Hadi Pratomo
Departemen Pendidikan Kesehatan Ilmu Perilaku Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Indonesia

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Kinerja Penyuluhan Keluarga Berencana di Indonesia: Pedoman Pengujian Efektivitas Kinerja pada Era Desentralisasi Kurniawan, Ukik Kusuma; Pratomo, Hadi; Bachtiar, Adang
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 5 No. 1 Agustus 2010
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (394.829 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v5i1.155

Abstract

Keberhasilan program KB mengendalikan tingkat kelahiran di Indonesia selama lebih dari tiga dekade tidak terlepas dari peran petugas Penyuluh Keluarga Berencana (PKB). Di Rwanda, keaktifan penyuluhan oleh PKB dapat meningkatkan prevalensi kesertaan akseptor hingga 29%. Sejak tahun 2004, pascakebijakan desentralisasi di Indonesia, jumlah PKBmenurun drastis hingga menyisakan dua pertiga dari jumlah awal sekitar 3.500 petugas. Dampak perubahan tersebut tercermin pada angka fertilitas total (TFR) Indonesia berdasarkan data SDKI 2007 yang bertahan sama dengan data SDKI 2002-2003 (2,6 anak per wanita). Hal tersebutdikhawatirkan dapat semakin meningkat apabila kinerja program KB termasuk kinerja petugas PKB tidak mendapat perhatian. Peningkatan TFR mengancam ledakan penduduk yang dapat menghabiskan sumber daya alam yang terbatas dengan segala konsekuensi negatif. Hal tersebut juga dapat memperberat sasaran BKKBN mencapai pertumbuhan penduduk yang seimbang pada tahun 2015. Direkomendasikan untuk menciptakan iklim kerja yang kondusif dalam lingkungan strategis yang terus berubahsejak kebijakan desentralisasi program KB, antara lain melalui sistem reward dan model pelaporan berbasis teknologi informasi.Kata kunci: Penyuluh, keluarga berencana, desentralisasi, kinerjaAbstractThe success of Family Planning (FP) program in controlling fertility level in Indonesia over the last three decades has been associated with the role of FP field workers. A study from Rwanda indicated that activity of the FP field workers to deliver counseling has increased contraceptive prevalence rate until 29% points. However, since decentralization policy has been adopted and implemented in Indonesia in 2004, later in 2009 it was found that the total number of FP field workers has been decreased to remain two-thirds from the previous number i.e. 35 thousands workers before desentralizationtook place. A reflecting impact from this dynamic situation is a stagnant level of Indonesia’s total fertility rate (TFR) based on IDHS 2007 data that has been similar to that in IDHS 2002-2003, accounted for 2.6 children per woman. A stagnant TFR trend may stimulate fear of increasing TFR after then, when the FP program performance including that the performance of FP field workers are neglected. Increasing TFR would lead to a baby booming that threatens excessive utilization of natural resources that is already limited. This also worsens BKKBN efforts to achieve a zero growth population stage or replacement fertility level by year 2015. It is recommended that an optimum working climate should be pursued to yielding a maximum performance of FP field workers within these dynamic changes since decentralization policy has been applied. The recommendation includes establishing a reward system and recording reporting system with information technology basis.Key words: Field workers, family planning, decentralization, performance
Kinerja Penyuluhan Keluarga Berencana di Indonesia: Pedoman Pengujian Efektivitas Kinerja pada Era Desentralisasi Kurniawan, Ukik Kusuma; Pratomo, Hadi; Bachtiar, Adang
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 5 No. 1 Agustus 2010
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (394.829 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v5i1.155

