Afiono Agung Prasetyo
Faculty of Medicine Sebelas Maret University

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INTERFERON GAMMA OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS (MDR-TB) PATIENTS IN DR. MOEWARDI HOSPITAL IN SURAKARTA Setyawan, Hanif Hary; Hudiyono, .; Marwoto, .; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung
Nexus Biomedika Vol 4, No 3 (2015): Nexus Biomedika
Publisher : Nexus Biomedika

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Background: Interferon-? (IFN-?) produced by CD4+(Th1) T cells plays a critical role in immunityto tuberculosis infection. MDR-TB patients have decreased T cell IFN-?production capacity. Data of IFN-? plasma level of MDR-TB patients in Indonesia, include its association with age and gender, are not yet known. This study was aimed to identify the profile of IFN-? on plasma of MDR-TB patients in Dr. Moewardi Hospital in Surakarta and its association with age and gender. Methods: Blood samples and medical record?s data from 43 MDR-TB patients in Dr. Moewardi Hospital in Surakarta were collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serological test was done to measure IFN-?titer. Results: Twenty samples (46.5%, 20/43) had elevated IFN-? level in their plasma. Elevated IFN-? level was more likely to be found in women (OR 3.63; 95% CI 1.02-12.94) and respondentsaged 21-30 years (OR 4.5; 95% CI 0.79-25.57). No association between elevation of IFN-? level with age (p = 0.450) and gender (p = 0.067). Conclusions: Elevated IFN-? level was found in 46.5% of MDR-TB patients in Dr. Moewardi Hospital in Surakarta.Elevated IFN-? level was more likely to be found in women and respondents aged 21-30 years. Keywords: IFN-g, MDR-TB, Surakarta  
ANTIVIRAL EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF RED GINGER RHIZOME (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE LINN VAR. RUBRUM) AGAINST DENGUE VIRUS IN VITRO Pramalista, Natasha Ninda; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Yudhani, Ratih Dewi
Nexus Biomedika Vol 6, No 1 (2017): Nexus Biomedika
Publisher : Nexus Biomedika

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 Introduction: Dengue virus is a type of virus that causes various reactions, from asymptomatic infection to harmful manifestations, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Currently, the treatments of DHF cases have been limited to symptomatic and supportive therapies only. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new strategies in facing these cases. One of them is by using natural ingredients with antiviral potential. The aim of this study is to understand the antiviral effects of the ethanol extract of red ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Linn var. rubrum) against dengue virus in vitro.   Methods : The subject of this research was Dengue virus serotype 2 strain New guinea C (DENV-2 NGC) which was infected into Huh-7 cell line. The research was divided into 2 parts. The first was inhibition test of the extract against DENV-2 which was assessed by average of infectivity percentage with Focus Forming Unit assay method. The second was toxicity test of the extract in Huh ? 7 cells which was assessed by average of viability percentage by MTT assay method. The herb extract effective as a Dengue antivirus was defined by average infectivity percentage of ? 20% and average viability percentage of > 50%. Results: Ethanolic extract of Red Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Linn var. Rubrum) with concentration 80, 40, 20, 10, 5, 2.5 µg/ml had average percentage of infectivity respectively: 9.2% ; 25.3% ; 32.3% ;47.5% ; 66.6% ; 73.4%. While the average percentage of viability were: 92.2% ; 94.3% ; 96.7 % ; 99.6% ; 102.7% ; 105.9%. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of rhizome Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Linn var. Rubrum) is not effective in inhibiting the replication of dengue virus serotype DENV-2 in vitro because it has the average infectivity percentage ? 20 and has no toxic effects on cells Huh-7 because it has the average viability percentage > 50. Key Words: Zingiber officinale Linn var. rubrum, Dengue virus, DENV-2, Huh-7 cell line.  
STATUS INFEKSI TORQUE TENO VIRUS (TTV) KOMUNITAS GIGOLO SURAKARTA Ariapramuda, Engine Rabindra; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Hudiyono, Hudiyono
Nexus Biomedika Vol 3, No 2 (2014): Nexus Biomedika
Publisher : Nexus Biomedika

