Yohanes Aris Purwanto
Department of Machinery and Biosystem, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor 16002, Indonesia

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Pengaruh Kadar Air terhadap Beberapa Sifat Fisik Biji Lada Putih Mukhlis, Andi Muhammad Akram; Hartulistiyoso, Edy; Purwanto, Yohanes Aris
Agritech Vol 37, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (334.851 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.15308

Abstract

The physical properties of seed are required in designing an  apparatus for handling, separation, drying, storage, and processing. The physical properties of white pepper seeds were  determined as a function of moisture content in the range of  15,40 - 64,80 % dry basis (d.b.). The average height, length and width at a moisture content condition of 15,40 % (d.b.) were 4,11 ± 0,27 mm; 4,35 ± 0,34 mm and 4,35 ± 0,35 mm, respectively.  In the range of moisture content 15,40 - 64,80 % (d.b.), the  results of this study showed an increase linearly of the third axial  dimension, the average diameter, the roundness from 0,969 to 0,977, the volume from 39,50 to 67,34 mm3, the surface area  from 55,87 to 79,92mm2 and the thousand seed mass from  52,47 to 75,63 g. Bulk density and true density has a polynomial  correlation with changes in moisture content.The porosity  decreased from 45,01 % to 44,88 % with an increase in the  moisture content range of 15,40 - 64,80 % (d.b.). ABSTRAKSifat fisik biji-bijian diperlukan dalam merancang suatu peralatan  untuk penanganan, pemisahan, pengeringan, penyimpanan dan  pengolahannya. Sifat fisik biji lada putih ditentukan sebagai  fungsi kadar air pada rentang 15,40 - 64,80 % basis kering  (b.k.). Tinggi, panjang dan lebar rata-rata pada kondisi kadar air  15,40 % (b.k.) adalah 4,11 ± 0,27 mm; 4,35 ± 0,34 mm dan  4,35 ± 0,35 mm berturut-turut. Pada rentang kadar air 15,40 -  64,80 % b.k., hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan peningkatan  secara linear pada ketiga dimensi aksial, diameter rata-rata,  kebulatan dari 0,969 hingga 0,977, volume dari 39,50 hingga  67,34 mm3, luas permukaan dari 55,87 hingga 79,92 mm2 dan  massa seribu biji dari 52,47 hingga 75,63 g. Bulk density dan true density memiliki hubungan polinomial dengan perubahan kadar  air biji. Porositas menurun dari 45,01 % hingga 44,88 % dengan  peningkatan kadar air pada rentang 15,40 - 64,80 % (b.k.).
APLIKASI JARINGAN SYARAF TIRUAN (JST) UNTUK PENDUGAAN SUHU LARUTAN NUTRISI YANG DISIRKULASIKAN DAN DIDINGINKAN SIANG-MALAM PADA TANAMAN TOMAT HIDROPONIK Arief, Chusnul; Purwanto, Yohanes Aris; Suhardiyanto, Herry; Chadirin, Yudi
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol. 24 No. 2 (2010): Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian
Publisher : PERTETA

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AbstractCultivation of tomato plant under hydroponics system in the greenhouse is suitable way to improve fruit quality since it is easier to control environmental parameters. In this system, water and nutrition are two important things for plant to growth. In the tropical area such as Indonesia, air temperature is main constraint in the plant production system. Increasing air temperature inside the greenhouse has positive correlation to the raising temperature of nutrient solution which affected to the ability of the plant to absord the nutrition. The effective way to anticipate increasing of its temperature is by using the cooling system of nutrient solution before circulated to the plant. This paper presented the application of Articificial Neural Network (ANN) to estimate the temperature of nutrient solution which was cooled on day-night time and circulated to the plant. ANN models, called time delay neural network, consist of 3 layers with 4 input nodes and 1 output node. As input model were t (time), Tg(i) (air temperature inside the greenhouse on time i), Tt(i) (temperature of nutrient solution in the tank on time i), Tb(i-1) (temperature of nutrient solution in the plant plots on time i-1) and as output model was Tb(i) (temperature of nutrient solution in the plant plots on time i). The model was developed well with validation result better than heat transfer model previously indicated by coefficient determination (R2) of 0.9498.Keywords: cooling, nutrient solution, hydroponic, tomato, artificial neural networkDiterima: 15 Juni 2010;Disetujui: 30 juli 2010
EFFECT OF HEAT SHOCK TREATMENT AND ALOE VERA COATING ON CHILLING INJURY SYMPTOM IN TOMATO (LYCOPERISCON ASCULANTUM MILL) ., Sutrisno; Purwanto, Yohanes Aris; M.Idris, Ismi; Hutabarat, Olly S.; ., Sugiyono
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol. 24 No. 1 (2010): Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian
Publisher : PERTETA