Abstract

Keberhasilan program KB mengendalikan tingkat kelahiran di Indonesia selama lebih dari tiga dekade tidak terlepas dari peran petugas Penyuluh Keluarga Berencana (PKB). Di Rwanda, keaktifan penyuluhan oleh PKB dapat meningkatkan prevalensi kesertaan akseptor hingga 29%. Sejak tahun 2004, pascakebijakan desentralisasi di Indonesia, jumlah PKBmenurun drastis hingga menyisakan dua pertiga dari jumlah awal sekitar 3.500 petugas. Dampak perubahan tersebut tercermin pada angka fertilitas total (TFR) Indonesia berdasarkan data SDKI 2007 yang bertahan sama dengan data SDKI 2002-2003 (2,6 anak per wanita). Hal tersebutdikhawatirkan dapat semakin meningkat apabila kinerja program KB termasuk kinerja petugas PKB tidak mendapat perhatian. Peningkatan TFR mengancam ledakan penduduk yang dapat menghabiskan sumber daya alam yang terbatas dengan segala konsekuensi negatif. Hal tersebut juga dapat memperberat sasaran BKKBN mencapai pertumbuhan penduduk yang seimbang pada tahun 2015. Direkomendasikan untuk menciptakan iklim kerja yang kondusif dalam lingkungan strategis yang terus berubahsejak kebijakan desentralisasi program KB, antara lain melalui sistem reward dan model pelaporan berbasis teknologi informasi.Kata kunci: Penyuluh, keluarga berencana, desentralisasi, kinerjaAbstractThe success of Family Planning (FP) program in controlling fertility level in Indonesia over the last three decades has been associated with the role of FP field workers. A study from Rwanda indicated that activity of the FP field workers to deliver counseling has increased contraceptive prevalence rate until 29% points. However, since decentralization policy has been adopted and implemented in Indonesia in 2004, later in 2009 it was found that the total number of FP field workers has been decreased to remain two-thirds from the previous number i.e. 35 thousands workers before desentralizationtook place. A reflecting impact from this dynamic situation is a stagnant level of Indonesia’s total fertility rate (TFR) based on IDHS 2007 data that has been similar to that in IDHS 2002-2003, accounted for 2.6 children per woman. A stagnant TFR trend may stimulate fear of increasing TFR after then, when the FP program performance including that the performance of FP field workers are neglected. Increasing TFR would lead to a baby booming that threatens excessive utilization of natural resources that is already limited. This also worsens BKKBN efforts to achieve a zero growth population stage or replacement fertility level by year 2015. It is recommended that an optimum working climate should be pursued to yielding a maximum performance of FP field workers within these dynamic changes since decentralization policy has been applied. The recommendation includes establishing a reward system and recording reporting system with information technology basis.Key words: Field workers, family planning, decentralization, performance
Hubungan antara Kepercayaan dan Keterpaparan Informasi dengan Pengetahuan dan Sikap terhadap Perawatan Metode Kanguru pada Bidan di Kabupaten Musi Rawas Sumatera Selatan Tahun 2016 Mudiyah, Siti; Pratomo, Hadi; Besral, Besral
JURNAL KESEHATAN REPRODUKSI Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : IPAKESPRO

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (370.783 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jkr.35951

Abstract

Background: Infant and Neonatal mortality in Musi Rawas District is the highest in Southern Sumatera in 2014. Implementation of kangaroo mother care as Low Birth Weight treatment is still limited in the provincial general hospital Dr. Mohammad Hoesin, Palembang. At the present time, midwives as maternal and child health service provider, can access many information including Kangaroo Mother Care from various media.Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the relationship between belief in the myth of LBW care and exposure information with the knowledge and attitudes toward kangaroo mother care on midwives in Musi Rawas District of Southern Sumatra 2016.Method: Cross sectional study design used on 197 midwives with purposive sampling.Result and Discussion: The results showed that midwives who have relatifely good knowledge about KMC As much as 50,8% and having relatively positive attitude towards KMC as much as 40.1%. There are a significant relationship between belief of LBW care (ρ=0,001; OR: 3,1; 95% CI: 1,6 – 5,8), exposure information from scientific media (ρ=0,039; OR: 2,4; 95% CI: 1,0 – 5,4), training (ρ=0,001; OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.7 – 7,5) with knowledge about KMC on midwives.Conclusion: A significant relationship also demonstrated between exposure information from training with attitude towards KMC on midwives (ρ=0,003; OR: 2,8; 95% CI: 1,4 – 5,6). Improving quality of the midwives in Kangaroo Mother Care is very important so midwives can provide counseling, information, and education to mother since detected with LBW.Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care, Midwife, Belief, Attitude, Knowledge of KMC
PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA CETAK PENDIDIKAN PENCEGAHAN KEKERASAN SEKSUAL BALITA DI KOTA BOGOR Arsyati, Asri Masitha; Pratomo, Hadi; Ismail, Irawati; Prasetyo, Sabarinah; Damayanti, Rita
HEARTY Vol 5, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas Ibn Khaldun, Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (661.452 KB)