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Background: Torque Teno Virus ( TTV ) is the first circular single-stranded DNA virus that is reported to infect humans. TTV infection has been implicated in the development of various diseases . However, it is still unclear how the mechanisms of TTV in the pathogenesis of various diseases. TTV infection was found not only in people with illness, but also found in general population with good health. Methods: There were 30 male sex workers (MSW) in Surakarta, which were included as our respondents. We took respondences bloos and isolated its DNA, in addition respondents underwent to face-to-face interview and filled questionnaire. Then, we ran polymerase chain reaction (PCR) nested with primer (NG059/NG063 and NG061/NG063) to detect N22 sequence of TTV. We ran electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel with Loading Quick ?X174/HaeIII 72-1353bp as a marker. Then, we visualized the gel on Gel Documentation and interpretated. Data of TTV infection, respondents description, risk factors of TTV, and results of HIV and HCV infection from previous study were analyzed using Chi Square. Results: About 7 (7/30, 23.3%) respondents were infected by TTV. There was any correlation (p < 0.050) between TTV infection and having piercing (p = 0.029). However, there was no correlation (p > 0.050) between TTV infection and performed  unprotected vaginal sex (p = 0.481), unprotected anal sex (p = 0.269), injecting drug users (p = 0.065), and having a tattoo (p = 0.925). Respondents having piercing (Odds ratio [OR] = 7.083; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] : 1.075 ? 46.678) and performed unprotected vaginal sex (OR = 1.923; 95% CI : 0.307 ? 12.053) were more likely to be infected with TTV. About 2 (2/3, 66.7%) respondents who infected with HIV and 2 (2/7, 28.6%) respondents who infected with HCV were also infected with TTV. Respondents who infected by HIV (OR = 8.800; 95% CI : 0.661 ? 117.234) and HCV (OR = 1.440; 95% CI : 0.212 ? 9.782) were more likely to be infected with TTV. Conclusion: Prevalence of TTV infection among MSW in Surakarta is lower than other community in Indonesia. Further research is needed to determine status of TTV infection among MSW community and other high-risk community, and to find out the certain risk factors of TTV infection. Keywords: TTV, Male Sex Workers (MSW), Surakarta
INTERLEUKIN-10 OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE HIV RNA PATIENTS IN DR. MOEWARDI GENERAL HOSPITAL IN SURAKARTA Pradeta, Emirita Wulan; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia
Nexus Biomedika Vol 4, No 2 (2015): Nexus Biomedika
Publisher : Nexus Biomedika

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Background: HIV infection may cause imbalance of immune system and impacts on IL-10 status which has several immunological roles that may affect HIV infection itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between IL-10 and HIV RNA status. Methods: The IL-10 levels in the plasma samples obtained from 60 HIV patients in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital in Surakarta were analyzed by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Results: Elevated IL-10 level was found in 21.7% (13/60) samples and predominantly in positive HIV RNA (OR 2.67; 95% CI 0.40-17.96) and male (OR 1.22; 95% CI 0.36-4.17) patients. Conclusion: Elevated IL-10 level was associated with positive HIV RNA status and gender. Keywords: IL-10, HIV RNA
Analisis Molekuler Regio Pre-S1, Pre-S2, dan S Isolat Virus Hepatitis B 09IDSKAB-3 Prasetyo, Angga Dwi; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia
Nexus Biomedika Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Nexus Biomedika
Publisher : Nexus Biomedika