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AbstractThis research was undertaken to determine the effect of length in heat shock and edible coating as prestorage treatment on Chilling Injury (CI) symptom reflected by ion leakage induced and quality properties in tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.). Heat Shock Treatment (HST) was conducted at three different levels of length, which were, 20, 40 and 60 min. Edible coating was conducted using aloe vera gel. The result showed that HST and Aloe Vera Coating (AVC) were more effective to reduce CI symptom at lower chilling storage. Prolong exposure to heated water may delay climacteric peak. The length of heat shock; AVC treatment and low temperature storage significantly affected the tomato quality parameter but not significantly different for each treatment except weight loss. HST for 20 min at ambient temperature was significantly different to other treatment.Keywords: ion leakage, chilling injury, climacteric, shelf-lifeDiterima: 2 Desember 2009; Disetujui: 22 Maret 2010
EVALUASI KINERJA TARIK TAKTOR TANGAN DENGAN BAHAN BAKAR MINYAK KELAPA MURNI ., Desrial; Purwanto, Yohanes Aris; Wiratama, Fandra
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol. 24 No. 1 (2010): Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian
Publisher : PERTETA

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Abstract Past research shown that coconut oil can be used directly in Diesel engine by adding a heating element in the fuel delivery system. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a hand tractor pull using pure coconut oil fuel. The Diesel engine of the tractor was equipped with a fuel heater installed on the mufler. Traction performance parameters tested were wheel slippage, drawbar pull, forward speed and drawbar power on the path of concrete and soil. Besides, the tractor was also tested on plowing using a moldboard plow. The test results on the concrete track showed that the maximum drawbar pull was 1.21 kN generated at a speed of 0.92 m/s, with a maximum drawbar power of 1.21 kW at the wheel slip of 10.87%. While the drawbar pull on the soil track was 1.37 kN at a speed of 0.79 m/s, with a maximum value of 0.71 kW drawbar power when wheels slip 22.25%. The results of tillage test showed that field efficiency was 84.66%, which was not much different from the test result using Diesel fuel. Keywords: fuel heater, Diesel engine, pure coconut oil, drawbar pull performance Diterima: 8 Desember 2009; Disetujui: 16 Maret 2010
Model Pemberdayaan Masyarakat melalui Pengolahan Kopi di Desa Mandiri Energi Purwanto, Yohanes Aris; Murtilaksono, Kukuh; Yusuf, Sri Malahayati
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Vol 1, No 1 (2015): Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Development of energy self-sufficient village based on the local resources is purposed to reduce the poverty, to create the job opportunities as well as to substitute the fossil fuels. Energy self-sufficient village is also as sociated with the development of the productive economy. For the areas closed to national park, the development of the productive economy is important because it can reduce community activities for reaching the forest. Lebakpicung is energy self-sufficient village based on microhydro. This village has potency on coffee production. However, only dried coffee beans are produced from this village. The purpose of this community empowerment activity in Energy self-sufficient village was to utilize idle electricity from microhydro during day time as energy resource for coffee processing. This activity was carried out through training activity on the use of coffee processing machinery and packaging technology. The training participants were the community members who has activity on coffee processing.
ANALISIS PENGARUH VARIASI JUMLAH LAPISAN BIJI PADA AKURASI PREDIKSI KANDUNGAN MINOR BIJI KOPI ARABIKA HIJAU BONDOWOSO DENGAN NIR SPECTROSCOPY Madi, Sri Citra Yuliana; Budiastra, I Wayan; Purwanto, Yohanes Aris; Widyotomo, Sukrisno
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 23 No. 2 (2018): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (545.168 KB) | DOI: 10.18343/jipi.23.2.81