Abstract

Indonesia menjadi darurat kejahatan seksual sejak tahun 2014 dan terus meningkat tiap tahunnya. Dinegara- negara maju media edukasi pencegahan kejahatan seksual dinilai efektif menurunkan angka kasus tersebut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan media edukasi pencegahan kekerasan seksual pada balita untuk ibu dan kader posyandu. Media yang diuji coba terdiri dari poster, modul dan booklet. Jenis penelitian dengan Rappid Assesment Procedure (RAP) melalui diskusi kelompok pada 10 kader dan wawancara mendalam pada 20 ibu balita. Desain kualitatif ini dimodifikasi dengan pengembangan media (pre testing methods), yaitu tahapan ujicoba dan mengukur hasil media selama 3 kali. Hasil penelitian menemukan terdapat perubahan bahasa serta gambar dalam poster dan modul, sedangkan hanya bahasa dalam booklet. Sebagian besar ibu balita sangat membutuhkan booklet dibandingkan poster. Booklet terbukti lebih efektif digunakan untuk edukasi dibandingkan poster dan modul.
Supporting factors and barriers in implementing kangaroo mother care in Indonesia Pratomo, Hadi; Uhudiyah, Uut; Sidi, Ieda Poernomo Sigit; Rustina, Yeni; Suradi, Rulina; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Rogers-Bloch, Quail; Gipson, Reginald
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 1 (2012): January 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (132.025 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi52.1.2012.43-50

Abstract

Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC) was introduced toIndonesia in the 1990s. Since then, KMC has not been widelyimplemented and has not received national policy support.Objective The objectives of this case study were to implementKMC by an intervention that would ultimately benefit tenhospitals in Java, Indonesia, as well as identify supporting factorsand barriers to KMC implementation.Methods An intervention with four phases was conducted inten hospitals. Two teaching hospitals were supported to serve astraining centers, six hospitals were supported to implement KMCand two other hospitals were supported to strengthen existingKMC practices. The four phases were comprised of a baselineassessment, a five-day training workshop, two supervisory visitsto each hospital, and an end-line assessment.Results A total of 344 low birth weight infants received KMCduring the intervention period. Good progress with regards toimplementation was observed in most hospitals between the firstand second supervisory visits. Supporting factors for KMC were thefollowing: support received from hospital management, positiveattitudes ofhealthcare providers, patients, families and communities,as well as the availability of resources. The most common challengeswere record keeping and data collection, human resources and staffissues, infrastructure and budgets, discharge and follow-up, as wellas family issues. Challenges related to the family were the inabilityof the mother or family to visit the infant frequently to provideKMC, and the affordability of hospital user fees for the infant tostay in the hospital for a sufficient period of rime.Conclusion KM C appeared to be well accepted in most hospitals.For an intervention to have maximum impact, it is importantto integrate services and maintain a complex network ofcommunication systems. [Paediatr lndones. 2012;52:43-50).
Husband’s Support for Their Wives in Antenatal Care Visit Hanifah, Awalia; Pratomo, Hadi; Hoang, Giang
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 13, Issue 1, August 2018
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (490.334 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v13i1.1565