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Background: The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) pre-S1, pre-S2, and S region are essentially known for virus infection and replication. Eight genotypes (A to H) and nine subtypes (adw2, adw4, ayw1, ayw2, ayw3, ayw4, adrq+, adrq-, and ayr) of HBV have been identified worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze HBV genetic variation in pre-S1, pre-S2, and S region, and to determine genotype and subtype of 09IDSKAB-3 HBV isolate from Men Who Have Sex With Men community in Surakarta. Methods: 09IDSAKAB-3 HBV DNA extraction was used as a template for amplication of pre-S1, pre-S2, and S region. The sequence results were then aligned by Clustal W with all of reference sequences reported in GenBank/DDBJ/EMNL. Genetic variation in pre-S1, pre-S2, and S region were identified using MEGA 4.0. HBV genotype and subgenotype were identified by phylogenetic analysis. HBV subtype was deduced on the basis of the predicted amino acid sequences of HBsAg. Results: Based on BLAST search in GenBank, 09IDSKAB-3 isolate was classified into genotype B3. D27E variation was found in pre-S1 region, and there were not genetic variation in pre-S2 and S region. Phylogenetic tree showed that 09IDSKAB-3 isolate was classified into genotype B3. Based on the basis of predicted amino acid sequences of HBsAg, 09IDSKAB-3 isolate was classified into subtype adw2. Conclusions: Overall, only D27E variation was found in this study. 09IDSKAB-3 isolate was classified into genoytpe B3 and subtype adw2. The amino acid variations found in the present report need further study. Keywords: HBV, pre-S1 region, pre-S2 region, S region
Analisis Molekuler Regio Core Promoter dan Precore/CoreIsolat Virus Hepatitis B 09IDSKAB-3 Yudistiro, Ibnu; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia
Nexus Biomedika Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Nexus Biomedika
Publisher : Nexus Biomedika

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Background: HBV replicates its DNA genome through reverse transcription from RNA intermediate. It is vulnerable to a high number of mutations during such reverse transcription which are frequently found in core promoter and precore/core regions. This study was aimed to identify genetic variation of HBV core promoter and  precore/core regions of 09IDSKAB-3 isolate. Methods: DNA extraction was performed on 09IDSKAB-3 blood sample that was taken from Man Sex with Man Community. Core promoter and precore/core regions were determined by PCR using KL-28 and KL-6 primers and direct sequencing of the corresponding region. Molecular analysis was performed using MEGA 4.0. Results: Based on BLAST result, 09IDSKAB-3 HBV isolate had the highest similarity to isolate AP011085 from DKI Jakarta. Genetic variations A1726C in core promoter, and T1860C, C1877T, G1957C in precore/core region were found in 09IDSKAB-3 isolate. Conclusions: 09IDSKAB-3 HBV isolate was classified into genotype B and subgenotype B3 based on core promoter and precore/core region. The genetic variations found in this isolate may have influence to the replication efficiency and HBeAg/HBcAg production, therefore need further study. Keywords: hepatitis B virus, molecular analysis, core promoter region, precore/core region
Ko-infeksi Virus Hepatitis B dan Virus Hepatitis C pada Penderita HIV/AIDS di Surakarta, Indonesia Sidhajati, Raden Artheswara; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia
Nexus Biomedika Vol 2, No 2 (2013): Nexus Biomedika
Publisher : Nexus Biomedika