Abstract

Void space in the bean layers will lead to the occurrence of non-fully interacted radiation (NFIR) affecting the reproducibility of NIRS measurements. Void space in addition to being affected by particle size is also influenced by the number/thickness of the bean layers. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of number of bean layer variation on prediction accuracy of caffeine, chlorogenic acid and trigonelline in Bondowoso green Arabica coffee beans by NIR Spectroscopy (NIRS). The study was conducted using three kind of layers, i.e. 3, 4, and 5 layers, with 100 samples each. Samples were measured by FT-NIR spectrometer in wavelength of 1.000-2.500 nm. The pretreatment method used were second derivative (dg2), the combination of first derivative (dg1) and Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC), and the combination of dg2 and MSC, while calibration method used was Partial Least Square (PLS). The results shows that the accuracy of 5 layers was better than 3 or 4 layers. The best calibration and validation for caffeine was obtained by dg2 pretreatment and 6 factors of PLS (r = 0.99; SEC = 0.01%; SEP = 0.01%; and RPD = 5.40), for chlorogenic acid was by dg2 pretreatment and 5 factors of PLS (r = 0.99; SEC = 0.09%; SEP = 0.09%; and RPD = 4.76), whereas for trigonelline was by combination of (dg2, MSC) and 5 factors of PLS (r = 0.99; SEC = 0.01%; SEP = 0.01%; and RPD = 4.86). Therefore, the 5 layers can be used as a reference in NIRS measurement of coffee beans.
Thermal Properties, Crystallinity, and Oxygen Permeability of Na-montmorillonite Reinforced Plasticized Poly(lactic acid) Film Yuniarto, Kurniawan; Purwanto, Yohanes Aris; Purwanto, Setyo; Welt, Bruce A.; Purwadaria, Hadi Karia; Sunarti, Titi Candra
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 20, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (105.08 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v20i1.3105

Abstract

Introducing unmodified organically clay/Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) was applied into plasticized poly(lactic acid) PLA  to  produce  film  composites  by direct  casting.  Film  composite  structure,  the  crystallinity  degree  and  form, and thermal  properties  were  carried  out  using  X-ray  diffraction  and differential  scanning  calorimetry.  The effect  of NaMMT  to  the  tortuous path  and  the  crystallinity  degree  in  the  plasticized  film  composites  were calculated  in oxygen barrier  properties.  Chromatogram  film  composites resulted  in  an  intercalated  structure  that  showed  peak diffraction angle shift at about 0.2o. Then, a peak diffraction pattern was indicated in  Î±-form crystal structure. Plasticized PLA has a crystallinity degree at 34%, and the addition of  Na-MMT increased to 52%. Glass transition temperature improved from 53 °C to 57 °C, and melting temperature remained stable at 167 °C. Filling Na-MMT into plasticized PLA caused to enhance a tortuous path about 28% and improved the oxygen permeability to 80%. As a result, the addition of NaMMT of 3% into plasticized PLA during  film composite preparation using the mixing method resulted in balancing properties related to the crystallinity degree, thermal properties, and oxygen barrier properties. 
Sifat Fisikokimia Tepung dari 10 Genotipe Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Hasil Pemuliaan Rahmiati, Tengku Mia; Purwanto, Yohanes Aris; Budijanto, Slamet; Khumaida, Nurul
Agritech Vol 36, No 4 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (535.414 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.16771