Abstract

In Cimanggis Primary Health Care, Depok City, the coverage of both the first antenatal care visit (ANC) and the fourth ANC was 99.4% (2013) and 91%(2014). The husband support is one of the factors that plays an important role in mothers’ ANC visit. This study aimed to assess predisposing, enabling, andreinforcing factors of the husband support towards their wives’ ANC visit. This was a qualitative study using a Rapid Assessment Procedure. Five husbandsof pregnant women and their wives were recruited as informants. Two midwives from the primary health care were the key informants. Data were analysedusing matrix of qualitative data and thematic analysis technique. Results showed that those three factors, meaning that predisposing, enabling and reinforcingfactors of the husband were very important in motivating their pregnant wives to do ANC during pregnancy.AbstrakDi wilayah Puskesmas Cimanggis, Kota Depok, cakupan kunjungan antenatal pertama (K1) dan kunjungan ke-4 (K4) sebesar 99,4% (2013) dan 91% (2014).Dukungan suami ibu hamil merupakan salah satu faktor yang berperan penting dalam kunjungan antenatal pada ibu hamil. Penelitian ini bertujuan menilaifaktor predisposisi, pemungkin dan penguat dari dukungan suami terhadap ANC istrinya dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan desain RapidAssessment Procedure. Lima suami dan istrinya yang sedang hamil dipilih sebagai informan serta dua bidan puskesmas sebagai informan kunci. Analisisdata menggunakan matriks data kualitatif dan teknik analisis tematik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor predisposisi, pemungkin dan penguat darisuami sangat penting dalam mendorong ibu hamil melakukan kunjungan antenatal pada saat kehamilan.
Pendidikan Ibu dan Durasi Pemberian Air Susu Ibu dalam Peningkatan Kecerdasan Siswa Usia Sekolah Dasar Said, Maryam; Pratomo, Hadi
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 8 No. 4 November 2013
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3665.372 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v0i0.395

Abstract

Riwayat pemberian Air Susu Ibu (ASI), karakteristik ibu dan anak serta pola asuh berpengaruh terhadap kecerdasan anak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui proporsi tingkat kecerdasan anak, riwayat pemberian ASI, karakteristik ibu dan anak, serta faktor dominan yang berhubungan dengan tingkat kecerdasan anak pada siswa SDSN Pekayon Jaya VI Kota Bekasi. Penelitian kuantitatif dengan desain potong lintang dengan metode systematic random sampling dengan jumlah sampel sebesar 166 responden (siswa/i yang berumur 7 - 9 tahun) beserta ibunya. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei 2013. Pada siswa dilakukan tes kecerdasan menggunakan tes Raven sedangkan ibunya mengisi kuesioner. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tingkat kecerdasan rendah 6%, rata-rata 36,7%, dan tinggi 57,2%. Variabel yang berhubungan dengan kecerdasan adalah durasi pemberian ASI dan pendidikan ibu. Pendidikan ibu adalah faktor dominan terhadap kecerdasan, bahwa ibu yang berpendidikan tinggi berpeluang mempunyai anak dengan kecerdasan tinggi yaitu 3,556 kali lebih besar dibandingkan ibu berpendidikan rendah setelah dikontrol variabel durasi ASI. Untuk Dinas Pendidikan Kota Bekasi agar menyelenggarakan berbagai aktivitas seperti seminar/pelatihan/konseling bagi orang tua murid tentang pentingnya peran orangtua terhadap tumbuh kembang anak.Breastfeeding history, mother and children characteristics, and child care are considered influential on child intellegence. This study aimed to determine the proportion of exclusive breastfeeding, the level of childrens intellegence, mother and children characteristics, the relationship between duration of breastfeeding with the level of students intellegence. This research used a cross-sectional design and through systematic random sampling with a sample size of 166 respondents (students aged 7 - 9 years old) and their mothers. The intellegence was tested using the Raven test while their mothers were interviewed. The results showed that the level of childrens intellegence was high (57.2%), average (36.7%), and low (6%). Those variables which related to the intellegence level were duration of breastfeeding and the level of mothers education. The mothers education level is one of the factors which has higher effect, againts the childrens intellegence. Those mothers who have high level education will have probability 3,556 to have their children with high level intellegence (after controlling the duration breastfeeding). Suggestion; The Department of Education Bekasi city to organize activities relevant to the improving of parents in growth and development of their children through seminars/training/counseling.      
Pajanan Kebisingan dan Hipertensi di Kalangan Pekerja Pelabuhan Harianto, Eddy; Pratomo, Hadi
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 8 No. 5 Desember 2013
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (275.099 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v8i5.387