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Background: One problem in HIV treatment is HBV/HCV co-infection due to their similarity in the transmission routes. HBV/HCV co-infection is believed increasing the risk of hepatotoxicity, hepatocellular carcinoma, steatosis, fibrosis, and also rapidly lead to AIDS in the HIV patients. The purpose of this study was to find out the status of HBV/HCV co-infection among HIV patients in Surakarta. Methods: In November-December 2011 all of HIV patients (n=65) visited the Voluntary Counseling and Testing in Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta were involved in the study. Clinical data and blood samples were retrieved from all patients. Serological assays to detect the presentation of HBsAg and anti-HCV were performed in all samples. Results: There were 17% (11/65) HIV patients infected with the hepatitis viruses. Six point two percent (4/65) was HBsAg+, 10.8% (7/65) was anti-HCV+, and 0% with triple infection. There were 57.1% (4/7) females and 42.8% (3/7) males detected with anti-HCV+. Males and females, each was found 50% (2/4) in HBsAg+. Ninety one percent (10/11)HIV patients with both HBV or HCV co-infection were under 50 years old .None of routine blood test was significant with HBsAg+ or anti-HCV+. Conclusions: Several HIV patients had co-infection with Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus, and most of them were females under 30 years. HIV patients should be checked the status of HBV and HCV co-infection in order to have a better therapeutic management. Keywords: HIV co-infection, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus
Delesi Gen APOBEC3B pada Pasien Human Immunodeficiency Virus di RSUD Dr. Moewardi Surakarta Kindi, Ekkim Al; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia
Nexus Biomedika Vol 3, No 1 (2014): Nexus Biomedika
Publisher : Nexus Biomedika

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Background:HIV infection on human can get inhibition from intrinsic factor. Human can produce antivirus protein which is encoded by APOBEC3 gene. APOBEC3B (A3B) is one of APOBEC3 protein, which cannot be degradated by HIV vif protein. Therefore A3B protein is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication. But, A3B gene can get a deletion, which can decrease its effect in inhibiting HIV infection.The aim of this study was to find correlation between CD4 cells count in A3B gene deletion-positive respondents and A3B gene deletion-negative respondents. Methods: There were 51 HIV patients in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta on November 2011, which were included as our respondents. We take respondents’s blood and were isolated their DNA. Then, we run in PCR with deletion primer (Deletion_F dan Deletion_R) to detect if there was a deletion in A3B gene sequence. We run electrophoresis in 1% agarose gel with Loading Quick ФX174/HaeIII 72-1353bp as a marker. Then, we visualized the gel on Gel Documentation and was interpreted. Data of A3B gene deletion, respondents’s description, HIV RNA detection, and CD4 cell count were analysed with Chi Square. Results:About 36 respondents (70.6%) were positive for deletion in A3B gene. Four of them were positive for HIV RNA detection. The average of CD4 cells count in respondents, who were positive for A3B gene deletion, was 426.86 ± 407.4 cells/µl and the others were 496.93 ± 573.0 cells/µl (p = 0.782). There were no correlation (p &gt; 0.050) between A3B gene deletion in female respondents and CD4 cells count. A3B gene deletion was more likely to be found in female respondents (OR = 2.286; 95% CI : 0.669 – 7.808). Conclusions:There were no differences between the average of CD4 cell counts in A3B gene deletion-positive respondents and A3B gene deletion-negative respondents. Keywords:Polymorphism, Deletion, APOBEC3B, HIV  
Koinfeksi Virus GB Tipe C (GBV-C) Pasien Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Dr. Moewardi di Surakarta Sariyatun, Ratna; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia
Nexus Biomedika Vol 3, No 3 (2014): Nexus Biomedika
Publisher : Nexus Biomedika

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Background: Epidemiological data of GB Virus-C (GBV-C) in Indonesia are limited. Information about GBV-C coinfection among HIV patients in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital in Surakarta has also been unknown. Thus, this study is aimed to know the status of GBV-C coinfection among HIV patients in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital in Surakarta. Methods: Blood samples from 44 HIV patients in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital were subjected to viral RNA isolation. Complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized from the isolated RNA and used as template for nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detecting the 5-non-translated region of GBV-C. The amplicons were electrophoresed in 2% agarose gel and then visualized under UV and interpreted. Results: GBV-C RNA was detected in seven samples from HIV patients (15.9%, 7/44). All patients with GBV-C coinfection were women. Conclusions: The frequency of GBV-C RNA coinfection among HIV patients in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital in Surakarta is 15.9% (7/44). Keywords: GBV-C, HIV, Surakarta 
Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis in dental caries with periapical granuloma Cilmiaty, Risya; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Zaini, Khilyat Ulin Nur; Rukmo, Mandojo; Putra, Suhartono Taat; Asmara, Widya
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 4 (2013): (December 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (492.71 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i4.p213-217

