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HYDROLYSIS OF CARBOHYDRATES IN CASSAVA PULP AND TAPIOCA FLOUR UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION Hermiati, Euis; Azuma, Jun-ichi; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Sunarti, Titi C.; Suparno, Ono; Prasetya, Bambang
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 11, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (450.895 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21387

Abstract

Cassava pulp and tapioca flour are potential sources of glucose. In this work, validity of microwave irradiation for hydrolysis of carbohydrates, especially starch, present in cassava pulp and tapioca flour was estimated as a non-enzymatic saccharification technique. Suspension of cassava pulp or tapioca flour in distilled water (1g/20 mL) was subjected to microwave irradiation at temperatures of 140-240 °C with pre-heating time of 4 min and heating time of 5 min. Solubilization rate of cassava pulp increased with increasing temperature of microwave heating treatment and reached maximum (92.54%) at 220 °C, while that of tapioca flour reached almost 100% at 140 °C. Production of malto-oligomers from starch in cassava pulp and tapioca flour was clearly observed at 220 °C. The highest glucose yields from cassava pulp and tapioca flour in this experiment were 28.59 and 58.76% dry matter, respectively. Variation of pre-heating time at 230 °C did not give significant effects on glucose yield from cassava pulp. However, glucose yield from tapioca flour decreased due to increase of pre-heating time. Microwave irradiation is a promising method of hydrolysis for cassava pulp and tapioca flour due to the fast process.
THE CHARACTERISTIC CHANGES OF BETUNG BAMBOO (DENDROCALAMUS ASPER) PRETREATED BY FUNGAL PRETREATMENT Fatriasari, Widya; Syafii, Wasrin; J Wistara, Nyoman; Syamsu, Khaswar; Prasetya, Bambang
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 3, No 2 (2014): July 2014
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (41.984 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143

Abstract

The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g) was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained greater selectivity compared to that of the other treatments. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the fungus affected the decreasing of functional group quantities without changing the functional groups. The decrease in intensity at wave number of 1246 cm-1 (guaiacyl of lignin) was greater than that at wave number of 1328 cm-1 (deformation combination of syringyl and xylan) after fungal treatment. X-ray analysis showed the pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than the untreated ones which might be due to the cleavage of amorphous fractions of cellulose. The pretreated samples have more fragile than the untreated ones confirmed by SEM. Crystalline allomorph calculated by XRD analysis showed that fungus pretreatment for 30 days has transformed triclinic structure of cellulose to monoclinic structure.
Digestibility of Betung Bamboo Fiber Following Fungal Pretreatment Fatriasari, Widya; Syafii, Wasrin; Jaya Wistara, Nyoman; Syamsu, Khaswar; Prasetya, Bambang
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (292.278 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v18i2.394

Abstract

This research evaluated the effect of fungal pretreatment of betung bamboo fibers and enzymatic- and microwave-assisted hydrolysis on the reducing sugar yield. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass was carried out with cellulase and 10 and 20 FPU/g of substrate in a shaking incubator at 50 °C and 150 rpm for 48 h. The sulfuric acid concentration used in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was 1.0, 2.5, and 5%, either with or without the addition of activated carbon. Microwave irradiation (330 Watt) was applied for 5–12.5 min. The yield of reducing sugar was better with the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, and the yield tended to increase with an increase in the irradiation time. Based on the dry weight of the initial biomass (bamboo), pretreatment with 5% inoculum loading resulted in a higher reducing sugar yield (17.06%) than with 10% inoculum loading (14.54%). At a 1% acid concentration, the formation of brown compounds decreased, followed by a reduction in the reducing sugar yield. The addition of activated carbon at a 1% acid concentration seemed to be of no benefit with respect to the yield in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment with the 5% inoculum loading for 12.5 min at 1% acid concentration resulted in the highest reducing sugar yield. Under these conditions, the yield was 6.3-fold that of the reducing sugar yield using 20 FPU/g of cellulase. The rate of bamboo hollocellulose hydrolysis reached 22.75% of the maximum theoretical reducing sugar reducing sugar of dry biomass.
Utilization of Bagasse Cellulose for Ethanol Production through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Xylanase Samsuri, M; Gozan, Misri; Mardias, R; Baiquni, M; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Prasetya, Bambang; Nasikin, Mohammad
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 11, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (93.7 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v11i1.122