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The objectives of this study were to characterize and evaluate the physicochemical properties of 10 cassava breeding genotypes developed by cassava crop improvement of (Institut Pertanian Bogor) IPB research group. The physicochemical characterization was performed by measuring water content, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, pasta (pasting properties), starch total, amylose content, and whiteness. The results showed that each genotype has different chemical content and gelatinization properties. The highest water content (11.48 ± 0.12 %) was found in genotype V4D0 (variant genotype Malang 4), ash (1.83 ± 0.02 %) in V5D2 (1) (A variant of genotype Malang 4-1), fat (1.62 ± 0.93 %) and protein (4.73 ± 0.19 %) in V3D1 (1) (variant UJ 5-1). Genotype V1D1-1(1) (A variant of genotype Ratim-1) has the highest amylose (23.33 ± 0.04 %) and the lowest ones (13.13 ± 0.48 %) was found in genotype V2D1-1(3). Genotype V2D0 has the highest total starch (88.67 %) and the lowest (74.3%) was obtained in V5D2 (1). The highest whiteness value was measured in genotype V1D0 i.e. 93.13 %. For pasting properties testing, it was measured that genotype V2D1-1 (3) had the lowest peak viscosity i.e 4,006 cP and the high of end of viscosity occurred 2,592 cP in genotype V4D2-1 (2) (A variant of genotype Adira 4-1), were correlated with high amylose content owned flour is 22.03 ± 0.25%. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkarakterisasi dan mengevaluasi sifat fisikokimia 10 genotipe ubi kayu hasil pemuliaan team crop improvement ubi kayu Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB). Karakterisasi fisikokimia dilakukan dengan cara melakukan analisis kadar air, abu, protein, lemak, karbohidrat, pasta (pasting properties), total pati, kadar amilosa, dan derajat putih. Dari hasil karakterisasi diperoleh bahwa setiap genotipe ubi kayu memiliki kandungan kimia dan sifat gelatinisasi yang berbeda-beda. Kadar air tertinggi dimiliki genotipe V4D0  (Genotipe Malang 4) 11,48 ± 0,12 % , kadar abu dan lemak tertinggi adalah genotipe (V5D2 (1) (Varian dari genotipe Malang 4-1) yaitu 1,83 % ± 0,02 dan 1,62 ± 0,93 % serta kadar protein tertinggi adalah V3D1 (1) (Varian UJ 5-1) 4,73 ± 0,19 %. Genotipe V1D1-1 (1) (Varian dari genotipe Jame-1) memiliki kadar amilosa tertinggi yaitu 23,33 ± 0,04 % sedangkan yang terendah dihasilkan oleh genotipe V2D1-1 (3) (Varian dari genotipe Ratim-1) yaitu 13,13 ± 0,48 %. Genotipe V2D1-1 (3) (Varian genotipe Ratim-1)  memiliki viskositas puncak terendah yaitu 4.006 cP berkorelasi positif dengan kandungan amilosa paling rendah yang dimilikinya. Viskositas akhir yang tinggi terjadi pada genotipe V4D2-1(2) (Varian genotipe Adira 4-1) yaitu 2.592 cP yang berkorelasi dengan tingginya kandungan amilosa yang dimiliki tepung tersebut yaitu 22,03 ± 0,25 %.
PENGARUH RECEIVER TERHADAP KINERJA REFRIGERASI MESIN PEMBEKU Sukusno, Paulus; Tambunan, Armansyah H.; Setiawan, Radite Praeko Agus; Purwanto, Yohanes Aris
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol. 6 No. 3 (2018): JURNAL KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN
Publisher : PERTETA

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AbstractFreezing is the best method to preserve the quality of food for a long period of time compared to other technologies such as drying and canning. Technology of freezing requires more energy than other preservation technologies, however. Therefore, an energy efficient freezer is needed. This research aims to the effect of utilization of a receiver to improve the freezer performance efficency. The research is conducted on freezer used to cool and freeze 1 kg of water from a temperature of 27oC to -14oC, then a receiver is installed in the freezer and the same research is conducted (the type and setting of expansion valve and test materials are the same). The refrigerant medium is R404A working fluid. The receiver is installed between condenser and filter dryer in the system circuit of the freezer. The result shows that the utilization of receiver increases the coefficent of performance (COP) from 2.24 to 2.69 and reduce the electricity consumption. The time required for freezing becomes shorter particularly on the transition of liquid to solid phase (ice) . Consequently, the freezing rate becomes quicker and provides advantages for application of food freezing.AbstrakPembekuan merupakan metode yang paling baik untuk menjaga kualitas makanan dalam jangka waktu lama, dibanding dengan teknologi lain seperti pengeringan dan pengalengan. Namun teknologi pembekuan membutuhkan lebih banyak energi daripada teknologi pengawetan lainnya, karena itu diperlukan mesin pembeku yang hemat energi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan receiver untuk meningkatkan efisiensi kinerja mesin pembeku. Penelitian dilakukan pada mesin pembeku yang digunakan untuk mendinginkan dan membekukan air 1 kg dari suhu 27oC sampai -14oC, selanjutnya penelitian mesin pembeku ditambahkan receiver dan dilakukan penelitian yang sama (bukaan katup ekpansi diatur tetap dan sama, serta bahan uji dilakukan dalam kondisi sama). Media pendingin menggunakan fluida kerja R404A. Receiver diletakkan di antara kondensor dan filter dryer pada rangkaian sistem mesin pembeku. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan receiver pada mesin pembeku berdampak pada peningkataan koefisien kinerja (COP) dari 2.24 menjadi 2.69, dan terjadi penghematan konsumsi energi listrik. Waktu proses pembekuan menjadi lebih singkat, khususnya pada tahap perubahan fase cair menjadi es, sehingga laju pembekuan menjadi lebih cepat dan memberi keuntungan untuk penerapan pada pembekuan bahan pangan.
Pendugaan Kandungan Kimia Mangga Gedong Gincu Menggunakan Spektroskopi Inframerah Dekat Sari, Herna Permata; Purwanto, Yohanes Aris; Budiastra, I Wayan
Agritech Vol 36, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (567.642 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.16599