Abstract

Penyakit kardiovaskular menempati urutan ke-4 atau 15% dari penyebab kematian yang berhubungan dengan pekerjaan. Hipertensi yang merupakan salah satu penyakit pembuluh darah, dikenal sebagai silent killer karena sering tidak menimbulkan gejala. Sebagian besar penderita hipertensi di Indonesia tidak terdeteksi, sementara mereka yang terdeteksi umumnya tidak menyadari kondisi penyakitnya dan hanya sebagian kecil yang berobat secara teratur. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui prevalensi hipertensi pada pekerja pelabuhan di wilayah kerja Kantor Kesehatan Pelabuhan Kelas II Tarakan serta faktor-faktor risiko yang berpengaruh. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah potong lintang; subjek diperoleh dari hasil survei penyakit tidak menular tahun 2011 oleh Kantor Kesehatan Pelabuhan Tarakan. Subjek yang terkumpul adalah 361 pekerja. Nilai pengukuran tekanan darah menggunakan nilai baku dari JNC VII tahun 2003. Prevalensi hipertensi ditemukan lebih rendah daripada angka nasional dan provinsi, yaitu 21,88%. Pajanan kebisingan dikaitkan dengan usia, riwayat keluarga hipertensi, stres, indeks massa tubuh dan berhubungan dengan hipertensi.Cardiovascular disease range ranks fourth or 15 % of the causes of death related to job. Hipertension is one of cardiovascular disease thet is known as silent killer because of lack of simptom. Most of hypertension patients in Indonesia are not detected, while they are whose detected do not conscious their disease condition and only little who get the treatment regularly. The objective of this study was to know the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among harbor worker at Port Health Office Class II of Tarakan with it?s associated risk factors. The study design used was crosssectional. The study used secondary data source of noncommunicable disease survey, 2011 at Port Health Office of Tarakan. The subjects were 361 workers. Value of blood pressure measurement using the raw value of the JNC VII IN 2003. The prevalence of hypertension were found lower than national and province indicator score, 21,88%. Noise exposure is associated with hypertension together with age, family hypertension history, stress, body mass index.
Hubungan antara Kepercayaan dan Keterpaparan Informasi dengan Pengetahuan dan Sikap terhadap Perawatan Metode Kanguru pada Bidan di Kabupaten Musi Rawas Sumatera Selatan Tahun 2016 Mudiyah, Siti; Pratomo, Hadi; Besral, Besral
JURNAL KESEHATAN REPRODUKSI Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : IPAKESPRO

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (370.783 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jkr.35951

Abstract

Background: Infant and Neonatal mortality in Musi Rawas District is the highest in Southern Sumatera in 2014. Implementation of kangaroo mother care as Low Birth Weight treatment is still limited in the provincial general hospital Dr. Mohammad Hoesin, Palembang. At the present time, midwives as maternal and child health service provider, can access many information including Kangaroo Mother Care from various media.Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the relationship between belief in the myth of LBW care and exposure information with the knowledge and attitudes toward kangaroo mother care on midwives in Musi Rawas District of Southern Sumatra 2016.Method: Cross sectional study design used on 197 midwives with purposive sampling.Result and Discussion: The results showed that midwives who have relatifely good knowledge about KMC As much as 50,8% and having relatively positive attitude towards KMC as much as 40.1%. There are a significant relationship between belief of LBW care (?=0,001; OR: 3,1; 95% CI: 1,6 ? 5,8), exposure information from scientific media (?=0,039; OR: 2,4; 95% CI: 1,0 ? 5,4), training (?=0,001; OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.7 ? 7,5) with knowledge about KMC on midwives.Conclusion: A significant relationship also demonstrated between exposure information from training with attitude towards KMC on midwives (?=0,003; OR: 2,8; 95% CI: 1,4 ? 5,6). Improving quality of the midwives in Kangaroo Mother Care is very important so midwives can provide counseling, information, and education to mother since detected with LBW.Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care, Midwife, Belief, Attitude, Knowledge of KMC