Abstract

Bagasse is a solid residue from sugar cane process, which is not many use it for some product which have more added value. Bagasse, which is a lignosellulosic material, be able to be use for alternative energy resources like bioethanol or biogas. With renewable energy resources a crisis of energy in Republic of Indonesia could be solved, especially in oil and gas. This research has done the conversion of bagasse to bioethanol with xylanase enzyme. The result show that bagasse contains of 52,7% cellulose, 20% hemicelluloses, and 24,2% lignin. Xylanase enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to hydrolyse and fermentation in SSF process. Variation in this research use pH (4, 4,5, and 5), for increasing ethanol quantity, SSF process was done by added chloride acid (HCl) with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v) and also pre-treatment with white rot fungi such as Lentinus edodes (L.edodes) as long 4 weeks. The SSF process was done with 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours incubation time for fermentation. Variation of pH 4, 4,5, and 5 can produce ethanol with concentrations 2,357 g/L, 2,451 g/L, 2,709 g/L. The added chloride acid (HCl) with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v) and L. edodes can increase ethanol yield, The highest ethanol concentration with added chloride acid (HCl) concentration 0.5% and 1% consecutively is 2,967 g/L, 3,249 g/L. The highest ethanol concentration with pre-treatment by L. edodes is 3,202 g/L.
Immobilization of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in Rice Hulls for Ethanol Production Martini, Edita; Andriani, Dian; GobiKrishnan, Sriramulu; Kang, Kyeong; Bark, Surn-Teh; Sunwoo, Changshin; Prasetya, Bambang; Park, Don-Hee
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 14, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (364.203 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v14i2.178

Abstract

The whole cell immobilization in ethanol fermentation can be done by using natural carriers or through synthetic carriers. All of these methods have the same purpose of retaining high cell concentrations within a certain defined region of space which leads to higher ethanol productivity. Lignocellulosic plant substance represents one of highly potential sources in ethanol production. Some studies have found that cellulosic substances substances can also be used as a natural carrier in cell immobilization by re-circulating pre-culture medium into a reactor. In this experiment, rice hulls without any treatment were used to immobilize Saccharomyces cerevisiae through semi solid state incubation combined with re-circulating pre-culture medium. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures of the carrier show that the yeast cells are absorbed and embedded to the rice hull pore. In liquid batch fermentation system with an initial sugar concentration of 50 g/L, nearly 100% total sugar was consumed after 48 hours. This resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.32 g ethanol/g glucose, which is 62.7% of the theoretical value. Ethanol productivity of 0.59 g/(L.h) is 2.3 fold higher than that of free cells which is 0.26 g/(L.h). An effort to reuse the immobilized cells in liquid fermentation system showed poor results due to cell desorption in the first batch which led to high sugar concentration inhibitory effect in the second batch fermentation. This might be solved by using semi solid fermentation process in the future work.
Screening for Natural Producers Capable of Producing 1,3-Propanediol from Glycerol Andriani, Dian; Kusharyoto, Wien; Prasetya, Bambang; Wilke, Thomas; Vorlop, Klaus Dieter
ANNALES BOGORIENSES Vol 14, No 1 (2010): Annales Bogorienses
Publisher : Research Center for Biotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.1234/43

