Jembrana pada sapi bali dari seluruh kabupaten di Bali. Sampel berupa darah sapi bali yang diambil pada tahun 2017 dari seluruh kabupaten yang ada di Bali sebanyak 170 sampel dan pada tahun 2018 dari Kabupaten Buleleng sebanyak 101 sampel dan Kabupaten Karangasem sebanyak 152 sampel. DNA diekstrak menggunakan QIAamp DNA blood mini kit dan sampel tahun 2017 dibuat menjadi 34 pool sampel, sedang sampel tahun 2018 dibuat menjadi 20 pool sampel (Kabupaten Buleleng) dan 30 pool sampel (Kabupaten Karangasem).  PCR dilakukan menggunakan primer JDV 1 dan JDV 3 dalam total reaksi 25 µL dengan 35 siklus. PCR juga dilakukan terhadap kontrol positif dan kontrol negatif. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa ke-34 pool sampel sapi bali yang diambil tahun 2017 maupun 20 pool sampel dan 30 pool sampel dari tahun 2018  tidak menunjukkan adanya DNA provirus virus penyakit Jembrana. Kata kunci: PCR, DNA provirus, Virus Penyakit Jembrana