Abstract

The objective of  this work was to predict the soluble solid content, total acid, sugar acid ratio, and crude fiber of ‘Gedong Gincu’ mango non destructive using Near infrared Spectroscopy. Experiments were carried out using 182 samples of ‘Gedong Gincu’ mango. NIR reflectance spectra measurements were performed at wavelength of 1000-2500 nm using NIRFlex N-500 fiber optic solid. References data were collected from laboratory measurements. Five pre-processing treatments, smoothing 3 points (sa3), normalization (n01), first derivative Savitzky-Golay 9 points (dg1), combination (n01, dg1), and the Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC) were used to improve the accuracy of the calibration model. Partial Least Square (PLS) method was used to calibrate NIR data through references data. The results show  that the best method for prediction of soluble non solid spectra were MSC and 12 factor of PLS with calibration value of Correlation Coefficient (r), Square Error Calibration (SEC), Square Error Prediction (SEP),  Ratio of standard error prediction to deviation (RPD) were 0.91, 0.25 %, 0.39 %, 2.14 respectively. Sugar acid ratio content was predictd using  MSC and 12 factor of PLS calibration with values of r, SEC, SEP, RPD were 0.81, 32.08 °Brix/%, 38.44 °Brix/%, 1.45. Soluble solid content was predicted using sa3 and 15 factor of PLS calibration with values of  r, SEC, SEP, RPD were 0.82, 1.04 °Brix, 1.28 °Brix, 1.52 respectively. Total acid was predicted using  dg1 and 3 with the value of  r, SEC, SEP, RPD were 0.74, 0.01 %, 0.12 %, 1.33 respectively. It could be concluded  that the developed model could be used to predict the chemical contents of ‘Gedong Gincu’ mango non destructively. ABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah memprediksi kandungan total padatan terlarut (TPT), total asam, rasio gula asam, dan padatan tidak terlarut (serat kasar) mangga Gedong Gincu secara non destruktif menggunakan spektroskopi inframerah dekat (NIR). Bahan yang digunakan berupa mangga Gedong Gincu sebanyak 182 buah. Pengukuran spektra reflektan NIR dilakukan pada panjang gelombang 1000 – 2500 nm menggunakan NIRFlex N-500 fiber optik solid dilanjutkan pengukuran data referensi laboratorium. Lima pra-proses data spektra yaitu smoothing 3 points (sa3), normalisasi (n01), first derivative Savitzzky-golay (dg1), kombinasi (n01,dg1), dan Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC) dilakukan untuk meningkatkan akurasi model kalibrasi. Kalibrasi data NIR dan data kimia dilakukan menggunakan metode Partial Least Square (PLS). Metode terbaik untuk prediksi padatan tidak terlarut diperoleh dengan pra-proses MSC dan kalibrasi PLS dengan nilai Correlation Coefficient (r), Square Error Calibration (SEC), Square Error Prediction (SEP), Ratio of standard error prediction to deviation (RPD) adalah 0,91, 0,25 %, 0,39 %, 2,14, dan faktor PLS 12. Kandungan rasio gula asam diduga dengan pra-proses MSC serta kalibrasi PLS dengan nilai r, SEC, SEP, RPD adalah 0,81, 32,08 °Brix/%, 38,44 °Brix/%, 1,45 dan faktor PLS yang digunakan 12. TPT diduga menggunakan pra-proses sa3 dan kalibrasi PLS dengan nilai r, SEC, SEP, RPD adalah 0,82, 1,04 oBrix, 1,28 °Brix, 1,52. Model kalibrasi total asam diperoleh pra-proses dg1 dan kalibrasi PLS dengan nilai r, SEC, SEP, RPD adalah 0,74, 0,01 %, 0,12 %, 1,33. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa model yang dikembangkan dapat digunakan untuk menduga kandungan kimia mangga Gedong Gincu secara non destruktif.