Abstract

Glycerol is a renewable resource found as the main  by-product in the transesterification of triglycerides and fat saponification. Due to the increased production of plant oils, especially palm  oil  in developing countries, and their larger use  by the oleochemical industry, glycerol surpluses are on the world market and this may result in a desrease in glycerol  price. As a consequence, biotechnological processes  have been developed to convert this substrate  into  value-added  products,  such  as  1,3-propanediol  (1,3-PD).  The  microbial  production  of  1,3-PD could  be  competitive  to  chemical  routes  assuming  that  it  is  based  on  cheap  raw  material  and  an  optimized process.  In  the  screening  for  1,3  PD–producing  bacteria,  raw  glycerol  as  by-product  from  rapeseed  oil processing unit  was  used  as  a  carbon  source  compared  with  commercial  glycerol.  By  using  increasing concentration of  both  glycerols  from  50  to  150  g/l,  two  potential  bacteria  were  obtained  from  soil  samples.BMP 1 was obtained from an enrichment culture using 50 g/l commercial glycerol, while BMR-1 was obtained from  an enrichment culture using 100 g/l raw glycerol. The highest conversion yield obtained using the isolateBMP-1 was around 0.62 g 1,3-PD formed per  mol glycerol consumed, and 0.73  mol 1,3-PD  formed per  molgycerol using the isolate BMR-1. No bacteria were obtained from cultures using 150 g/l commercial and rawgycerol, respectively, which indicated that higher concentration of glycerol has inhibition effect.   Keywords: 1,3-propanediol, enrichment culture, glycerol, palm oil, screening
Optimization of Culture Conditions for Production of β-Mannanase by Strain Nonomuraea sp. ID06-379 using Submerged Substrate Fermentation Ratnakomala, Shanti; Yopi, Yopi; Suhartono, Maggy T; Meryandini, Anja; Prasetya, Bambang
ANNALES BOGORIENSES Vol 18, No 2 (2014): Annales Bogorienses
Publisher : Research Center for Biotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (685.031 KB) | DOI: 10.1234/96

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of media compositions on the production of β-mannanase by Nonomuraea sp.ID06-379. The study was focused on the influence of carbon, nitrogen,phosphorus and detergents on β-mannanase synthesis through manipulating media compositions on production medium. The results indicated that for carbon sources, locus bean gum (0.745 ± 0.036 U/ml) showed maximum mannanase activity. Malt extract was the best nitrogen source for producing β-mannanase (1.075 ± 0.006 U/ml),(NH4)2HPO4 as phosphate source (1.733 ± 0.026 U/ml) and Tween 80 (1.145 ± 0.003 U/ml) as surfactants effect on increasing permeability of bacterial cell membrane, enhancing membrane transport and excretion of extracellular enzymes into the production media. The results showed that 1% malt extract, 0.5% locus bean gum and 0.05% (NH4)2HPO4 were good substances for nitrogen source, carbon source and phosphate respectively. The highest production of β-mannanase by Nonomuraea sp. ID06-379 (5.33 U/mg) was reached in the medium optimization (Vogel’s minimal medium) contained the following ingredients: 0.5% locus bean gum, 1% malt extract and 0.05% (NH4)2HPO4, under submerged fermentation with shaking at 120 rpm and 28 C for 2 days incubation.
Application of Microwave Heating in Biomass Hydrolysis and Pretreatment for Ethanol Production Hermiati, Euis; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Sunarti, Ttiti C; Suparno, Ono; Prasetya, Bambang
ANNALES BOGORIENSES Vol 14, No 1 (2010): Annales Bogorienses
Publisher : Research Center for Biotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (505.18 KB) | DOI: 10.1234/33

Abstract

Recently, due to depletion of  fossil derived energy stock in the world, there are growing  interests in utilizing biomass sources of bioethanol. There are basically two types of biomass that are usually used or converted to ethanol, starchy and lignocellulosic biomass. The conversion of starchy and lignocellulosic materials are widely explored,  however,  there  are  still  some  drawbacks,  such  as  high  enzyme  cost  and  intensive  energy  needed. Therefore, lower cost as well as energy and time efficient process technology in biomass conversion to ethanol  is important in enhancing the use of biomass to substitute fossil fuel. Microwave heating offers some advantages to overcome these drawbacks, especially due to its quick heat transfer and its heating selectivity. In conventional heating the  heat  was  transferred  through  conduction  or  convection  process  which  took  longer  time.  Thus,  by using microwave, degradation of starchy and lignocellulosic biomass could be completed in shorter time than by using conventional heating method. The roles of microwave heating in the degradation of biomass, especially starchy and lignocellulosic biomass  and its relation to the hydrolysis and pretreatment of that particular biomass for ethanol production are reviewed and discussed.   Keywords: biomass, pretreatment, ethanol, microwave
PEMANFAATAN KAYU MANGIUM (Acacia mangium Wild) SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PULP KERTAS KORAN Siagian, Rena M; Roliadi, Han; Prasetya, Bambang; Gunadi, Didiek H
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 16, No 4 (1999): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2614.877 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.1999.16.4.191-200