Abstract

Background: Dental caries with necrotic pulp is a multifactorial disease that attacks enamel involving tooth pulp. The anaerobic bacteria infection in the pulp chamber could induce the formation of periapical granuloma. However, the presence of the most frequently anaerobic bacteria identified in apical periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, in periapical granuloma have not been confirmed. Purpose: The aims of study were to determine the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in dental caries with necrotic pulp and to determine its relation to periapical granuloma. Methods: Thirty-six patients of dental caries with necrotic pulp in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital in Surakarta, Indonesia were involved and classified into two groups, the group of patients with periapical granuloma and the group of patients without periapical granuloma. The caries tooth was extracted, and the chronic periapical tissue was swabbed and cultured on blood agar medium in anaerobic condition. The bacterial DNA was extracted from the positive cultures and subjected for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results: Periapical granuloma was more likely found in women (OR 5.5, 95% CI=1.277-23.693; RR 2.5, 95% CI= 1.025-6.100). Black colonies bacteria were associated with periapical granuloma (OR 2.2, 95% CI=0.517-9.594; RR 1.5, 95% CI=0.655-3.623). Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia were detected in group with or without periapical granuloma, however, only Prevotella intermedia was associated with periapical granuloma (OR 1.6, 95% CI=0.418-5.903; RR 1.3, 95% CI=0.653-2.393). Conclusion: The presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in periapical granuloma were confirmed, however, only Prevotella intermedia were associated with periapical granuloma.Latar belakang: Karies gigi dengan pulpa nekrosis adalah penyakit multifaktorial yang menyerang enamel hingga ruang pulpa gigi. Infeksi bakteri anaerob di pulpa nekrosis dapat menginduksi pembentukan granuloma periapikal. Namun, keberadaan bakteri anaerob yang paling banyak ditemukan di periodontitis apikal, Porphyromonas gingivalis dan Prevotella intermedia, di granuloma periapikal masih perlu diteliti . Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan meneliti keberadaan bakteri Porphyromonas gingivalis dan Prevotella intermedia, di karies gigi dengan pulpa nekrosis dan menganalisis kaitannya dengan granuloma periapikal. Metode: Tiga puluh enam pasien karies gigi dengan pulpa nekrosis di Rumah Sakit Umum Dr. Moewardi di Surakarta Indonesia dilibatkan dan diklasifikasikan dalam dua kelompok yaitu kelompok pasien dengan granuloma periapikal dan kelompok pasien tanpa granuloma periapikal. Gigi karies diekstraksi dan jaringan periapikal kronis diusap dan dikultur di media agar darah dalam kondisi anaerob. DNA bakteri diekstrak dari kultur yang positif dan dilakukan pemeriksaan dengan Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Hasil: Granuloma periapikal lebih banyak ditemukan pada wanita (OR 5,5, 95% CI= 1,277-23,693; RR 2,5, 95% CI= 1,025-6,100). Koloni bakteri berwarna hitam diasosiasikan dengan granuloma periapikal (OR 2,2, 95% CI= 0,517-9,594; RR 1,5, 95% CI= 0,655-3,623). Porphyromonas gingivalis dan Prevotella intermedia terdeteksi di jaringan karies dental dengan atau tanpa granuloma periapikal, namun hanya Prevotella intermedia yang diasosiasikan dengan granuloma periapikal (OR 1,6, 95% CI= 0,418-5,903; RR 1,3, 95% CI= 0,653-2,393). Simpulan: Porphyromonas gingivalis dan Prevotella intermedia ditemukan di granuloma periapikal, namun hanya Prevotella intermedia yang terkait langsung dengan granuloma periapikal.