Abstract

Percobaan pembuatan pulp secara kimia-termomekanik (CTMP) dalam skala laboratorium telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan kayu mangium untuk tujuan kertas koran. Percobaan ini dilakukan untuk modifikasi pembuatan pulp secara termo-mekanik (TMP). Pemberian bahan kimia untuk tujuan pelunakan serpih dilakukan sebelum pemisahan serat pada suhu kamar dengan tekanan atmosflr. Bahan kimia yang digunakan adalah larutan NaOH sebanyak 0, 4 dan 8%. Serpih yang telah lunak diberi perlakuan uap pada suhu 140ºC dengan waktu bervariasi, yaitu 10, 15 dan 20 menit. Pemisahan serat dilaksanakan pada tekanan 2,2 Bar. Pemutihan pulp menggunakan hidrogen peroksida dalam dua tahap. Tahap pertama menggunakan konsentrasi peroksida 2% dan tairap kedua 4%. Pulp putih dijadikan lembaran setelah digiling sampai mencapai derajat kehalusan serat 200-300 ml CSF.Pelunakan serpih dengan alkali sebanyak 4% pada waktu kukus selama 10 menit memberikan rendemen pulp belum putih lebih tinggi daripada penggunaan alkali 0% atau disebut juga proses TMP konvensional walaupun waktu kukusnya lebih panjang (20 menit). Kondisi pengolahan tersebut juga menghasilkan serat yang hancur lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan proses TMP. Sifat pulp CTMP dari kayu mangium dengan menggunakan alkali 4% dan waktu kukus 15 menit dapat memenuhi syarat Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) untuk kertas koran, kecuali kekuatan sobeknya. Dibandingkan dengan pulp TMP, maka pulp CTMP dari kayu mangium dapat memberikan sifat keteguhan yang memadai, bagian serat yang hancur lebih sedikit serta kebutuhan energi lebih rendah.
ABILITY OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM JR64 ISOLATED FROM NONI JUICE IN LOWERING CHOLESTEROL IN VIVO Sumarno, Lanjar; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; M. Fauzi, Anas; Syamsu, Khaswar; Siswi Indrasti, Nastiti; Prasetya, Bambang
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (919.313 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.2.1.17-21

Abstract

Recently public?s attention to the importance of healthy food increases rapidly. Probiotic based food exploiting lactic acid bacteria is among the healthy food. Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 isolate from Morinda citrifolia fruit was assessed for its probiotic in-vivo by using Wistar  Rat. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 in lowering serum LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) of Wistar Rat. Twenty Rats were grouped into 4, each group consisted of 5 Rats. First Group was a negative control  given standard normal diet of 20 gr/day plus aquadest. Second Grup was a positive control given cholesterol normal diet 20 gr /day plus Propil Tio Urasil (PTU) 60 mg/kg body weight/day. Third Group was supplemented with normal diet 20 gr /day plus Propil Tio Urasil (PTU) 60 mg  kg body weight /day and  1012 CFU Lactobacillus plantarum JR64. Fourth Group was the same as third Group unless the probiotic using commercial probiotic Lactobacillus bulgariccus at 1012 CFU. Blood samples were withdrawn for measurement of total cholesterol, triglyceride, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol every week and measured by using spectrophotometer with 546 nanometers wavelength. The results show that probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 isolated from noni juice significantly (p < 0,01) reduce Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Triglyceride in vivo  and tend to reduce High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol.